Outlines of Industrial History i1,-THE RENAISSANCE FROM MEDIEVALI NIGHT. The -ar4L,.a,(ith and depth of this subject forbid Its adrJ equate treatment in a single lesson or utiine. The fact that this re-awakening move- ramt has never stopped, and that daily now s 'Pen^ ai lities and sub-divisions of the sciences are 11-P made compel us to make only a brief 00Qeral surrey of it. To follow out the technical lltOgTOSS in any one of the sciences born in the ^naissa-noe would fill ponderous tomes. Even ,reo^r(l of the names of the brilliant thinkers, Who had a hand in the matk, would be a ?ngthy affair. Therefore only a few of the most striking con- tra'??6 between the ideas of the Middle Ages and f '? ?n'es will be given, lea.ingthe reader to foil" this re-birth out upon a fuller scale him 9on.tradietorv descriplions of the Dark Ages ÎlSt. With that glossing over of hard facts and th t ?'"??? too often granted to the past, hist °r,a i^ns have told us romantic tales about the tlrfle c.iiiN,?ili,v flourished and feudal knights ? ?_ bold, and when the monasteries and their ￼ tended the flickering flame of culture and ''Tun? when the gusts of barbarism threatened Extinguish j L ??"?r writers paint a different picture The ra Ie ?gcs was a period of bestial ignorance, ra. "hts, robber troubadours and fine 1:J )?? 's wbo never changed their underplathin?." I't 'ainly modern historians are not possessed wit) 1 a ?hnd esteem for this period. PREVIOUS ADVANCES IN LEARNING. r? 4"? the name implies the Renaissance was the r J"'r"h a.nd not the birth of learning. Greek Q?'ght migtitily innuenccd the world. In lle that necessary leisure—without which ? ,?'Qing cannot commence—was secured "i?y ?'?-labour. The Greeks almost as soon as they iíe known to history have left behind thm their .?eric mythology. It is an mt<,restmg task ￼ Notice how the introspection of Socrat&s and he vague ideahsm of Plato followed the Sophists ao the vain attempts of Thaler, Anaxa.goras, jj faelitu?? Empedocles and many others to ex- raIn the orgin of the universe and its inhabi- ?ts. They failed because they lacked the lillo,7ledge which specialisation and centuries of ?rvation in the sciences were to bring. ■However, these philosophers made some clever ?s<? at the truth. Two thousand- four hun- dr years before Kant. Anaximander rightly lectured the nature of the heavenly bodies. ? '??'tUM anticipated the Atomic Theory only p??'hed hy Dalton in 1803; and Empedocles uHeiracIitus perceived that "Nothing is; ?'ything is becoming," long before Hegel 0 .t it and Darwin furnished such a striking' I>t"oof of it in biology in 1849. t' '? it wa,? a little later in history in the beau- tif ??' of Alexandria that science began. Tbo li?y attacheti to the famous Alexandrian UinSeUru contained four hundred thousand vol- U?? ? an a(^'tional library alsa had three hun- ?.'?.?ousand. Fourteen thousand students "? the city. Strenuous efforts were made, 4'ad iuo ?xpens<t was spared, to collect, increase aod -flllHe knowledge. The Aristarchus fore- sta]] findings of Copernicus. Here ?, ??id formulated his well-I?nown propositions. ???*' the famous mathematician and in- v? ?'?? '?auenced b' y his residence in this i??lectual metropolia. Hipparchus, with his ronomical tables, and Ptolemy, with his thir- f>tandard books on astronomy which were on I displaced nearly fifteen years iaterov New- "UW.1S work upon the subject, gathered in Alex- observations and knowledge. And tllftct names are only examples drawn at random from lengthy list of famous thinkers and dis- coverers in many branches of science who tri-ed to; solve the riddles of Nature in the shadow of UUtt famous museum which was unluckily burnt Illu,ing Julius Caesar's scige of the town. finlU"nillg to nome in its cosmopolitan days we S?h?OL the orac^fs neglected; the gods left to look :r thOOl:e1v b.nd Hill liberty of thought -Rilo?vf-d to ,411 if they did not.endanger the I' ?r dl:itur? 0i^ers wlth ???"' v?M'ons pro- s?ytiain"? ? ? t-? ?? Christians an d the Jews. Pinal] ? ,tIe 1"1shans an te ews. 0', t Y 9nstlaUlt.Y triumphed, became the .:lta.f} rello-lon d Scribed ??°????? Pap?T, which Hobbes *the ,ho,et of the deceased Roman Umpire. sittir> ?'?-ned upon the grave there- of ,i 1, dl'T"I()Ped. But beforc the latte'- ?- '7r had 1-iai)peRe(f, f'ch scenes ? the murder of ? Hypa.tiu8, the de?, ion of books of scier. |ie ''?sing of the schools, had oc- A Chri8tianiv proscribed philosophy, a,?'?shed the schools, and plunged the world QK) an abyss of darkness from which it only Merged after twelve hundred yea?s" is the con- 'AlLsi?,l Of ,he American sociologist. Lester F. Ward. OhriRtianitv gathered and filled its pan- tit .1 ?eon wi.h pa,gan gods in the numerous saints ,? wo?ittppetl. Inquiry was soon thought to ?. f ?n; to "onht was to be damned; and the "lhle \1'as M?c? the fiual anthontv on aU ques- As we shall endeavour to s how later the eco- ^^i0 causes behind the re-awakening, it should here *ta ted that this intellectual reaction, deT. ^'lf ??? Quotation given above, was not Call'ied ?? ??? introduction of any particular cre^ °r 8yste,n of thought, but it was an ev i t- iE'i or s:vsem of thouglt, bt!t it va.san evit- afole CoU(x,tlLitant of the invasion of Europe by fol] .'n a ???'' state of development, who later ill-, tt?'Ite'd the feuday system. Fighting pre- doI'ITIated (rrer thinking. CONTRASTS. j? ? ? dark ages the world was thought to be fl. 1 i tlle sk-v fitted it like an inverted basin in ?cnt to and fro the sun and moon and star- ti ills providing man, ,the centre and the <w?rn of creation, with light. Above the sky -????' and beiow the earth was hell. One ino^vvT, "1<7Us exPla»ation of night was that the sun vs-«^ round behind a big mountain. ? ? ??'? and the earth's shap? and position ?.p +i r5)t ??Ks to attract the attention of tuini' ???? it to say that now the geo- eentr-^ anthropocentric Mnceptions of ,he TJni'*1 are Sone for ever. The revolulOn iK thou'?? ? Sone for ever. The revolution m thought, bega by Copermcus about 1607, proved ih ??? of the heliocentric theory and t'evealed ?1? .°?? earth i.s only a minute sp(???k of dust dim a??????? larger ,?orld? -pi? naded dim mh\\orlds, Writes Draper <? '^mense inane "'rites Drap'f.l', "are scattered Jike dust i vast abyl-?se.q Of SP )4an eould to longer be con- «ud lig'"ht. thH I'Cason ?Y ,1 sun yielded heat arad light. ?T1?. '? u° not J1f ?' after sailors had proved the horizon endless. AA st, ronomy 18 thu8 the oldest science. In our Wn r_ ?'?' the bnilders of Stonehenge had watched the movements of the sun and stars louth -V°- Pe°ially in the clearer ??.? -?"\?'f uthe stars at night would serve as a gu?e to the ea.rly desert and ocean travellers, and 7- their ^t^l^y excite interest. The a?e, fotl-llat'?on and motion of t;he ?'? also provided olir, fielda of study and controversial topics. v. ^ls^'De thought that suoh discussion was ?Oss as a new earth and a new heaven were soon to be." Ideas, which we now found in children's lees«n aooks, were denounced fiercely by the Church as being heretical. There were contradictory estiniates of the earth's age based UpoR the scriptural records, but they all agreed that she was not more than six thousand year's old, and that she had been made in a week. The abandonment of these ideas with Noah's Ark and the Beluge, the theory of Man's Fall and the Atonement, is recent history. Geology destroys" the lie on the lips of the priest," and gives evidence of the earth's remote origin and formation in a period requiring myriads of centuries. Biology and the Evolution Theory reveal that man himself is about a quarter of a million years old, and is a part of the animal kingdom which enjoyed an even longer prior existence. In noting these contrasts between the ideas held then, and now, we should not forget the founders of science, which so rapidly in modern times accelerates its rate of advance. It is not, and never has been, a pleasant thing to be the bearer of new ideas. Giordiano Bruno, for as- serting the plurality of worlds, was burned by the Church in the Field of Flowers in 1660. In 1889 a huge crowd witnessed the unveiling of a magnificent statute to his memory upon the same spot. Recantation of his belief in the earth's motion was forced by the terrors of the Inquisition fro in the 70-year-old Galileo. His name, with that of Kepler. Newton, Kant, and Laplace, and many others, is connected with the showing that the worlds have evolved and are evolving in obedience to natural mechanical laws. The supernatural has now no niche in astronomy. We have a difficulty of realising the dense ig- norance of a time when ascetics, to glorify their religion, broke off the highest of human rela- tions, and in deep solitude became dirtier than the beasts; when the churches were filled with teror-striken praying crowds at the appearance of the comets; and when, while the Saracens in Spain and Africa, had raised science, hygiene, drainage and street paving to a high level, Murope, wallowing in ignorance, had none of these tilings. But in time. personal and public cleanliness and efficient drainage were found to be better preventives against plagues than prayers; sickness and lunacy were not ascribed to the workings of evil spirits and to demonical possession (though Luther, living as late as he did, strongly believed in devils) and a thousand and one improvements, such as glass windows and chimneys, were made in the dwellings of the people with beneficial results. Gone are the ferocious punishments for crime, the trials by ordeal, the horrors of the Inquisi- iJÏon-the thoughts of which still provoke a shudder—-the burnings and drownings of men and women as wizards and witches, the ruthless means by which enquiry was suppressed, and the absurd worship of relics. The Renaissance was the dawn of commonsense. NEW METHODS OF REASONING. Hitherto reasoning had been largely deduc- tive in its method. General principles whose truth no one was allowed to question had been used to explain particular facts often in a ludi- crous manner. Bacon's name and his book, "Novum Orga- non," are associated with the revival of the in- ductive method in England. This is just the op- posite to the deductive. The fa.cts displace the theory in importance. The tendency of the mind to rashly generalise and to let its wishes in- fluence its thoughts and beliefs is under this method of reasoning restrained. All the facts m.t be observed carefully before the generali- sation is made, and with new facts may come the revision of the theory or generalisation. This is the method of science..For science corrects the evidence of the senses; probes beneath the superficial; preserves an alert and critical mind ignores the mysterious and the miraculous; and is always willing to recase her generalisations if they do not agree with the facts. While the Roman Chrucli had its infallible. Pope and even the Protestants an infallible book, the scientific method of reasoning sought Truth, believing her alone to be infallible. It was the growth of this spirit, which, armed with telescope, microscope, spectroscope, barometer, thermometer, ehemical balance and other tools, was to later have such wonderful results; and that broke up the absolute torper, credulity and ignorance afflicting the-medieval mind. THE CAUSES OF THE AWAKENING. What, then, was the cause behind this awaken- ing which gradually substituted reason for revel- ation and caused men to carefully observe and interrogate Nature in all her phases; and which revived the study of the ancient manuscripts which had been so long neglected. Indeed many of them had had their original writing scraped from them by monks in need of parchment. Many reasons have been given as to why the Church's power declined until she was no longer able to preserve her unity of belief by burning the folk who dissented therefrom; why innumer- able improvements of civilisation were intro- duced into Europe; and why anatomy with its dissection of the human body, ignoring the theologian's fears of difficu1ti arising on the resurrection morning, was adopted with other sciences wnicn nave sought to banish disease and pain rather than to treat them as necessary evils. Lecky in chap. 4 of his History of European Morals" wntes: Not till the education of Europe passed from the monasteries to the uni- versities, not till Mohammedan science and clas- sical free-thought, and industrial independence broke the sceptre of the Church, did the intel- lectual revival of Europe begin." The fall of Constantinople (1453) drove the remnants of the ancient culture west, chiefly to the Italian towns which, it should be noted, were not only the centres of trade but also of learn- ing. In other lessons the economic cause behind the Ctuisades and their effects upon Europe, in bringing her into touch with the more highly developed Saracens, have been traced. Not only were the plugged-up trade routes the cause of the Crusades, but they made it imperative that another way to the East should be dis- covered and were thus the cause of those voy- ages which had suoh immense results in widen- ing the trading are-a,, in creating an adventurous spirit of enquiry, and in destroying old ideas con- cerning the world. To sum up briefly we would say that, new ideas betoken the rise of a new class. The con- flict between the darkness of Medievalism and the light of the Renaissance was the ideologioal counterpart of the growing conflict between the decaying feudal system with its chief support the Church, wealthy in land and in revenue and greedy for its own aggrandisement, and the rising commercial class. Both gunpowder and printing—the latter a, munition works of mental high explosives—were used to help on the passing of femda-Iism. In order that old traditions and authorities should be shattered and individualism developed, science, ever the handmaid of the rising class, was employed. The Industrial Revolution( to be treated later) was no chance happening. Who can imagine it happening withoiit the de-relop- ment of physics and chemistry P Think of the intimate oonnection between mining and geology and tbeee are Maly sta-ay examoes. Yet all tksm sciences had and bare their roots in the spirit of the Renaissance. It is not without sW It is not witboat significance that science, first applied and successful in the far away heaveas, is gradually coming nearer to man until we get Sociology, the science of society, begun. The powers- of reaction, whose chief represen- tative in the period under notice was the Church, fluttered like a moth at the light of the re- awakening but all in vain. From Hypatia to Ferrer the Church has punished the sin of en- quiry wherever she has been powerful enough; to do so. The vituperation, with which the proofs of the Evolution Theory were hailed, has hardly died away; yet we have in our own times intellectual slovenliness, cloudy mysticism, and attempts to square science with religion encour- aged by the reactionary forces of the capitalist class once a ruthless opponent of feudal tradi- tions and medieval mysticism, but now wishing to preserve things as they are. Be this as it may, the tide of battle which turned at the Renaissance has never suffered a setback." Confident in truth, science has no need to persecute and crucify its enemies; oreak its opponents upon the wheel of torture or burn them at the stake. Endeavour to recall what tremendous benefits in her shori- three hundred years of life she has brought to mankind and who will say what she will not do in the next three hundred years. The capitalist class found it necessary in their rise to power to develope the natural sciences and consciously control the natural forces. True, all classes have not shared in the benefits as thev might have done. Take a, modern example mining chemistry and by-product plant make small coal of value, but do not ensure the oollier pay for getting it. Thanks to science, the har- nessing of natural forces, and the improvement of machinery, less workers are required, and thus the benefits accrue largely to one class only. But just as in the natural sciences astrology preceded astronomy; alchemy—with its vain search for the elixir of endless life and for the philosopher's stone with the Midas touch—pre- ceded chemistry; and Genesis, the "Origin of Species" in biology; so, in the social sciences Ideal Socialism came before Scientific Socialism and in the development of the latter a conscious control of the social forces will be won, the bene- fits resulting from past improvements will no longer be unequally shared; and the re-awaken- ing of the scientific spirit the, theme of this Out- line, will be continued and applied in regions hitherto untouched. The working-class, if it so desires, can reap the heritage of the past and enjoy the hopes of the future and be The crowning race; Of those that eye to eye shall look on knowledge; Under whose command is Earth and Earth's; And in their hand is Nature like an open book." Reading a little more general than our usual textbooks is needed to appreciate the cause and significance of the Renaissance. The works of Ir/ecky, Draper, White and others contain much information upon the subject. Professor Bury's History of Freedom of Tliou-ht" (H.U. Is. 3d.) is a handy little book for those who lack the time and money for larger works. Charles Reade's The Cloister and the Hearth (7d.), besides being an interesting novel gives a good idea of the credulity and ignorance which prevailed before the printing press began. Two books summing up the position in a general popular fashion from & Social i*t view- point. are Ar-elint- -NII. Struggle between Science and Superstition and N S'cience and Re- volution. These are published by Kerr and Co., Chicago, purveyors of intellectual dynamite, the like of which, unfortunately, the English Socialist movement is without as yet. MARK STARR. I
Darwin and Marx. I INTERESTING ADDRESS BY W. J. I IioOWAROS AT PONIFPRIDD. On Sunday evening last (January 7tli) at the I.L.P. Rooms, Pontypridd, a splendid audience listened with keen interest to a lecture give* by Mr. W. J. Edwards, Aberaman. The Chairman, Mr. Campbell, Australia, welcomed the propa- ganda. of the C.L.C. students, and regarded their part in the teaching of Socialism as a hopeful sign for the future. Comrade Edwards, who teaches economics for the Aberdare miners, then gave an hour's address on Darwin, Marx, and Modern Socialism," which was fully appreciated by those present. Very forcibly did he demonstrate the progress made in the inorganic, biologic, and social periods of the World's hostory. In the first it was the eternal struggle of elements that re- sulted in the development of material forms; in the biologic period, progress was made through perpetual struggle with the environment. Ani- mals came into direct contact with nature. Through modification and adaptation new struc- tures had been evolved. The only difference be- tween an ameoba, the lowest form of life, and Man, the highest form of life, was one of struc- ture. In the economic or social period a difficult principle was invoked. Man no longer struggled with nature as animals do, because he had placed tools between Nature and himself. The progress of these tools marked the progress of human society. There was no structural differ- ence between the earliest man and the latest man. Human beings, because of these tools, were not in direct contact with nature. Human society evolved, therefore, from one system to another, not because of the operation of biologic forces but because of economic forces, struggle between owners and non-owners of tools. The speaker then went on to deal with some of the great opponents to the Socialist philosophy, and these included Herbert Spencer, Henry George, and Haeckel. Fallacy after fallacy did he ruth- lessly expose which were committed by these people who persisted in laboriously endeavouring to explain society from biological forces. Coming to the present, Comrade Edwards ut- tered a few home truths that some of us would do well to remember. After tracing the economic development of the South Waler, wage slaves he pointed out that we were on the eve of In- dustrial Unionism. Industrial Unionism was a frank, if slow, recognition of the class struggle. He believed in political action, but of what use to an industrial organisation was a political or- ganisation which did not recognise that class war. Such an institution was the I.L.P., S.L.P., B.S.P. These political organisations would have to toe the line of economic development, or fall by the way. These political institutions named above served their function under waft union- ism, but now those economic conditions which balled them forth had disappeared, but the poli- tical idea which rose from those conditions over- lap into a new regime. It was only a matter of time, and those ideas would die as well, and a, new political party, arising from the real econ- omic needs of the workers would take its place. A long discussion closed a very pleasant aad instructive evening.
Are Teachers Underpaid ? I STRIKING STATEMENTS BY UNION VICE- PRESIDENT. I ON WAGES DEPUTATION TO MERTHYR EDUCATION COMMITTEE. The Morthyr teachers are apparently dissatia- fied with the war bonus scheme of the local Edu- cation Authority, as applied to -them, and the National Union of Teachers in particular has moved actively in the revision of the scale rates, so as to somewhat more fairly equalise the added cost of living. One consequence of the movement was a deputation to the Education Committee at its meeting on Monday night, when the Vive-President of the Union,, Mr. T. H. J. Underdown, voiced the local tranche's sentiments at great length. The deputation, which was a comparatively large one-, was intro- duced by Mr. Price whose connection in the Union has always been an active one. Permission having been given to the deputa- tion to appear, Mr. Underdown thanked the authority for receiving them, and, in particular, for receiving the Union for the first time as the accredited representative of the teachers. He was there with the full consent a-nd full support of the National Union and its Executive, and it was from that position that he had the pleasure and privilege to place before the committee the present position with. regard to the remuneration of teachers in Morthyr. Immediately before the outbreak of war the National Union of Teachers had entered upon a salary campaign for the im- provement of the salaries-particularly of the members' salaries—of certificite-d teachers both in primary and secondary schools, and some 1.30 authorities had undertaken improvements in their scales of salaries, but on the outbreak of war the Union felt they must bow to the situa- tion, and they suspended, for the time being, their salary campaign, and approached no other authorities. They did not regret having done that at the time, but the position to-day was en- tirely changed, and it was on the ground of the real urgency of the stress and strain on the teachers—a.s upon other sections of the commu- nity—that they were there that night to ask the authority to revise the system of payment to their teachers. He believed it was only a short time back since the Education Committee had ma-de a grant of a war bonus to certain sec tions of the teachers, but they were there not to ask for wa.r bonuses, but to ask that the whole posi- tion should be reviewed because the teachers con- sidered that the scale of salaries paid in Merthyr was inadequate before the war. and the situation now had made it very much more difficult still. There were two sides to the question—that of the Education Authority and that of the teacher, and particularly acute on the latter side was the cost of living. Teachers were committed to certain very definite permanent charges on their income in common with many other sections of the community. Take the case of a man at the i maximum of the Merthyr assistant certificated, teachers7 cale which was £160 per annum, and with a wife and two children. He had two types of payment to make; first, the standing charges against him; and, secondly, the charges" against the remaining moioty over which he ha.d some discretionary charge. His standing charges would work out something like this: Rent £ 30 (including rates); coal and lighting ?10: insur- I rtte?s);'(!oal aod li(yht-in-- ;ClO- in F, tix- medical provision for family of four at an avpr? ago of £ 1 10s.; and professional subscriptions vbL; giving a total or £ oo. l hese standing charges could not be reduced, and consequently the teachers was left with EIIO -n respect to the dispersement. of which he could exercise some discretion. The first call on that was for food. Would it be too much to say that in pro-war times 25s. a week was too much to s)pend on feed- ing that family of four? But by the Board of Trade figures the cost of living had increased bv over 80 per cent, since July 1914, and conse- quently the £ 65 spent each year at this rate be- fore the war was now -Cllri if the same standard was maintained. The teacher had already spent £ 50 on permanent charges, and this other t117 added gave him a deficiency of £ 7 on his income of £ 160. This estimate had taken no account of clothing and all the petty expenses for the up- keep of a family which he considered should have been put in pre-war times at £ 3o, and which, having increased by over 60 per cent, since 1914, brought that figure now to £ 56 10s., and added to the C7 deficiency gave a deficiency now of £ 65 10s.; say £63. The local teachers asked that authority to take account of how that deficiency could lie made up! Then from the educational authorities side there was in particular the question to be con- sidered of how to maintain the prompt supply of staffs for their schools. It was not for him to say to enthusiastic educationists such as thev were how imperative it was that the conditions under which teaching staffs served should be such as to induce into the teaching profession its fair share of the 'oest brains produced in the town. He thought that this was only fair and just in the case of education committees, but also in the interests of national well-being and welfare. What were the facts. The teaching supply was one of the greatest questions that the nation had to face a tthe present time. Apart from the fact that 14,000 teachers had joined the colours, the difficulties set in some ten years ago, and the supply of teachers had fallen so rapidly that at the present time there was such a shortage of teachers that not only did the supply make no provision for any improve- ments in the scale of staffing of the schools; but the supply was not sufficient to make up the an- nual wastage. This fact was clearly set forth in the documents issued by the Board of Education. Why was it that in spite of the popular idea that teaching was an easy and light job, with long holidays, this condition of things obtained It was because parents were finding out that the training was long and wearisome; and the can- didate for the teaching profession could earn little money until he or she reached manhood or womanhood; and the return on the expendi- tu.re for training was not nearly so adequate, as was the return from a similar amount spent on the training for other walks of life. The teachers, therefore, asked the Committee to re- view the position from the point of view of main- taining some of the best supply of available brains for the child in the school; and to keep constantly in mind the position in regard to the supply of teach ers from a national as algo from a locad point of view. They therefore asked the authority to consider whether the time had not-I arrived when they might adopt the Union scale of salaries, -hich he would bring a little more of salariest, heir notIOO. The Union considered that c l ose l y to certificated class masters should commence at a minimum of R90 and proceed to a maximum of £ 200; and that women certificated class mistresses should commence at RSO and reach -,CIOO. mainly by annual increments of £ 10. Then they con- sidered that the headmaster of » school of from 100 to 200 scholars on the roll should have £ 40 in excess of what he would be receiving as a claas master when appointed, and aainual increments amounting to an additional jC40 up to a. maxi- mum of ;CM, for at school of from 201 to 300 on the rcdl aJjcuhirij t* £ 800, and hoadmiatresm st the imm IV" Juea*onod to receive a raspediv* nlaximum of LM and £ 250. All cases wrtii fdborw 300 on the roll should be considered indi- vidually. The question would arise, no doubt, as to how these ohargQB were, to be met, and due N. U T. fully recognised these difficulties of making further oalls on the rates, but they did say that the ratepayer could noT, take shelter be- hind the Education Committee and keep the whole burden of these increased costs on the baok of the teaching profession. The teachers were quite content to shoulder their fair share, and they asked the Education Committee to hold the; balance fairly between them and the ratepayer. They asked for the scale he had just placed be- fore them, though they admitted that to ask for it to be placed in full operation at this time was probably asking too much. Therefore, they did not ask that the Committee should take the man. at £ 160 and give him R200 to-morrow if he had been at the maximum for four years. They said that the scale should be adopted forthwith and an increase to meet the increa.sed cost of living made. The teachers were prepared to forego two-thirds of that £ 83 deficit in the typical case he had given, and they asked for a £ 20 increase all round for the certificated teachers in the elementary and secondary schools. How did Merthyr compare with other Educa- tion Authorities in the principalitiejg in the last returns of the Board of Education (1914). Mer- thyr spent £ 2 18s. 4d. upon every child in aver- age attendance; Llanellv £ 2 18s. 7d. Aberdaro £ 3 5s. 3d.; Ebbw Vale £ 3 Is. 7d.: Mountain. Ash £ 3 3s. 7d.; Pontypridd £ 3 3s. Id. Barry iC,3 5s. 2d., and Cardiff £ 3 10s. Id. This was to say that there were a number of other authori- ties in the Principality who paid the teachers i roni the staffing value at higher remuneration than Merthyr. Then there was another compari- son into which he had looked. They were able to pay for education from two sources: (1) .From the C antral Exchequer: and (2) from the local rates. Merthyr Tydfil received 59 per cent. of its expenditure upon elementary education from the Central Exchequer, and only 41 per cent. from local rates, which was a reversal of the usual position. Only three places came so low in the whole Principality. So that the rate- payers of Merthyr had net been unduly presse d though they had certainly met education gener- ously, and the finger of approbation was pointed to that for its system of free secondary educa- tion. But the Union felt that the teachers had reached a position now when the intolerable strain could not, go on, and they asked the Com- mittee to give its sincerest consideration to the decision of what sums could be allocated to alle- viate the strain. The co-operation of the N. U .T. locally waS with the committee; as also in the movement to have education made a national charge. (Hear, hear. They were, hopeful of joining forces with the local education a.utbori- tie.s in this latter matter, but at the same time they felt that no Education Committee should take refuge behind that as an excuse far defer- ring the proper consideration of the request that they made for the adoption of the Union sca le of pay. Mr. W. Harris (Merthyr) pointed oat that the cost of living in a town was set by the standard of life of the majority of the workers, and in Merthyr the standard of the miner and the stopl- worker—who had i?eoeiTpd many rises since the war—was a very high one. Mr. Price dwelt upon the serious decrease m the supply of teachers, and pressed for a round- table conference between Union rAiYrec* and the Education Committee in at-riving at & hasi .f settlement. The Chairman (Aid. E. Morrel) in thanking Mr. Underdown for his attendance and addrewa said that it was the unanimous desire of the Committee to maintain the heartiest unanimity between itself and its teaching staffs. There was no doubt that the application now made would receive the best attention of the Commit- tee when it came forward for discussion. As to the round-table conference with the Union re- at which Mr. Underdown had pro- mised to be present, lie could say, speaking for himself, that he would welcome it. He trusted, too, that the N.U.T. would bring pressure to bear upon the Imperial Authorities, because they wanted more money from the National Ex- chequer. They felt that in educating the chil- dren they were training them for Imperial ser- i-lee the, u-liole world over, and not for Merthyr alone, and since this was done they felt that J one an d s there should be a larger amount paid over for educational purposes. The only question put to the deputation was a query by Councillor LI. M. Frances as to why- Mr. Underdown had differentiated between mawe and female teachers. Mr. Underdown replied that he had put for- ward the National Union scales which had been adopted at a conference at which the women 11.a.4i been as fully represented as the men. We do things in a. thoroughly Democratic way. he con- cluded amidst the laughter of the members. Councillor Wilson, in moving a special meet- ing with the representatives, pointed out that a8 a miner he had received an mcrea.se of 50 per cent., and it was true that the steelworkers had received large advances. Sometimes he felt ashamed that they did not support these ap- plications because they knew themselves how difficult it was to exist at the present time. Councillor Marsh moved that a meeting be held to reconsider the question of the teachers' salaries, and this was seconded and carried. Alderman Griffiths and Councillor D. W. J'onft strongly favoured the suggested meeting with the Union representatives in a conference. AW. Griffiths did so because of the greater satisfaction that would be given by it, and also because it would expediate things. and Councillor Jones did so because he objected to being buttonholed. and interviewed, and the whole process of "back door influence." A resolution was thereupon agreed to that. the committee after its special sitting on this ques- tion should appoint a sub-committee to meet tbe teachers' representatives in consultation. Councillor Wilson then asked what had been done in regard to bring pressure to bear in con- nection with the greater grant from the National purse, to which Alderman Rees replied that the Federation at the last meeting had written be the authorities on the question. asking that a deputation should be received, and Mr. Edwairdfc said a Royal Commission was now sitting daat- ing with the whole question.
Steel Trade Wages I SOUTH WALES APPEAL TO LABOUR MINISTER. Sourfeh Wares and Monmouthshire iron and støl workers sliding-scae f committee, meetrng at Cardiff on Saturday, unanimously rejected the offer -4 per oent. wages advance based on 4| per cent, increase in the selling price of tin bans and steel rails for the quarter ended November 30th, and decided to ask the Labour Miniarl0r> (Mr. Jno. Hodge, M.P.) to review the wlwfe facts of the wage question.