Suggestions for Terms of a Peace Settlement. I WHAT MIGHT BE THE BASIS OF A SANE FINISH. 'SSUED BY THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE UNION OF DEMOCRATIC CONTROL. A stage in the war has been reached when the del-llo(.I,acies of all die belligerent countries are ?gnuiing to work towards a peace based on the same general principles. The frankest state- ? of those ideas is contained in the declara- tion of the Russian Democratic Government in ?'our of: 1eqce without annexations and without in- ?mnities on the basis of the right of nations to Decide their own destiny." The Russian Government further declared:- The Government deems it to be its duty to ede now that free Russia does not aim at the ?Mination of odwr nations, at. depriving them ￼ their national patrimony, or at occupying by ?orce foreign terri tories, but that i? object is to establish a durable peace on the basis of the l'Tl1ghts of nations to decide their own destiny. "he Russian nation does not lust after the strengthening of its power abroad at the ex- pense of other nations. On behalf of Great Britain, on May 28, Lord Robert Cecil, replying in the House of Commons, declared that: Our aims and aspirations were dictated solely by our determination to secure a peace bounded on national liberty and international •%iitv, and that all imperialistic aims based on "'ice and conquest were. completely absent from President Wilson, in his recent message to Russia, declared:- No people must be forced under a sovereign- ty under which it does not wish to live. No ter- ritory must change hands except for the purpose of securing those who inhabit it a fair chance of !«fe and liberty. No indemnities must be insisted on except those that constitute payment for manifest wrongs done. No, readjustments of power must be made except such as will tend to secure the future peace of the world and the future welfare and happiness of the peoples." The German Chancellor declared in the Reich- on May 17 • i We did not go to war, and we are not Úght- lrtg now against almost the whole world, in order xto make conquests, but only to secure our existence, and firmly to establish the future of jj- "the nation." We have here the common principles by which 411 the Governments now profess to be guided. The frame of mind of the various nations JS owsuch that no Government can afford to lay itself open to the charge of prolonging the war tor the purpose of annexing new territory, either In Europe or outside Europe. In consequence of this unanimity of profession the Executive Committee of the Union of De- lllocratic Control has considered what these de- clarations mean in terms of practical politics, and makes the following suggestions, which are not final nor incapable of modification, but as a suitable basis for further examination and dis- cussion. The settlement arrived at when the war con- cludes will necessarily be imperfect. The stability of peace will depend quite as much on the methods adopted for dealing with new Inter- zonal difficulties as they arise and the exist- ence of international machinery for meeting ?cia/, economic and other rivalries in the uture, as upon the immediate wisdom of the settlement. Machinery for making international Ganges without war is one of the indispensable Conditions of permanent peace. •—QUESTIONS OF NATIONALITY AND I TERRITORY. ■ As a preliminary to any re-arrangement ot t-e.r:l'ltorial boundaries, it ought to be made per- fectly clear that all claims based on conquest, imperialistic ambition or strategic eonsidera- tlons, such as a German demand for a revision of strategic frontiers in Belgium and elsewhere, aa Italian demand for non-Italian Dalmatia or Russian demand for Constantinople, are ruled ()ut on principle. There must be « complete ac- °€rjtance of a policy of no annexations." OUR SUGGESTIONS ARE:- I (a) BELGIUM.—The complete re-establishment sovereign independence and integrity and the economic restoration of Belgium must be absolutely secured. <FKANC.K.—The invaded districts of France be evacuated. ?. (c) SE?HIA, MONTE?EC)!0 AND ROUMAMA.—Ser- '?. Montenesro and Roumania must be eva- ??ated and their independence restored. A?) A),8ACE AND LOHRAIXE.-The disposition of p^ce, and Lorraine sh(uld be decided on the ?. ? ?ple of thenght of the population to conr ° °'wn destiny. The decision would nob Deimply the allocation of the whole of )otlt I F (' ?'?'?'? t?' cither France or Germany, ??\)t\ hcr should the policv of Automonv be ex- uded. ?? this, as in other cases where the views of a P?P?tion are subject to dispute, the question "Sht to be decided by a plebiscite or other- ] *6' lln^ erhe supervision,of an impartial In- 1 Ma.honal Commission and free from the int?r- fej.ence of occupying armies, ??') T'!B?T?? __? claims of Italy to Tren- tin (' or ??MT unredeemed districts oii,,?bt to r? by ?'? ?'?"e process. <f? ?'?'?""??'?? should be fr? and inde- &n I i f1, Populations of Austrian Poland ￼ the Polish districts of Prussia should decide "'I'L,ther they wish to become part of Poland. \g) A?STRO-HuNGAMA? EMPIRE.—An unfortu- _tate expression was created bv the Allied Note ? resident Wilson of January TO that it is the fixed determination of the Allies to break up the Austro-Hungarian Empire into independent States. This intention ought to be explicitly repudiated by all the Allies, as it has been by the Russian democracy. But it must be made clear that freedom for the component popula- tions of that Empire can be obtained by self- government within that Empire, as it can be secured for the Finns in Russia and for the Irisil within the British Empire. (II) OTHEI: PROW.EMS.—There are very com- plicated problems such as Polish claims on Dant- zig, Bulgaria's claim on Macedonia, Roumanians claim on Transylvania, and the future status of Persia which obviously cannot be settled by any military decision, but which ought to be referred to an International Commission appointed with the co-operation and authority of the nations of Europe. (i) TURKEY.—Russian democracy has repu- diated the imperialistic policy of the Tsars to annex Constantinople. The way is therefore open for a proposal to neutralise, or inter- nationalise, the city and the Straits. It is against the interest of the world that the great trading waterways of the world should be in the hands of single Powers. The policy of international control over the Ottoman Empire should be maintained and ex- tended so as to provide full security for the Christian peoples and freedom of development for other races under the suzerainty of the Sultan. But no immediate settlement of the Turkish Empire could be regarded as final. The arrange- rterts would necessarily have to be revised from time to time by the tague of Nations. The maximum of freedom for the various nationali- ties and freedom of trade between all the parts, and equality of economic opportunity for the nationals of all European Powers should be the policy followed. (k) GERMAN COLONIES.—G reat Britain should repudiate definitely anv claim to annex German colonies by right of conquest. That, however. does not imply the return to the status .quo ante helium. As recently as )MMu, Oy tne uenerat Act or the Conference of Berlin, an assignment of sov- ?(?ic,ign rights in Africa was made by the Great Powers. A shifting of the political frontiers in existence before the war lias become inevitable. It may be that such territorial readjustments will involve political changes under which some part of the African territory hitherto admin- istered by Germany may be transferred. The principle of no annexations, however, re- quires a. frank recognition that in the interests of a lasting peace, Germany is not less entitled than other and develop, over-sea Dependencies. The great zone of Tropical Africa should be neutralised under an international guarantee, and absolute freedom of trade and enterprise established there. A less exclusive trade policy enforced through- out Africa by international arrangement would greatly facilitate the adjustment of national ter- ritorial claims Under a general arrangement of territories the Pacific Islands might be dealt, with as well I as Africa. II.—GUARANTEES. J (a) LEAGUE OF NATIONS.—The foundations of all future hopes of permanent peace lies in the establishment of a League of Nations. That will become a reality only in so far as all the peoples are led to see that such a League offers Oetter hope of national security than the old system of competitive armament. We cannot hope to de- stroy militarism so long as there is a chance of Governments being able to persuade their people that the only means of national security lies in preponderant military power. Our first task is to convince the masses of every country that in a. League of Nations they may find a means of defence which renders their old militarism un- necessary. Such a. League of Nations with a common un- dertaking to submit disputes to arbitration and to form an international Council or Parliament for dealing with international problems as they become critical has been proposed by President Wilson on behalf of the United States, and ac- cepted in principle by the British, French, Rus- sian, Austro-Hungarian and German Govern- ments. (b) THE OPEN Doop.-The second condition in- dispensable to permanent peace is to persuade the German and Austrian populations that their right to equal opportunity for economic expan- sion and for access to raw materials will be se- cure without their being obliged to fight for them. To secure this the nations should agree to reciprocal equality of commercial opportunity in all their dependencies. Upon the breaking down of commercial exclusiveness depends the goodwill of the future. The policy of economic warfare laid down by the Paris Conference should be repudiated as being opposed to inter- national peace. (c) OPEN DIPLOMACY.—The disappearance of secret diplomacy is essential to permanent peace. Secret treaties should be prohibited by international agreement, and should be regarded as void. All treaties should be sanctioned by the National Parliaments and subject to periodi- cal revision. (d) DISARMAMENT.-—The largest measure of agreement for the reduction of armaments on land and sea, should he obtained at the settle- ment. We suggest that while the remova l of the motive for arming among nations will prove to be the only real guarantee for an effective re- duction, a method might lie adopted by means of international inspection of armament estab- lishments, for controlling the execution of any agreement for immediate reduction which may be reached by the settlement. Nations should agree to abolish private enter- prise in the production of armaments (e) FREEDOM OF THE SEAS.—This question should be surveyed in the light of the infrac- tion of the rights of neutrals in time of war. and of the security of economic opportunity for all nations in time of peace. I III.—REPARATION. Belgium is entitled to special relief from Ger- ir any owing to the circumstances under which she was forced into the war. ¡ No indemnities should be demanded in the sense of payments to recover the expenses of the sc-,iise of pa,viiient?, to 'r,(, war, but there should be a common fund pro- vided by all the belligerent nations to assist the recovery of the parts of the world most seriously devastated by the war. An International Com- mission should decide the allocation of the com- mon fund. The Executive Committee of the Union of Democratic Control,- NORMAN ANGELL, CHARLES RODEN BUX- TON, J. A. HOBSON, F. W. JOWETT, M.P., F. W. PETHICK LAWRENCE, J. RHlSAY A! U'DONALD, M.P., E. D. MOREl" AwrHUH PONSONBY, M.P., PHILIP SNOWDEN. M.P., H. M. SWAN- WICK, CHARGES TREVELYN, M.P., I. CoOPER-WLLLFS.
r 1 Mansel Grenfell's Letter, SEE PAGE 3 I 3
Concerning Political Action. Mark Starr Replies to Critics. PAGE 2.
Monster Meetings in the Rhondda Valley. GREAT RECEPTION FOR TOM MANN. JI PEACE RESOLUTIONS CARRIED WITH ENTH USIASM. Tom Mann paid a visit to the Rhondda Valley on Sunday last, and tremendous crowds gathered to hen* him. The Workman's Hall, Ynyshir, was taxed to its utmost limits, quite 1,000 peo- ple gaining admission to the Hall, whilst scores failed to procure a place and were turned away. The meeting was called under the auspices of the local lodge, in order to discuss the following resolution, which was moved by A. L. Horner and seconded by Mr. Sam Jones. Mi-. Geo. Dolling occupied the chair. This meeting, composed of members of the S.W.M.F., request the E.C. to immediately proceed to obtain an increase in wages, com- mensurate with the increase in the cost of living, and unless this is forthcoming within 28 days, a special conference to be called to decide what action shall be taken." This was unanimously carried, and after Mr. Noah Ablett had moved, and Mr. A. Cooke se- conded, a resolution demanding an immediate conference of the belligerents, to negotiate an immediate cessation of hostilities on the lines of the Russian manifesto, of no annexations, no in- demnified. Air. Mann proceeded to put" The case for negotiation." His masterly setting out of the pros and cons of the situation left no- thing to be desired. He took Lloyd George's Glasgow speech and proved his inconsistent at- titude in the pifesent crisis, pointing out that whilst he was prepared to give Russia the credit of possessing the best Government she had ever had, and of being the freest country in the world, yet he was not prepared to accept Rus- sia's terms for a lasting world peace, though it coincided in practically every detail with our own ostensible and professed reasons for enter- ing the war. The resolution was carried without a singte dissentient, and three cheers for Russia were given with such force and volume, as I believe hf.ve never been heard in this town before. Working-class solidarity throughout the world was, everyone believed, the only counter to Im- perialistic aggression and capitalistic greed re- sulting in wars and the destruction of Prole- tariat. At the Pictorium, Porth, later, two thousand people awaited the opening of the meeting, which was timed for 6.30 p.m. Mr. A. Cooke was chairman, and after dealing for a few moments with the only war worth while for the workers, i.e., the Class War," he called upon Mr. G. Maddox to move, and Mr. Hy Loxton to second the resolution demanding increased wages. This was carried without dissent. Hearty greetings welcomed Tom Mann, and lie first dealt with the food scandal. He proved that the rise in prices was directly and largely attributable to the activities of the profiteers, who never saw the commodities themselves, but gambled in foodstuffs whilst in cold stores, and systematically maintained a shortage. The Peace Resolution was put after only a five min- utas speech, and carried with only two dissen- tients. After three cheers were given for Rus- sia and working-class solidarity, the speaker pro- ceeded to explain how he considered we ought to provide for demobilization. He showed that if we disregard profit, and thing and act as a class in our own interests, we can make the task not a difficult, but an extremely pleasant one, bringing in its train advantaged such as we have never before experienced. He explained that to- day we are providing for the army and munition workers, and notwithstanding this, we still pro- duce sufficient to maintain ourselves. Cannot all these men be engaged in producing food and clothing and all the other things that make life worth living. Certainly, he argued, they can, and we who to-day work eight hours can then work six hours or less, and two Sundays in one week would not be a bad thing for us, whilst many old men could be taken out of the indus- try to spend a pleasant time in the evening of their lives. Our boys and girls, too, could stay in their schools and go even to Universities if there are still too many men for the work neces- sary to be done for the maintenance of the peo- ple in comfort. All this may appear Utopian, but it is not, as the speaker pointed out, as Utopian as talking of a land beyond this earth, of the nature of which we know nothing. These things are realizable, practicable, if only, as he said., We were not such damned fools." It is much easier and portends more happiness to prepare for peace, than it was to prepare for war. The one has been done in order to destroy the workers. Why not the other to bring happiness into all our lives r1
HAVE YOU PAIN? J. Swift, Aftercliffe, Sheffield, says The first dose 'gave me great relief. I can confidently say that one box of these pills has done me more good than all the medicine I have taken." Mrs. A. Wilkinson, of Nelson, states: "My sister, who suffered from weak kidneys, took one box, and it has done her more good than pounds spent on medical men." HOLDROYD'S GRAVEL PILLS, a positive cure for Gravel, Pains in the Hack, Dropsy, Bright'9 Disease of the Kidneys, Gout, Sciatt?? Is. 3d., all chemists; post free 14 stamps.- GHoOuLt, DROYD'S MEDICAL HALL. Cleckheaton. ?. ?' ?
I Mr. Winstone and Peace. I NO HOPE THIS YEAR. REFUTATION OF MEMBER FOR EAST I GLAMORGAN'S STATEMENT. CONDEMNATION OF THE PROFITEERS. Speaking at a joint mass meeting of the col- liery workmen in the Eastern Valleys of Mon- mouthshire, presided over by Mr. Nathanial Wyles, on Saturday evening last, Councillor J. Winstone, J.P., said: There are two matters of vital interest to your future welfare which you will do well to endeavour to understand. I know of no questions in this coalfield that are receiving and, indeed, commanding more atten- tion than the recruiting of miners for the army and the enormous increase in the cost of living which includes the excessive profits made and the advantage taken of the times by the pro- fiteers, and, if I may be permitted for a. short time, I will endeavour to place before you the position as I see it. It must be well known to most of you at least, that a National Conference which met in London representing the British miners, gave in- structions to the Executive Council to make ar- rangements with the Government whereby all persons of military age and physical fitness who had entered the mines since the outbreak of war could be recruited for the army. I have no hesitation in saying that the con- ference arrived at this decision upon rave mis- statements and entirely erroneous informatioa, some of the delegates who themselves should be in the army saying that 70,000 or 80,COO men could be obtained from one district alone. Now, what are the real facts. The War "Office Authorities wanted 40,000 men from the mines in Britain. After a searching comb-out they were able to obtain 19,266 men. A deficiency of 20,744. These figures, which are authentic, give the lie to the statements made by the delegates referred to above. I find that the member for East Glamorgan has thought it necessary to join in the cry, and has stated that he can say very certainly that the miners as a body admit that a large per- centage of their number can now be spared for military service, and they are very solicitous that the young single men should be taken first. Now I dispute bis right to speak for ifJe miners as a body, and if he is anxious to avoid difficul- ties in the South Wales Coalfield he will leave this, matter scvefwly ,:s^#ne. •• I claim to know the mind of the Welsh miner and I defy him to find any large body of opinion among the workmen solicitous of sending the voting single men to the shambles. I am astounded to know that none of our La- bour members have not answered him. I claim as one of the governing body of the South Wales miners, to represent the coalfield, and if this matter is tested, as I think it should be, the Member for East Glamorgan'will find himself in the wrong. The Coal Controller was asked by the British Miners' Executive Council to submit a scheme for consideration by that body, and the following is the Seheme: RECRUITMENT FOR THE ARMY. I May litn, 1::111. All unmarried Class "A" workers at present ia mines who were of and above the age of 18 01 the 1st of August, 1916, but not over the age of 25 on the 1st of January, 1917, except: — (a) Underground hauliers (putters, trammers, etc). (b) Weighmen. (c) Winding enginemen. (d) Pumpmen. (el) Electricians. (f) Fitters and mechanics (including black- smiths, joiners, wagon and tub-makers and repairers) Unmarried. u meam t, man who was unmar- ried on the 2nd of November, 1915, or was on that date a widower without any child depend- ent upon him. Executive Committee's proposals recommend to conference to consider, and, if approved to adopt. I RECRUITING OF MINE WORKERS. I 1. That we accept the class and age laid down in the scheme submitted by the Coal Controller, and dated May 11th. 2. That any taking of men from the mines for the army must be done through the Colliery Re- cruiting Courts. 3. That we ask the Coal Controller to furnish us with full information as to the proportion of men to be taken from the collieries in each dis- trict or county, based on the number of men at present employed at the mines. 4. That the Colliery Recruiting Courts m de- ciding a man's case shall have due regard to his family circumstances, and as to whether or not any member or members of his family haye served, or are serving, in the army, and in no case shall any member of a family be taken where one-half of the male members of the family of military age have served, or are serving, in the arm j. 5. A full list of names of those who are to go before the Colliery Recruiting Courts to make up the 27,744 additional men required to be sup- plied to the workmen's representatives. 6. That Clause A in the proposals of the Coal Controller dealing with the exemption of underground hauliers (putters, trammers, etc.) IB deleted. I feel it my duty to remind you that as it is freely stated that the" push ,J of 1917 has failed and the war will not end this year, and has yet to pass the hardest, bitterest portion of the struggle. I serioasly suggest that as we have only killed ten million men and wounded fifty million, and as no one thinks of Peace by Ne- gotiation, it should be a condition that no man should send another into the army or on to the battlefield unless lie is prepared to lead the way. (Loud cheers.) But why not Peace by Negotiation? You are doubtless aware that Europe is literally bleed- ing to death, no nation involved is bleeding worse than Britain. You surely know that the knock-out blow will not be delivered this year, which means the prolongation of the war through next winter and into another summer, and the knock-out blow may not be delivered then. I believe that Peace by Negotiation is more realizable now than at any time since the beginning of the war, and I am not afraid to express the opinion that if Ramsay Macdonald and F.W. Jowett had gone to Petrograd it would be much nearer even on the lines of those suggested by the Prime Minister in his speech at Glasgow. If we could only remove the baneful influences of passion and prejudice and re-establish the sanity of some people, European madness might be brought to an end in the near future. On the basis of Reason and Justice with the elimina- tioi. of war for ever. I would to God that I had the powsjr to in- duce my country to lead the van, in this great effort for the spiritualization and economic sal- vation of the human race. I want my country to be the freest and the noblest in the world, standing the highest and the foremost in the great march of her high calling. As typified in the brotherhood of man- When the war-drums shall throb no longer, When the battle flags are furled, In the parliament of man, and the Federation of the world." (Cheers.) Coming to the question of profiteering and in- creased food prices, I am unable to find words strong enough to express my indignation of those who axe using this war to exploit the peo- ple for their own selfish ends. One could go on quoting figure after figure, but one or two will do to show what is being done. Sir Edward Carson has told us that the Bri- tish Empire Producers Association represent £ 700,000,000 of industrial capital, and stated: "Millions of men were told day by day to go over the parapet and face the German guns." They were the men preserving for them and for him such property as they had. (Cheers.) A return published show that a business con- cern paid no dividend in 1913 and 1914, in 1915 it made £ 146,000 and paid a dividend free cf income tax of 15 per a eent.. In 1916, f;136,900 was made after paying excess profit tax. The capital has been increased from £ 350,000 to £ 1,000,000.. An agricultural implement costing t40 in America could not be bought in England under three times the amount. The excess price- being swallowed up mostly in freightage. Then we are coolly told by a "lady" who is deeply intei-est-e'i in wpomv among the workers tlat the well-to-do are to select the luxury foods and leave the cheaper foods for the poor. It is not a question of money economy, but of food economy—drink coffee and leave tea, as the cheaper for the poor; eat salmon and the choicer cuts of meat and let the poor have an ample and therefore cheap supply of herrings and cheap cuts of meat. I was one of the deputation representing the War Emergency National Committee before Lord Rhondda a fortnight ago, and it is very remarkable that the demands put forward by the deputation and amount almost to the Social- ization of the whole supply of necessary food- stuffs was received favourably by his Lordship, and he gave us the impression that he was quite likely to adopt most of them. (Cheers.) Among other things we proposed that bread should ba sold to the people at 6d. per quartern loaf, and the loss, if any, on the transaction, should pe made up by the State. This proposition if adopted in its entirety would work out as fol- lows Id. loss on the food supply of the country would mean £ 13,000,000 per annum, therefore 6d. loss on the quartern loaf would mean £ 78,000,000; as the war is now costing £ 8,000,000 per day it would mean to give the people bread at 6d. per quartern loaf less per annum than 10 days cost of war, and should be adopted by the Food Controller. The War Emergency Committee has also de- cided that failing prompt and satisfactory mea- sures being adopted by the Government to deal with the growing difficulties of the food supply and the continual exploitation of consumers by the food profiteers, a national deputation, drawn from aU parts of the country, should be or- ganised to appeal directly to Parliament in per- son. ( Hear, hear.) But I am bound to remind you that after everything has been done accord- ing to the International Institute of Agriculture the harvests of the Southern Hemisphere now completely gathered show that the total yield of wheat is only 63 per cent. of the previous year's yield. Last year's surplus from the 1915 crop was completely exhausted, and the" Nation" says we must look forward to growing privations, independent of all submarine perils and ship shortage. The World is looking Famine in the face. The war has brought calamity, sor- row and desolation into the homes of the people. We, at least, should be saved from the suJering of poverty. (Hear, hear.) ? The meeting passed a vote of protest against the statements made on recruiting by the Mem- ber for East Glamorgan. Votes of thanks to Mr. Winstone terminated the proceedings.
I Rhymney Valley Notes. The Cefn Forest Allotment Association. Pengam Garden V lllage decided some time ago to purchase a machine to spray the potatoes. Being the only association in the Bedwelky area that had done so, the Bedwellty U.D.C. invited them to sell their machine to the Coun- cil, and to adopt the Councils scheme of spray- ing. At a special meeting on Monday they agreed to adopt the Council's scheme. A reso- lution was unanimously passed to aid in forming a Monmouthshire allotment Association, with a view of getting a permanent lease through tha.t organisation. The allotment holders of Aberbargoed held a joint meeting on Monday and decided to join a Monmouthshire Allotments' Association. I Show Cards. IThe Rhymney Valley miners are holding show j cards this week.