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THE BASEMENT, CARNEGIE LIBRARY. I A LECTURE Will be given at the above Hall ON THURSDAY, JUNE 7th, 1917. Lecturer REV. J. M. JONES, M.A. Subject: "The Idea of Perpetual Peace." TICKETS—SIXPENCE EACH. Chair to be taken at 7.45 p.m. ￼ r"_U ￼ II II It .n, 1 DOWLAS CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY, Limited. ( j 16, 17, 18, and 19, Union Street, Dowlais. • j DRAPERY DEPT, J ￼ We are now showing a Large Assortment of New Goods for the I t coming Season:- 8 I Household Linen. Blankets. Quilts. Sheets. j I Carpets and Rugs. | I MILLINERY DEPT, I Costumes. Jackets. Blouses. Ladies and I ￼ i I Children's Mlninery. j VALUE AND QUALITY GUARANTEED IF YOU BUY AT 5 I 16, 17, 18 & IC), Union Street, Dowlais. I I Pantsca!!o? Dowlais. Caeharris, Dowlais. Ig I High Street, Penydarren. j 1 Station Terrace, Bedlinog. ) J- II -u II It II .i r I NATIONAL Amalgamated LABOURERS' UNION. Registered Office-I ST. DAVID'S PLACE, RUTLAND STREET, SWANSEA. Tne Live Fighting Union for South Wales. We Don't Merely List Benefits on Paper-We PAY Them. General Secretary JOHN TWOMEY. Organiser: "BOB" WILLIAMS, 220 Blackfriars Road, London, S.E. District Secretaries: A. BARTON, 5 Stuart Street, Docks, Cardiff; JOHN O'LEARY, Century Institute. Winmill Street, Newport, Mon.; Coun. J. POWLESLAND, 10 Picton Place, Swansea ALL CLASSES CATERED FOR-MALE AND FEMALE. Affiliated to the National Transport Workers' Federation, Trade Union Congress, and National Labour Party. Approved under the National Health Insurance Acts.
The Electric Theatre. I
The Electric Theatre. I No better top-liners for Whitsun, or any other special attraction week, could possibly be found than two new .Fox dramas. I would have said that a month ago as a belief, this week's houses at the Electric, where two of the best things that the Fox people have done are starring, has proved that my belief was excellently founded. Her Hidden Past," the star film from Monday on, was easily one of the best stories that the great company has handled, and it was handled by a caste even more distinguished in its per- sonnel than those other Fox siiperbs we have had. Then there was the usual real'ly good comedy from the Triangle laboratory—I refuse to describe the birth-place of such good pick-me- ups as a cinema studio. "Love will Conquer" was done in the best Triatigie vein of burlesque, and with all their care of casting and staging that we have come to expect; and the result was a spontaneous, continuous, joyous amd ever rising ring of laughter from first to last. Liberty came to a final happy ending after a run which has proved more interesting than most adventure serials. "The Beast," the Fox headline star for the second half of the week, is a dramatic story of the West that has never been excelled in the long list of Western dramas; if it has ever been equalled, which I personally very much question. The small space at my disposal is hopelessly in- adequate to convey even a faint impression of the iron grip of interest in which the story of the bad Beast's" redemption through the in- fluence of the "Beauty" held me. It excels Jack London or Rex Beach at their best. It is as virile as the great virgin lands with which it deals. "The Tale of a Shirt" was the comedy, and an excellent one too, and Mary Page still holds in a tense wonderment of anticipation. It is the greatest mystery film of the season. Next week's programmes are unusually tempt- ing. First we are to be introduced to the most remarkable trained Chimpanzee of cinema land, Jacko," who plays a big part in a sensational and exciting four-reel drama" The Dumb Genius." But though given a lead in the title and in the play, The Dumb Genius is not a film of silly tricks by a monkey; it is a strong story extremely well told. Then we are to have Sons of Our Empire," the best of the official war films, and another Triangle laughter-raiser, "Maid Mad." Hoodfnan Blind" is the Fox star from Thursday, and it is only necessary to state that Wm. Farnum is leading to pack the houses. "Vampire Ambrose" is the Triangle; and "Dawning Hope" is the Mary Page instalment. PLAYGOER.
CENTRAL LABOUR COLLEGE LEAGUE. A PUBLIC MEETING will be held at THE YNYSHIR HALL, under the auspices of the above, on SUNDAY NEXT, JUNE 3rd, 1917, AT 3 P.M. The Meeting will be addressed by— MR. JAMES WINSTONE, J.P., South Waleis Miners' Federation. Subject Man's Inhumanity to Man." Ladies Invited. Admission Free. KMT OOME IN CROWDS. "OT ? ? Medical. -PAGE BOOK ABOUT HERBS AND Ut HOW TO USE THEM, Post Free. Send for One. TRIMNELL, THE HERBALIST, 144, RICHMOND ROAD, CARDIFF. Established 1879. Literary. UNITARIAN PAMPHLETS on The Bible," LJ Heaven," and Hell," given post free.— Miss BARMBY, Mount Pleasant, Sidmouth. Miscellaneous- ASTROLOGY.—Life Events, Changes, For- Atit.nate Days, Business Suomas, Matrimony; Two Years' Future added.—Send Birth-date, 1, P.O., PROF. GOULD, "The Nook," Heathfield Road, Cardiff.
* :Peace Society Meeting.
Peace Society Meeting. REV. HERBERT DUNNICO AND QUESTION I' OF DISARMAMENT. The 101st annual meeting of the Peace Society was held at the Offices, New Broad-street, Lon- don, 00 Friday, when there was a good attend- ance. Mr. H. Sefton-Jones presided, and the annual report was presented by the Rev. Her- bert Dunnico, who deplored that among the effects of the war was the adoption of Conscrip- tion. The question of Disarmament was, he said, no longer an academic one, but a matter of life and death for Europe. The war would leave the belligerent nations greatly impoverished and heavily taxed; and it was unlikely that peoples who had felt the horrors of warfare would permit their Governments to pursue any longer a policy that inevitably resulted in wars. The failure of militarism was writ large across the world; and the armaments in which nations had trusted for security had robbed them of it. Referring to the idea underlying the proposals to form a League of Nations, Mr. Dunnico said that unless some solid foundation was laid for an assured and durable peace the sacrifices en- tailed by the war would have been made in vain. The acceptance of such proposals by the Great Powers would mark a new epoch in the history of the world, for it meant the substitution of a real co-operation of States in place of rival groups and competing alliances. The drafting of the Constitution would require wise statesmanship, for the success of the League would be deter- mined not by what the League did to prevent war, but by what it did to promote peace. The Annual Report calls attention to the special preparations for expanding the Conti- nental work, announces the opening of the new offices in Paris last September; and refers to en- couraging reports received from branches in South and West Africa, Australia, Ceylon and China. The extension of the work to Russia. and Spain is under consideration. Mr. Dunnioo reported that he had addressed upwards of 300 meetings and travelled 20,000 miles in Great Britain during the year. Mr. T. Richardson, M.P., afterwards ad- dressed the meeting.
Peace Now or in Two Years…
Peace Now or in Two Years [- UEffBaiG C.O. ASKS IF THERE WOULD BE A DIFFERENCE? •BRILLIANT DEFENCE OF CLIFFORD •W ALLEN. i As this is my third trial by court-martial for the same offence of refusing to obey military orders, I do not propose to take up the time of the Court by a lengthy repetition of my general views on war and militarism. In order, however, to comply with the provi- sions of Army Order X, dated May 25th, 1916, I claim the right to explain why I continue my refusal to acknowledge military authority; I need hardly say that no personal discourtesy or lack of respect to the officers in command is in- tended by my decision. May I remind the Court that there has never been any question about the genuineness of my opinions since the date, over a year ago, when the Statutory Appeal Tribunal unanimously ex- empted me from all kinds of military service, "Combatant and non-combatant. My only offence now consists in my declining the repeated at- tractive offers of the Government to release me if only I will become a party to the Conscription Acts by undertaking some form of civil work im- posed as a condition of my exemption or release. I have chosen to serve sentence after sentence of hard labour rather than secure my discharge from prison by effecting such a bargain with Con- scription, which is the direct outcome of war, to which I am fundamentally opposed. I am ftot a Christian in the accepted sense of any de- nomination. I am a Socialist. I have before previous Courts-Martial stated my belief that the method of warfare is socially and morally V wrong whatever the pretext for which it may be adopted. But in addition to this belief I wish to make it clear that I cannot take any share in mili- tary work in this war, because I believe there is 'no substantial reason to prevent peace negotia- tions being entered upon at once—I believe you sitting here and the peoples of all nations on both sides are yearning for peace. I believe the 'Governments of all the nations are too afraid of releasing their peoples so make peace. A Cabi- net Minister has stated officiallv that so far in this war seven million human beings have been killed in all the nations, and forty-five millions Wounded. The question every citizen has to consider is II Will there be such a supreme difference be- tween peace now and peace in, say, two years' time- as to justify the supreme sacrifice of, say, -another seven million lives ? n I submit that the difference will prove so trivial in comparison "with the sacrifice involved that the peoples of all the nations will look back with amazement when they come to realise how the Governments ^Permitted and instigated this sacrifice to achieve so small a result. The issue of territorial adjustment could be settled round a table to-morrow. the only other problem is the crushing of -German military tyranny. On this point I am, as a Socialist, United with, my own nation and Government in desiring to overthrow German autocracy, but I differ from my Government in contending that the only way of securing this object is through the medium of peace. Whilst the war continues and the German nation thinks itself in danger, the German Government will be successful in persuading the people to support it. Remove th:L6 usance by the establishment of peace and the German democracy will at once assert itself, and, remembering the example of Russia, over- throw Kaiserism and all that it stands for. Thus it seems to me that the postponement of .peace with the consequent certainty of enor- mous sacrifice of life will not make any apprecia- ble difference in territorial and similar peace terms, but will, in iact, delay the achievement of the really important object of the Allied Powers, namely, the overthrow of Germain mili- tarism and Prussian autocracy. Therefore, I will not take any part in a war '\Thiel} I believe could be brought to so immediate .and satisfactory a conclusion. Such being my attitude to all war, and to this war, I can, of course, in no way acquiesce Cons criptl on which is designed to equip the nation for war. I have an additional reason for this. I shall continue in prison to refuse every offer of release which demands from me any sort of acceptance of conditions which originate in 'Conscription, even though they may be of a civil oeharacter, I resist war because I love Liberty. Conscription is the denial of Liberty. If I hold that war and militarism are evils ;hich will only cease when men have the courage stand apart from them, I should be false to in OWn belief if I avoided the dangers of mili- t ry service only to accept some safe civil work a e-oliditioti of exemption from such service. ,d This country is faced with the most insidious anger that can confront a free people in the aim of the State to dispose of a man's life agamst his will—and what is worse, against his IrlQral convictions, and of his service without his consent. A war which you can only win by the "Compulsion, of unwilling men and the persecution "Of those who are genuine, will ultimately achieve the ruin of the very ideals for which you are nghting. You can shut me up in prison over and over ijgaan, but you cannot imprison my free spirit. The duty of every citizen is to serve his fellow In all humility I believe I am being ■f ithf ul to this obligation of citizenship by pur- °?g my present policy. Hie Government in the House of Lords yes- 'day resisted the demand of Lord Parmoor .and .the Archbishop of Canterbury that repeated PnIshment for what is actually the same offence sli cease. The Government argued that a wOnScIenee which declined every form of service k w 3'3 an immoral conscience. My reply—as I have -jready stated-is that it is not the act of ser- ￼ ? refuse but service imposed in such a way t) ra ake us condone conscription. If granted 'th So uexemption to-morrow, we should feel th ° igati°n of citizenship more insistently than ever. The longer you persecute us men ?? the stronger and more sincere you render us. Paol,,e you attempt to break our spirits the more v 0lJ assure our opportunity of infusing in- ?pifa-ti? ? amongst other groups of men and woiiien other organisations which are far which are far a day aT?? than we can hope to be for many 'hope' thad thhe more certainly you establish our ?lope that +? .spirit of Russian freedom shall Hot Cop within Russian national boun- daries. isol +- f f h. f ?? u s foT a time from ^ejoys of hfe £ seTV!ce> but in so doing you will onlv brin "? truer hmony W1?\ ^11 th?t is most?J. ?s and enduring and vital m the, lit- i the 0' the world. Instead of ren d ering us bitter you £ ? ??' Instead ? rendelng us ?itter you are VM I us the chance ? discover- ln,g the sirengt o w T* ? free to serve I cannot be- oomm^e part of your '?? of domination. The liberty'6f Gerrnany can only be served by P&aee- tSuty ?Britain can only be served peaaa- "I. voigned) CLIFFORD ALLEN.
,The Railway Comb. I
The Railway Comb. I T. C. MORRIS, ¡ E. C. Representative, N.U.R. j Combing-out has become such an interesting process nowadays that it knows no limit for its exercise, seeing that the area and scope, of its operation is so extensive, because to whom it is made applicable, viz., the workers. The func- tion of a comb in a domestic sense is generally applied to undesirable, creatures hovering amongst the locks that cover our pates, and are known as vermin. I wonder if there is any con- nection in relation to the objects of the two pro- cesses. We have heard a great deal of funk- holes, shirkers, etc., applied, in the language of the inorthcliffe. press, to those who have not come within the sphere of military activity. Hence the application of the comb to these funkers, shirkers, etc. So you see the close relationship existing of its application to vermin and the workers. Releasing of Railwaymen. By arrangements with the War Office, when the late Lord Kitchener was Secretary of State for War, the railway companies were given ab- solute authority in releasing men for military service, and thus were placed in somewhat of a privileged position compared to that of other employers of labour. The reason far this ap- parently being that it was recognised by the Government that transport being an essential part of the machinery to carry on the war, it would be fatal to the efficiency of this important arm of the war machine if railwaymen were al- lowed to join the Army in any great numbers. In fact, at one stage the railway companies themselves felt justified in making known to the War Office that they would not be responsible for the efficiency of maintaining railway trans- port if the War Office insisted upon more rail- waymen being taken into the Army. This took place at the earlier stages of the war, when, as it is well known, men were rushed into the army quite regardless of the value of the services they could render at home. We have learnt since the folly of this mistake, which has made it necessary for a large number of skilled men to be brought back from the trenches to, the work- shop. Hence the reason for the position which enabled the Railway Companies to have absolute authority over the release of men for the Army. Railway Tribunal. It must be quite obvious that the possession of such authority and power placed into the hands of the railway companies a, most potent weapon. Because, whereas other employers of labour, such as the coalowners, had to claim ex- emption for their employees before the Colliery Tribunals set up by the Home Office, railway companies could release whom they liked, when they liked and how they liked. Therefore, it is quite clear that no fair system was in opera- tion, because men were being released regard- less of service or domestic circumstances. It was not long after this authority was vested in the companies, that our fears were justified. There poured into Unity House scores of cases cropping up all over the country where men were being released regardless of the considera- tions as I have pointed out. Cases where men who had put in ten, twelve, fifteen years or more service under the railway companies were released for the army and men of one, two, three, and four years retained. Similar cases were reported of men being released with heavy domestic responsibilities, and others with no such responsibilities. Why was this so? Because in a number of cases the men so released 'were known to the local railway officials as active members of our union, who were known as agitators, and thus the unlimited authority placed at the disposal of the companies officials as a weapon in the various centres. As an Executive Committee we determined to take immediate steps to approach the Board of Trade to set up machinery in the nature of a commit- tee composed of an equal number of employers and representatives of the employees to deal with the whole situation on similar lines to that in operation in the mining industry, for the purpose of safeguarding the interests of our members. Mr. J. H. Thomas, M.P., the General Secretary had been in negotiation with the Board of Trade and had raised the question repeatedly upon the floor of the House. Mr. Runciman at that time stated that the Gov- ernment had decided after full consideration, to set up what is known as the Railway Tribunal, which should consist of representatives of the Companies and the men. With this assurance we felt at any rate that our members' interests would be safeguarded. As a member of the sub- committee at that time, appointed by our E.C. to deal with this matter, we approached the Railway Executive Committee with a view of coming to a mutual arrangement upon this mat- ter. The members of that committee which con- sisted of managers from the various railway Companies soon made it known to us that they would not agree under any circumstances to a setting up of a Joint Committee of the nature described, because they contended that they had not been consulted, and further, they re- garded the question as one of management. At the same time we were assured that any case of unfairness reported to them would be rectified. They further stated that they bad drawn up a circular laying down the conditions governing the release of railwaymen, which had been sent to the railway managers throughout the coun- try. The conditions were clearly laid down, that if at any station or depot a man of any particular grade or position can be spared, the youngest unmarried man should be released." Providing" there is no single man available, then the youngest married man with the fewest children (under 14 years -of age) should be re- leased. There were the main points of the circular. As a sub-committee we secured an addition to this providing that in the event of a man who bad expressed a desire to be released should have the preference. The refusal of the com- panies to agree to the setting up of a joint com- mittee compelled the Board of Trade to take the whole matter out of both of our hands, and thereby the Board itself set up a Tribunal of three, which consisted of an employer of labour, a representative of labour, and a K.C. to preside. The terms of reference of the duties of this Tribunal was the circular herein mentioned. At the same time any railwayman feeling that he has been unfairly released, in contravention of the terms of the circular, must first of all ap- peal to the general manager. In the event of failing then to secure satisfaction from that source then he must appeal to the Railway Tri- bunal through his branch secretary, who will send on to Unity House, after which the neces- sary arrangements will be made for the hearing of the case in question. The setting up of this Tribunal has certainly checked a great number of complaints of unfair- ness which prevailed previously. A number of cases have been heard and has resulted in some of the appeals being successful. Present Comb-out of 21,000 Railwaymen. It has already been reported in the Press that 21,000 more men are to be released immediately from the railways of this country to meet the requirements of the demand for anothe-r 500,000 men as appealed for by Sir W. Robertson, the chief of the general staff, required by the end of July. An impression has gone abroad as the Result of the press paragraph which appeared I dealing, with this matter, that the National U&ioia of Railwaymen had agreed to. this. This is not so, far from being a consenting party to this arrangement, we were not even consulted upon the matter. Here was a matter which vitally concerned the lives of our members and their disposal, yet we were neither considered or consulted in any way until after the arrange- ment had been agreed to between the Army Council and the Railway Executive Committee. How we came to know of it as a Union was the issue of a revised circular by the railway companies governing the further release of rail- waymen. Our Executive Committee strongly protested to the companies and Army Council against this arrangement. For the purpose of expressing this protest a sub-committee was ap- pointed to wait upon the, both bodies. We have already waited upon the companies and we were promptly told that the further release of rail- waymen was the result of a War Office require- ment, and further, to the railway companies this was a question of managements inferentially, therefore we were ruled out of court as having any claim or right to interfere. They knew what number of men they could release, as they were the best judges. There were, so we have been assiired,, 221,000 railwaymen of military age,; and whilst the War Office wanted a very large proportion of that number, they agreed for the time being to release 20 per cent. Under the present conditions prevailing on the railways no further men can be released, and hence they can only be released at the expense, of further depleting the public services in the near future. Already between 140,000 to 150,000 railwaymen have joined the colours, which has had the effect of increasing the strain and pressure upon those remaining. Now it has been decided to release men both single and married, Class "A," under 31, and, if necessary, to 41. But the operation of this arrangement for the purpose of facilitat- ing the release of Class "A" men is by the adop- tion of a substitution I scheme which will cause, a great deal of irritation. The suggested scheme is nothing more or less than a disguised form of industrial conscription. To facilitate the release of Class A men it has been agreed upon by the railway comapnies that men of military medi- classes "B and C or other employees un- fitted for military services, may be, transferred from one grade to another, or from one district to another in order that they may act as sub- stitutes for Class "A" men in essential posts. I can readily conceive in the operation of such a scheme that cases of grave injustice will arise. For instance, a man of 20 who happens to be in Class B may be called upon to take the place of a man of 41 who may be in Class "A." Further, it means a man may be shifted from home to a far distance in entirely different surroundings, severing, maybe, home* ties. On the other hand, a porter (Class B ") may be called upon to take the place of a Class "A" brakesman or signalman, whilst the companies are prepared in the event of removal to another district to pay the ordinary lodging allowance we are going to press for the munition-rate Of 2s. per day. It should be quite apparent that the scheme suggested, aye, and set up, is cer- tainly a form of industrial conscription. Whilst railway companies are prepared to release men for the army they are not prepared to allow men to leave to better their position. There ar^ strange things happening to-day. Prior to the war, to get a job under the railway company YOli had to undergo a rigid medical examination. 0:. a number of railways a candidate for employ- ment had to submit to be stripped before the doctor, he must possess a strong, healthy consti- tution, and the irony of the position was that the rate of pay was 16s. to 18s. a week. Now, in face, of this proposed substitution scheme, this all goes by the board. Physical unfitness is no barrier now. What strange things are happen- ing these days? Prolongation of the War and Further Release. Strongly as we resent, as an Executive Com- mittee of the National Union of Railwaymen, the action of the Companies and the Army Council in ignoring our Union in a matter of this kind, the miners were, in consultation with the Home Office and War Office in connection with the combing-out of the miners, but we, with our strong membership, have simply been treat- ed with conduct which I cannot characterise as anything short of all insult. Since when have the companies set up their authority to become arbiters of deciding as to the disposal of the flesh and blood of owr comrades? Question of management, indeed? it is fully time that a, de- cided stand was made by the railwaymen of this country to insist that they shall have a say In the exercise of control of the railways to which they are connected. To argue upon a matter of this kind as to say we have no right to inter- fere because it is a question of management, is most callous to my mind, and I trust some strong protests will be expressed by the branches of our union upon this attitude taken up by the companies. I am not unmindful of the fact that releasing of men for the army rests upon the continuance of the war. We cannot ignore it or shut our eyes. If we say or passively agree to the war going on, then we are under a moral obligation to supply the men necessary. A further release can be looked forward to at any time if the slaughter continues. We are up against that proposition, and the sooner we realise it the better. Are the railwaymen as a body prepared to make a stand for the war to end by negotia- tions rather than by force of arms? The reply to that question will determine the releasing of further men from the railway. I know where I stand in this matter, and that is to respond to the warm-hearted invitation extended to us by the Russian Social Democrats. The response is to establish a wide world-peace with no annexa- tions, no indemnities, no conquests. To set up trie Parliament of Man, the hope of the poet, and bring about the reconstruction of the In- ternationtl uniting the workers of the world, overthrowing not only dynasties, and thrones, but the capitalist system which is the funda- mental cause of wars. There will then be no war, hence there will be no need of men being released to be used as cannon fodder. Ie Long Live. the International."