Outlines of Industrial History LCONTINUED FROM LAST WEEK;) I [CONTINTTBD FROM LAST WEEK.] I ti Tbe real factors in bringing about the transi- Itioll to Imperialir,m are: -(I) The.change in the 1 ure1 of the surplus product; (2) the investment capital abroad. Bothre intimately connected with each other or the oonks and the iron and steel industries hnd ill glove with each other; as the ex- Ported capital largely takes the form of iron and teei products. From these factors rise others OJnbl1í1.ing to produce dread effects: (1), Tke ihwi af raw material; (12) the rivalry of arraa- taelats and the machinations resulting in arma- .raelit scandals; (3) the vested interests which Sn round the jobs connected with the ruling of lenor peoples. iJ We can prove and understand the main ars)the others will not detain us long. To .trle8 in a lower stage of development, capi- tio ast sends commodities for consump- toll-this IS the peaceful period. Later, instead "of the commodities to be used in consumption hUlodities to be used in production, i.e., ma- II lU0ry, are sent. The less developed countries ow Produce textiles for themselves. And not ;:ly ? themselves; for example, Japan, a for- a Market for Lancashire textiles, is now com- -rIng with, and driving out the Lancashire pro- dp? 's from the Chinese market. In the higher ^veloped countries the iron and steel industries ?P?oe the textile industry from its place of ?P<M'ta.nce. The surplus product, therefore, is ?? locomotives, cars, rails, machinery, and such Ulstead of textiles. To diepo&e of the latter as crmparatively simple; to dispose of the ,'i Ormer it is necessary that large civilising pro- ifj,of building huge railways must be con- 1)eleQ. Then comes the question: How are these '-? ? to be paid for and the foreign investor -?guarded? The meth.d of payment adopted i t granting of a concession to the con- ?ssionaires which includes certain monopoly r¡,; ts of trade, possession of mineral bearing ￼ or a direct money payment. "The flag is "? an asset." For the nation, with all its *111? f8rce amd its diplomate, stands behind its ""? Particular group of concession hunters. ?*niea are now extremely valuable to the 40ther country: Just ae in the first warlike kood of •apitalism no nation allowed another to 't el with its colonies, so now it would be Ult- tkilikable that Germany should be allowed to bllild a. railway in Egypt or India. Free Trade yoes not apply to inmand steel. To gain ^spheres of influence," to have the right of economic penetration in unexploited coun- es, tke rival national groups compete with h other, their respective navies and armies in the background being the final arbiters. The qernian capitalists with their Bagdad railway would have disposed of some of their sur- lus steel and iron goods and received a mort- age on the future of some of the ricksst lands t Modern times to pay for them. This project now to be cut in two by the Russian oceiipa- of Constantinople. When onoe this economic basis of Imperialism understood, the recent events of history and the happenings recorded in the daify newspapers rn be interpreted in a lucid fashion. The V^dership of Germany in the procession, accord- \Ir1g to Boudin, is that, owing to her late devel- &tyent, she skipped the middle pacific period of TfPitalism and leapt from the Nationalistic to b e Imperialistic stage: at once. In his book he 1i1 as an interesting table showing that, in 185. "gland produced nearly seven times more pig 051 than Germany; in -19N she had nearly ?pt up to England? total; in 1912, only 7:lplve y^s later, she had pa?ed and doubled .Other evidence is not lacking to explain the Hange from the outlook of the shopkeeper to that of the usurer. With the slum at home, apitalism needs a fleet of Dreadnoughts to pro- set its oversea investments and enforce its to new spheres of influence. Sir Robert -iffen estimated our profit on foreign and lonial investments in 1899 at between 90 and zoo millions sterling, amd the total is rising ra- MIy. Mr. Lloyd George estimated in 1915 that e total of our invested capital abroad amounted U £ 4,000,000,000. Particulars of the extortion- j.e rates changed upon the loans and of the con- ations under which capital, in the absence of actory Acts, is employed abroad make sorry fading. Downing Street and the City work in ^rinony • Inspired articles in the Press sway '.Pjublic opinion in the aixsenee of any other in- And contributions to the secret party also exercise a hidden influence which helps complete the unholy alliance between the concessionaires and the official head s of the ? ?te with the Army and the Fleet at their dis- p_ osal. The disposal of the surplus-product of ? medern industrial nations has ceased to be a ntter of armed force, actual or potential, used by la?g? groups, called Nations. Hence the P'henomen, n which we call Modern Imperialism." ￼ As the old sapplies of mineral wealth are ex- » isted the rivalry among the nations to secure e fi Applies of newer lands is sharpened. Why ? 'se should .Morocco be desired by France and many? Other lands desired for their mineral \\rflealh will occur to the reader's mind upon re- action. Then again, turning to that section of the ?P?alista who directly profit by furnishing Im- ?aJism its weapons we find that: "If the ?-?sure of the armament firms can hmrdly drive nation into war, it may affect the scale of pre- ???tion? and set the fashion in costly methods ?engines of warfare." That this has been -? is common knowledge thanks to certain able ??8, who have, by searching official docu- ^sj laid bare the workings of huge interna- ti<? ? armament trusts and revealed the wires h"-], ??Q pulled to create scares. The Mulliner ￼ of 1912 is a typical example. The third mentioned factor, too, plays a part the creation of an atmosphere favourable to tb- S?owth of Imperialism. When capitalism ?lw *n its pacific mood, one of its spokesmen, ?? ?t, declared his belief in what had been "riler voiced by James Mill that was that em- Ire wit its army and navy was a system of Q??aoor relief for the upper classes. The bear- rf!. of the White Man's burden is a not un- ?P]ro ble task. Brailsford tells us that: "The trib? drain of wealth from India, the indirect is i which it pays to the ruling class at home, ste l' ed to amount to about thirty millions sterT ? consisting of the interest on capital s?nk 1? India or lent to India, of pensions paid ?o e'"y '-?agio-Indians now resident in India." No ? ?I ?dian is allowed to rise above the rank of in the Army; the Egyptians are t'f?'d to make good clerks. 'IOWever after making these suggestions in ?""Ply to the question which faced us, and leaving ￼ to be followed up and enlarged upon by the ?.? dent himself, we can pass on to another luest 'AT SHOULD THE ATT'TUDE OF THEI WORKER TO IMPERIALISM BE? 'h.. ￼ ??ysing capitalism to explain its latest *nood it seen that capitalism must of neces- witv ? a surplus-product. The cause of the '??s now creates a crisis of another sort—"Iron and steel mean war." Why there is capital to export abroad is because the working-class is di- vorced from the means of production and con- sequently do not own the finished product. If there was no surplus-value produced, there would be no problem arising from the disposal of the surplus-product. There is a wonderful depth of irony in the fact that, the workers are taxed and oonscripted because the profits, made out of the consumption of their labour-power, need the backing of force to make their way into new lands. We saw that in practice every worker is foread to face the friction which arises between the em- ployer and himself over the matter of the sur- plus product. Wages can only rise at the ex- pense of profits. But many workers have not as yet consciously thought out, recognised, and ac- cepted the theory of this friction or struggle as it arises between olass and class; they have not seen that this class struggle can only be ended by the change of the system and the triumph of their own class and the end of the capitalist class. If our former judgements were sound, capitalism in its warlike mood eaused Imperialism and the war now raging. Therefore, knowing the true cause, the true cure is to fight capitalism to the finish. The answer to our question then should be: His attitude should be one of resolute oppo- sition, because Imperialism is only a new phase of an old evil. Capitalism once promised to become interna- tioral; but new nationalism crops up again. Once it thought all men and races :fit for political liberty and self government; but now believes in superior and inferior races and nations. The Scientific Socialist knows, however, that the real difference between the backward and the forward races is only one of technique. In all our Indus- trial History lessons, we have seem that evolu- tion has occurred, not through the striving of "Chosen Peoples" to lead more unfortunate peoples, born to be ruled, towards the light, but through the struggle of classes with each other. To quote Boudin:—"The theory of the class struggle is in absolute and irreconcilable opposi- tion to the nationalistic theory of patriotism- while its practice makes the puactice of the pa- triotc virtues utterly impossible." Howbeit, the humanism, liberalism and ideas of political li- berty cherished by capitalism in its middle period wiN be preserved and carried forward by the workers though their former bearer has become reactionary. CSass-consciousnees, once developed, will deter- mine the work ess' attitude; will protect them from the ravages of war-fever; and save them from being prostituted by patriotism. As the forces of cohesion and repulsion can be seen in the mighty planet, as well as in the tiny indi- vidual speck of matter, so the force of atttraction to their own class and of repulsion to the ex- ploiting class wiH one-day be felt by the whole of the world of labour, as well as by the indi- vidual worker in his own particular plaee. The International will then be a reality. Taking the welfare of his class as a guide to his action as the mariner uses the Pole star, the worker will not be submerged in the troubled waves of Imperial- ism but will, when he has become conscious of his strength and the world is the workers', arrive art a just and lasting peace. The three following are the compleenent of each other:— BEADING: Boudin's "Socialism and War." Brailsford's War of Steel and Igold." Newbold's War Trust Exposed" and "How Britain Armed for War."
The Theatre Royal. I I am sorry in writing of the presentation of the "Ware OdSe" at the Theatre Royal this week, to have to say that the play is not meet- ing with all the success that it ought to have on merit. True the "housfee" are not bad, and are improving nightly, but the start-off was a little bleak, unquestionably largely due to kitchen's disappointing show last week, and the "week-after-the-holidays" feeling which every manager knows and dreads. As a play "The Ware Case" is far and away beyond the story, which is tedious and mediocre. It is one of those strange anomalies that one occasionally meets and can never explain; where a weak story to read, provides a most delightful and dramatic stage version. I had read the book long ago, but had never seen the play before this week, and I was looking forward to the visit a little uneasily, an uneasiness that was only partly al- layed by the association of the name of Margery Fane, C. Leveson Lane, Rothbury Evans and the others with the company. My uneasiness turned to enthusiasm quickly on my visit to the theatre. The play works out splendidly, and not even Gerald Du Maurier, I am prepared to say, got more out of the Court scene, and the last act than is being brought out by this talented com- pallY. The play lives as only plays can live when well-done by real histrions; and while I would specially note the exceedingly able way in which Leveson Lane Rothbury Evans, Margery Fane and Elfie Leigh Hunt handle their difficult parts, I would not have it be thought that they are simply stars unbacked by any. real talent in the minor parts. The casteing is perfect, every mem- ber fits into the whole, as compactly and cosily as do the works in a really gtmd dress watch. Under such a company "The Ware Case" should be a second and better "Royal Divorce" in point of continuous favour and patronage, and I sin- cerely hope that nothing will ever come to mar the company and split its units. A little over a year ago Messrs. Macdonald and Young's Company appeared here in the ever popular comedy "Peg o' My Heart," and the announcement of the return visit to the Theatre Royal next week will, I am sure give the local theatre-goers the greatest pleasure. The performances will be given once nightly, as before, and the charges of admission will also be the same as previously. There will be a special matinee on Thursday, commencin at 2.30. The evening shows will commence at 7.30. Visitors from the lower districts will be pleased to learn that special arrangements have been made to run conveyances to Troedyrhiw and in- termediate places after the evening perform- ances. All intending Circle and Stalls patrons should book their seats early. The Box Office is now open at the Theatre. Telephone No. 2. The following notable artistes will appear in the caste: Mr. William Kershaw, Mr. H. E. Garden, Mr. George Goodwin, Mr. J. Poole Kirkwood, Mr. George Leslie, Miss Ethel Per- cival, Miss Beatrice Drury, Miss Hilda Thorne, and Miss Ethel O'Shea as "Peg." A splendid cast, performing a splendid play.
TO-MORROW MAY BE TOO LATE. Get a Box TO-DAY Robert Edes, of Weybridge, writes:After I had taken the second two I felt better than I had done for over four years. The pain in my back had entirely gone." Mrs. King, Runwell Road, Wickford, states:—" Your pills cured me aftei years of pain." Sufferers from Gravel, Lumbago, Pains in the Back, Dropsy, Bright's Disease of the Kidneys, etc., Sciatica, Rheumatism, and Gout, will find a positive cure in Holdroyd's GraNel Pills. is,. 3d., all chemists; post free, 14 stamns.- Gramel Pills. Medical Hall, Cleckheaton HOLDROYD'S
The Fate of Mansel Grenfell I HIS STATEMENT BEFORE THE COURT- MARTIAL. Mansel Grenfell, who was arrested on March 14-Sh, tried at the Swansea Police ConrV fined £10 and handed over to the Military Authorities, was on March 28nd court-martialled at Kinmel Park, Rhyl. His uncompromising statement before the District Court-Martial was as follows: — I understand that tlae charge against me is of having "wilfully disobeyed" a lawful com- mand or lawful commands given by a "superior officer" or "superior officers." I plead guilty, technically, to ,the charge, although I do not re- cognise the charge, and the terms used is it, as applying to me. I am an objector to military service, and as such, am unable, to recognise military authority and the commands of military officers as the commands of "superior" officers. I say that, I hope, with due respect to the gen- tleman or gentlemen in relation to whom I am involved in this charge. I have deep and sin- cere convictions againat war and against mili- tarism as preparation for, and the method of war; and I have particular and extreme dis- like for militarism in the form of Conscription or compulsory military service. War appears to me always as unnecessary slaughter and maiming of men, and all-round destruction and impoverish- ment of life—for the masses of the people of the victorious belligerent nations as well as for those of the vanquished. "Those who live by the sword shall perish by the sword." Conscription, not only implies sanction of militarism and war, but requires that med young men, too I-should submit to training, and work, and objects, regardless of the fitnesses of their natures and the sacredness of their con- victions, and so involves very large numbers in forced and unnatural diversions of life as ex- pressed in their individuality and personality and in the violation of their conscience, which I believe is the most valuable thing in the world. This is my reply to the charge to which I plead guilty, technically and only technically, in the sense I have already submitted to you." On March 24th the sentence was promulgated, it was two years' hard labour with one year, 153 days, remitted, leaving 112 days' imprison- ment. Writing from the Guard Room, Grenfell tells us: There is very much respect for the C.O. among the soldiers. This respect arises largely from the soldier's disgust for the military, owing to his experience of them and not yet so much from conviction against militarism. We must endeavour to show the relationship-loving the soldier and humanity and hating the system, as to the corruption and destruotiveness of which he has not yet been enlightened." "Carry on," he ys, "for the good cause. Chaps inside are, spl ndid. Those outside must not slacken in their efforts. I feel more and more every day that our cause is progressing." On Tuesday, March 27th, Grenfell was taken to Wormwood Scruobs, where he will probably spend his term of imprisonment. Writing on the way to the Scrubbs he says: It is such a lovely morning and I should like to be free, but I feel at ease and at peace with the world and not a bit worried by my going to prison. I shall continue to do 'my bit' even inside prison. I am confident that the people outside will 'Carry on' too. I go to prison gladly and without any regret. Gorseinon comrades, workers for the cause of Humanity, renew your efforts in the fight for Liberty and Justice. Let not the Good Cause suffer because a few of the most active workers have been shut within prison walls and locked behind cell doors! They sow the golden grain to-day To-morrow comes the harvest." SPES."
r" II II II 11- | MWLAJS CO-OPEMI?E SOBtEn. Limited, | ? ? ? | 16, 17, 18, and 19, Union Street, Dowlais. j j DRAPERY DEPT. ￼ We are now showing a Large Assortment of New Goods for the 1 ￼ coming Season:- 1 I Household Linen. Blankets. Quilts. Sheets. | a HousehOI Linen. Blankets. QuHts. Sheets. ￼ I Carpets and Rugs. j ￼ MILLINERY DEPT. I Costumes. Jackets. Blouses. Ladies and I I Children's Millinery. I J VALUE AND QUAHTY GUARANTEED IF YOU BUY AT £ I 16, 17, 18 & 19, Union Street, Dowlais. I Is PantscaiSog, Dowlais. Caeharris, Dowlais. =1 B High Street, Penydarren. I Station Terrace, Bedlinog. Station Terrace, Bedlinog. NATIONAL Amalgamated LABOURERS' UNION. I Registered Office -1 ST. DAVID'S PLACE, RUTLAND STREET, SWANSEA. I The Live Fighting Union for South Wales. I We Don't Merely List Benefits on Paper-We PAY Them. B General Secretary JOHN TWOMEY. B Organiser: "BOB" WILLIAMS, 220 Blackfriars Road, London, S.E. B District Secretaries: A. BARTON, 5 Stuart Street, Docks, Cardiff; JOHN O'LEARY, Century ■ Institute. Wi.nmill Street, Newport, Mon.; Coun. J. POWLESLAND, 10 Picton Place, Swansea I ALL CLASSES CATERED FOR—MALE AND FEMALE. B Affiliated to the National Transport Workers' Federation, Trade Union Congress, and I National Labour Party. B Approved under the National Health Insurance Acts.
No Room for Conscience. THE STRANGE HESITANCY OF A C. E. I CONVENTION. The writer journeyed to Cardiff on Wednesday last (April 11th) as delegate from the local C.E. Society to the Welsh C.E. Convention. It was with some hesitancy that a delegate was ap- pointed, as it was felt that at those conferences, no matters affecting the practical issues of life, such as the profiteer, the warmonger and sweater are ever dealt with. I was eventually elected on the understanding, that, if opportunity arose I should endeavour to lead the Conference to mat- ters of real urgency. The opportunity arose, and I got up to mention the fact that many faces were missing that day. C. E. I ex- plained, had been given a new meaning-" Con- science Enshrined." Dilating on the heroism of those Endeavourers who had made the great stand," I thought that this, the Young Peoples Movement, would supely be concerned about the young men 3aily slain in France; in the words of Ruskin faster than a country butcher kills lambs in spring." So I moved a resolution embodying their OOWI- age. It was immediately seconded by a friend from Tredegar, and I thought, by the appre- ciative way in which they listened to proposer and seconder it would have carried. It was not to be. As Christ found no room in the Inn," Conscience had no place in the Convention. A compromising amendment was put and carried. Only proposer and seconder voting for the reso- lution. The amazing thillg were the "arguments pitted against the resolution. Controversial," said one. Disastrous to the spirit of the C.E. Movement," said another. "Political," said another. Strange to remark, that when conscience was "shunted," a resolution was passed on the Prohibition of Drink." That of course would not come in the category of "controversial and political." I challenged one on this matter, who replied: "But drink was such a great evil." Good God! Is not war, with its over 23 million casualties a greater evil and crime? Your space would not permit me to recount all that happened outside, after the conference. .First one, then another, who appreciated my stand, but thought it wisest mot to pass such a resolution approached me. One, who came forward was a minister, who said that unfor- tunately he was not a delegate, else his support would have been with me. To him I made this remark: "You, sir, are in the regular minisitry, I as a local preacher have been preaching for a number of year £ but I must make this confes- sion, that the greatest stumbling block to Peace is the Cfeurch." He heartily concurred. I, The masses are outside the churches ? I am not surprised. This carnage that dyes red the fields of France makes actual the word s of Shakespeare, "Each new morn, new widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows strike heaven on the face." If heaven's ambassadors are "doubtful neu- trals OE hindercrs much longer then the "Day! of Reckoaiag" for them will be an ordeal in- deed. WM. WILLIAMS, I
The Electric Theatre. I Although the Fox studios stand out so dis- tinctively for their photography and staging of big things, I doubt whether they have ever car- ried anything through on the stupendous scale in which they treated "The Soul of New York," the Electric Theatre star picture during the ini- tial half of this week. Good as was the story, and well told as it was, I think that the photo- graphy and setting were what amazed and de- lighted the big audiences most. I do not re- member ever having seen anything so wall and convincingly done. From the spectacular point of view it is the film of the year; and, as I have already said, the story was only subservient to the setting because of the race and bizarre na- ture of the latter. The Jury comedy Love, Ice and Snow," was also remarkable for its dis- play of American winter sport and pastime. There were husky dog teams, sleighs, toboggans, ice yachts, superb skating, and dancing in ice palaces. All. were very attraetice; but the humour was not so geod as one could have liked. Here again the spectacular was the great feature of the film; but here the stdry had not a* quar- ter the potency of the five reeler. Every kinemaphite will welcome the return of Protlea in the big-liner now showing, The Oath of Protaa." It is a fine adventure of one of the first and foremost film favourites. There is grip and sweetness in the story, and pretty Molle Josette Andriot's characterisation of Protea the Spy is only superior to that of the fine band of artistes who are working with her in this. 11 Protea returns during the latter half of next week in For France," a story of the war with a Three Musketeer touch, and more than a topical interest dependent on monentary pas- sion. This new Protea series are distinctly a gain to any management that can secure them, and I again offer my hearty congratulations to the Electric on their enterprise. The Oath of Protea is only one good thing in an outstand- ing programme. The Jury comedy is a fine one, and, amongst many things calling for special note, I should single out the entrancing mystery of Mary Page," the best serial ever screened. Another costly Fox masterpiece has been booked for the first half of next week, Little Miss Happiness,5 one of the sweetest things ever done for the camera, featuring June Caprice, and that wonderful three-and-a-half years' old genius of The Soul of New York," Little Juno Lee, whose work captured all hearts this week. I shall be pleased to welcome back the little mite next Monday. The very latest Triangle comedy will be on the same bill, Bedelia's Bluff "—a burlesque of Swank, done in the inimitable Triangle style. I have already mentioned that three days further along a big programme will be headed by the latest Protea, For France." PLAYGOER. BUILDING TRADES WAGES DISPUTE. I The Merthyr Building Trades Federation met the Masters' section of the local Conciliation Board on Wednesday night with reference to the men's application for a 3d. per hour advance. There was a long round-the-table discussion in which the masters expressed sympathy with the men's case, but regretted their inability to do more than offer a Id. per hour advance. This the men refused, and the case will now go before the Western Centre Conciliation Board. What the men are anxious for is a flat rate for the whole of South Wales of Is. Old. per hour. Cardiff has obtained the Is., and if this is taken as the rate, Merthyr wages will have to advance 2td. per hour.
Medical. £ & A -PAGE BOOK ABOUT HERBS AND U?t HOW TO USE THEM, Post Free. Send for One. TRIMNELL, TRB HERBALIST, 144, RICHMOND ROAD, CARDIFF. Established 1879. Literary. UNITARIAN PAMPHLETS on The Bible," ￼ HeaTen," and Hell," given post free.- Miss BABMBY, Mount Pleasaqt, Sidmouth. Miscellaneous. ASTROLOGY.—Life Events, Changes, For- A. tunate Days, Business Success, Matrimony; Two Years' Future added.—Send Birth-date, 1/- P.O.. PROF. GouLD "The Nook," Heathfie Road, CardiS. CARDIFF Central Labour College League %-) (under the auspices of the Cardiff Trades Council). Permanent Teacher appointed.— 8 Queen Street, Cardiff. Note time of starting, 2.30 p.m.
Dowlais Time. FIVE MINUTES IN ADVANCE OF I. GREENWICH. Oases arising from breaches of the order of the Central Control Board (Liquor Traffic) were heard by the Merthyr magistrates on Tuesday. Patrick Duggan, Owain Glyndwr Inn, Dow- lais, was fined £10 for selling two pints of beer to two ironworkers, James Brown and Thomas Watkins, at 5.58 p.m., on March 31st. As aiders and abettors Brown and Watkins were fined P,2 each Mr. E. Roberts (solicitor) for the defence, stated that in Dowlais it was customary to take the time by the hooter from the ironworks, which was five or six minutes in advance of Greenwich time. Duggan's clock being fast in addition to this fact led to a genuine mistake in the time being made. Mr. R. A. Griffith (drily): We ean't allow li- cees to contravene the Order because the Dowlais time is wrong. Mrs. Margaret Morgan, Red Lion Inn,Heolger- rig, was fined e5 for supplying beer at 9.50 p.m. on March 31st, and Edward Davies and Edward Griffiths, to whom it was served were fined P-2 each. A summons against John Thomas Morgan as landlord was dismissed, as at the time of the offence he was away in training with the colours.
ABERDARE VALLEY DISTRICT C. L. C. LEAGUE (South Wales Division). Mr. NOAH ABLETT (Member S.W.M.F. Executive) will give his postponed LECTURE "The Ideals of the C.L.C. At Aberaman in the LESSER HALL of the INSTITUTE, on SUNDAY, APRIL 22nd, at 3 p.m. Questions. Collection. "Plebsl" on Sale.