Hide Articles List

12 articles on this Page

.( SPORTS AND PASTIMES. I

-NOTED CRICKETER'S WILL.|

WORK A ND WORKERS.I

Advertising

CHIPS OF NEWS. I

Advertising

MARKETS. -I

Advertising

AGRICULTURAL NOTES.

News
Cite
Share

AGRICULTURAL NOTES. BY A PRACTICAL FARMER. NITROGENOUS MANURES. I These were very dear at this time last year, but this spring, fortunately for the con- numer, considerably lower prices may be ex- pected to rule on account of increased pro- duction and the plentiful supplies in hand, though the demand i/5 certain to be greater. During the last five years the increase in the world's' consumption of nitrogen from nitr-.ite of so(la and sulphate of ammonia amounts to about 50 per cent,, the increase in the con- sumption of nitrate being about 40 per cent., and of sulphate of ammonia about 70 per cont. In 1908 about. 62 per cent, of the. nitro- gen was supplied by nitrate of soda and 38 per cent, by .sulphate of ammonia, taki.ng into account the relative unit values, and in 1913 if is estimated that about [,5 per cent. -was >upplied by nitrate of soda, 40 per cent, by sulphate of ammonia, and 5 per cent. by nitrogen extracted from the atmosphere. Further progress is reported in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, but as the total pro- duction of these products during the past year on!y represented about 5 per cent. of the rota) production of nitrogen from nitrate <?f soda and sulphate of ammonia, they caoll- not be regarded as of great importa-nc?. While a further increase in their production is probable during the next- few years, it is unlikely that such will tie more than .sufficient io cope with the ever-increasing demands for nitrogenous fertiUsers. AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS. The need of experimental institutions for ¡ various branches of agriculture is still a pressing one. Among the immediate require- ments are a farm attached 10 an Agricultural Institute, a garden for a Horticultural Insti- tute, l), woodland where forestry can be studied, and a poultry research institute. Amongst recent or projected extensions, &c.. mav be mentioned those nt the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, the latter adding to its school of Rural Economy. The University of Bristol has bought a site for the new re- search institute for fruit-growing at Long Ashton. and progress with the building of a laboratory and cider-house has been made. The" Universities of Manchester and Birming- ham have adapted existing buildings for work in agricultural zoology. The governors of Wye College have added new laboratories; Armstrong College has built new laboratories and class-rooms for the agricultural depart- ment, and structural alterations have also been made by the council of the colleges at Aberystwyth and Bangor. CO-OPERATIVE TRADING IN SCOTLAND. I A report was recently submitted to the Scottish Agricultural Organisation Society, Limited, dealing with the development of the society's work in a number of interest- ing directions, and several schemes of a. far- reaching nature were submitted for con- sideration and were approved of. Strenu- ous propaganda work ha'S been conducted bv the .society's organisers in different parts of the country, but more especially in the counties of Caithness. Sutherland, Inver- ness, Argyll, the Outer Hebrides, and in the Border counties, and a number of new trad- ing association's have been formed within the past few weeks. The Scottish Farm and Poultry Produce Federation (Limited), a marketing agency promoted by the above society, has im- mensely increased its turnover during the past year. and satisfactory prices have been obtain.ed for produce consigned for sale by societies of small holders. In the ca.se of societies consigning produce in bulked quan- tities. handled and packed pi a manner to meet, present-day trading requirements, the improvement in price is most marked. The promotion of this marketing agency for the disposal of the produce of small farms has proved an enormous boon to the members of societies formed in remote areas, and the facilities which they are afforded of securing farm requirements of all kinds in bulked quantities at whole.saie prices cannot fail to contribute materially in enabling the small holders to secure to themselves a larger share of the profits of their industry. CATTLE IN COVERED YARDS. I An interesting correspondence has been. taking place between Mr. R. H. Green, Willesborough. Kent, and the Board of Agri- culture on the danger arising from the common practice of keeping young cattle during the winter months upon the accumulated manure in covered yards. This practice constitutes, he contends, a fruitful source of tubercular infection. The Board of Agriculture have pointed out that. unfortunately, the soundness of Mr. Greem's theory does not lend itself readily to certain proof by experiment, while the practice condemned is well established. And while the authorities say they cannot take any steps at present they suggest that much good might result, from further discussion. In reply, Mr. Green said that although he does not presume to claim that his experi- ments over a series of years were infallible, at the same time he is absolutely certain that the general practice of keeping young cattle upon the accumulated manure of the farm throughout the winter months is a constant and real source of infection. Breeders in different parts of the country, he remarked, have lately consulted their veterinary ad- visers. and in every single case that has been brought to Mr. Green's notice they have wholly supported his contention. He sug- gests, as an official form of experiment, that half-a-dozen groups of young cattle should be taken that are free of tuberculosis and housed upon infected faeces in covered yard.-R foiz(some months; at the end of this period let thelba be re-tested, and have the results published. He believes this would go a very long way towards arousing public interest aind prevent- ing a coJrtmon source of infection of young cattle. CERTIFIED MILK. I I I think I have previously called attention I to the growing practice in the United States I of supplying what m (-all-ed "certified" milk The Association of Medical Milk Commis- sions was formed to provide a. pure and trustworthy milk for those able to pay Ir somewhat higher price than the ordinary one. Their requirements are briefly that the cowe I must be free from tuberculosis; the milk, when it readies the customer, must not, have an average bacterial content of more than 30,000 per c.c., and the fat content must not be less than 3*5 per cent. It. is stated that there are now over seventy medical milk commissions in the United States, and in ( New York City alone about 30.000 quarts of certified milk are sold daily. t The cxc-ellence of this scheme has caught the attention of numerous people in Britain, and I learn, that a committee of eminent members of the mcdical and veterinary pro- fessions who have been making investigations into the whole matter intend to take eteps to put their views before the Government shortly, chiefly with the object of trying to guard the use of the word "certified. An experiment was recently carried out by the Committee in order to ascertain whether it would be economically possible to -supply milk under the conditions and of the quality and purity required by the Association of American Medical Millr Commission*. maxH gooa results were ootamca. • The experiment was carried out at the farm of Mr. Wilfred Buckley, near Basing- stoke. after the premises bad been adapted to the prodnetion of milk under hygienic conditions. The first bacterial counts which were made varied between 35,000 and 70,000 bacteria per c.c. but the chief cause of thiø was traced TO the use of open paiis for milk- ing. Partially-covered pails were introduced, a.nd the number of bacteria wa-s reduced at once to les.s t 1Ia n 10. C..I). So far as the e4--).st to the consumer of certified milk is cerned, it is .suggested that a milk guaran- teed of high quality and bacterial purity and free from tubercle bacilli is available at a price of not more than 8(1. per quart- Many people would willingly pay this price for a guaranteed milk. for the danger to children through impure milk is now geceh ally recognised.

Advertising

REVIEW OF THE COHX TRADE.

Advertising