I Tom Richardson, I M.P., at Merthyr. SEE PAGE 4
Outlines of Industrial History SEE PAGE 3
Sunday Trading at Merthyr MR. J. A. WILSON'S REPORT. WATCH COMMITTEE RESULT: A "TIE" iN VOTING. w Lhe problem of Sunday Trading at Merthyr ??s again considered by the Watch Committee On Xriday, and some astonishing statements were lU e du.ring the discussion upon it. llr.J. A. Wilson (chief-constable) reporting 01, the Lord's Day Observance Act, 16 16, qaid The number of shops opened on Sundays for s ill the Borough are 260, including 26 licensed refl-o.) "rnent houses. Seventy-one shops are kept y widows and 22 by wives of soldiers or in- £ ahds with no other occupation. Twenty aliens refreshment house licenses. Approximately 150 persons follow their ordinary calling as milk vendors between the hours of 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. on Sundays, and 40 to 50 young persons sell Newspapers. The Statute (a copy of which is attached) is of so wide a character that pro- edings have not been general, but where pro- mentions have taken place they have been con- fined very largely to sales in small s hops. Per- 30 .11S holding refreshment house licenses have a right to supply refreshments for consumption en the premises on Sunday, ancl under the Re- c°5iiniendation of the Liquor Control Board per- sons holding licenses to sell intoxicating liquor are allowed to open their premises for the sale of refreshments and non-intoxicants. From a police point of view I am pleased to say that the majority of licensed victuallers do llot open their houses oil Sunday. The premises of persons holding refreshment houses have been visited at uncertain times on Sundays and weekdays and no cases of disor- derly conduct have been observed. The shops ^rtainly ,(10 a, very large trade on the premises 1n refreshments, and undoubtedly some offences ^committed by supplying cigarettes or sweets tobe consumed off. the premises. The, maximum fine is 5s. and only one penalty be imposed—for any number of acts of tradrng by the same person on the same day. Recent decisions for convicting the buyer of Riding and abetting have been upheld on appeal, ut it appears to me that as only one offence ll be proved in the case of the principal under tilc, Lord's Day Observance A6t, the persons or Person participating in that offence (by buying) !lly can be proceeded against as aiders and bettors, and all persons after the one particular tffnce has been committeed, are not legally lieulo to penalties. No proceedings under the ?ct have been taken at Merthyr for a number ?t years, and a great hardship would be inflicted on some small shopkeepers and persons receiving Wages day to day if uu» 4L:(, k fi^ *Wced, and at the same time the. maximum penalty is not sufficient to deter persons who hold refreshment house licenses. The police of the Borough have since com- mencement of the war foregone their one day's fest in seven in order to cope with the .eliti-a work involved by reason of the depletion of the Force owing to enlistments and the increased duties under new legislation and orders. It is impos- sible to add to the strength of the regular Police i orce under existing circumstances, and in my opinion it is not desirable that detection of c?ences under this old Statute be enforced by ??- ??Mes. Under the Statute there is notlll110' -Ie 1.' f ?' ? P?vent any person laying an. infor- Ti?at?ion ? provided the same is commenced within 4. C S and ? consent in writing of two magis- tra tes or a stipendiary magistrate is obtained." TEXT OF THE ACT. ?' '.vil?on also Presented a copy of tha Lord's ay Observance Act, which read as follows — At the Parliament begun and holden at West- nsterthe 8th day of May, A.D. 1661, in the wxirteenth year of the reign of our most gracious Sovereign, Lord Charles the Second, by the of God of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc. And from thence continued by several proroga- tioris to the 15th day of February, 1676-7. An Aot for the better observation of the Lord's Day, "Irjlllmolll.v called Sunday:- L-;F'oI' the better observation and keeping *?Iy the Lord's Day, commonly called Sunday, ? ?t ena.ct.ed by *he King's most Excellent A' and with the advice and consent of tho Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and of the y°mtnons in this present Parliament assembled, ^■nd by the Authority of the same, That all the a s enacted and in force concerning the obser- vation of the Lord's Day, and repairing to the church thereon; be carefully be put in execu- hon; and L ?t all and every person and persons |c-< i all. on every Lord's Day, apply then H ( + t sanie by » c T '[ties of ieu Mid cruo religion publicly and privately; and that no tradesman, artificer, workman, la- bourer, or other person whatsoever shall do or exercise any worldly labour, business, or work of tiiet t, upon, the Lord's Day or Part thereof (works of necessity and charity only excepted); and that every person being of the age of 14 years or upwards, offending in thej Prenii*?. shall for every such offence forfeit the sum of fivo shillings; and that no person or per- sons -whatsoever shall publicly cry, show forth, or expose to sale any wares, merchandise, fruit, berhs. goods, or chattels whatsoever upon the or s Day, or allv part thereof, upon pain that evcry l>B!'son so offending 'shall forfeit the same goocrij* so cried, or showed forth, or exposed for sale. JI,-And it is further enacted, That no drover, hot-sp-courser, waggoner, butcher, higler, their or any oi taeu- servants, shall travel or come into O! an) shall trav.el or come nlto his or then inn or lodging upon the Lord's Day Or any p&i thereof, upon pain that each and ,Ii(,-b offender shall forfeit twenty shillings for every such ofreBce and that no person or persons with employ, or travel upon the Lord's Day w:th any boat, Avherry, lighter, or barge except it &e upon, extraordinary occasion, to 1.)(" ",lllowed by some justice of the peace of the ^owniy:, or head officer, or some justice of the P*ace of the city, borough, or town corporate where the. fact shall be committed, upon pain that person so offending shall forfeit and lose and that if any person offending in any of the the sum of fiv shillings for every such offence; Premises .shall be thereby convicted before any justice of the peace of the Gounty, or the chief officer or officers, or any justice of the peace of or within any city, borough, or town corporate where the said offence shall be committed, upon his or their view, or confession of the party, or proof of any one or more witnesses by oath (which the said justices, chief officer or officers, is by this Act authorised to administer), the said justice of chief officer or officers shall give war- rant under his or their hand and seal to the constables or churchwardens of the parish or parishes where such offence shall be committed to seize the goods cried, showed forth, or put to sale as aforesaid and to sell the same, and to levy the said other forfeitures or penalties by way of distress and sale of the goods of every such offender distrained, rendering to the said offenders the overplus of the monies raised there- by; and in default of such distress, or in case of insufficiency or inability of party offending be set publicly in the stocks by the space of two hours; and all and singular Vthe forfeitures and penalties aforesaid shall be employed and con- verted to the use of the poor of the parish where the said offences shall be committed; saving only that it shall and may be lawful to and for any such justice mayor, or head officer or officers, out of the said forfeitures or penalties, to re- ward any person or persons shall inform of a ny offence against this Act according to their discretions, so as such reward exceed not the third part of the forfeitures or penalties. III.—Provided that nothing in this Act con- tained shall extend to the prohibiting of dress- ing of meat in families, or dressing or selling of meat in inns, cook shops, or victualling houses, for such as otherwise cannot be provided, nor to the crying or selling of milk before nine of the clock in the morning, or after- four of the clock in the aftarnoon. IV.—Provided also that no person or persons shall be impeached, prosecuted, or molested for any offence before mentioned in this Act, unless he or they be prosecuted for the same within ten days after the offence committed. V.—Provided, and be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that if any person what- soever which shall travel upon the Lord's Day shall then be robbed, that no hundred, or the inhabitants thereof, shall be charged with or answerable for any robbery so committed, but the person or persons so robbed shall be barred from bringing any action for the said robbery. Any Law to the contrary notwithstanding: Nevertheless, the inhabitants of the counties and hundreds (after notice of any such robbery to them or some of them given, or after hue and cry for the same to be brought), shall make or cause to be made fresh suit and pursuit after the offenders with horsemen and footmen, ac- cording to the Statute made in the 27th voar of the Reign of Qeen El?a?-tl. npwj ty-in of for- feiting a> the K.mg's Majesty"'his ileJVs and suc- cessors,- as much money as might have been re- covered against the hundred by the party robbed if this Law had not been made. VI.—Provided also that no person or persons upon the Lord's Day shall serve or execute or cause to be served or executed any writ, process, warrant, order, judgment, or decree (except in cases of treason, felony, or breach of the peace), but that the service of every such writ, process, warrant, order, judgment or decree shall be void to all intents and purposes whatsoever and the person or persons so serving or executing the same shall be as liable to the suit of the party grieved, and to answer damages to him for do- ing thereof, as if he or they had done the same without any writ, process, warrant, order, judg- ment, or decree at all. Mr. D. W. Jones said that the number of re- freshment shops opened in High-street had greatly increased during recent years and a great deal of business was done in them on Sundays. They seemed to be rendezvous for young fellows and" girls who spend an enormous amount of time and money in them. This scandal should be stopped. Mr. Wm. Lewis (Penvdarren) described these ?,?;IIOPs as places of iniquity and gambling." They were open late on Sundays—as long as they could get people to stay in them. Mr. T. Williams: In most towns the Act has proved such a farce that they have dropped it altogether. Mr. F. A. Phillips Now we can convict people for aiding and abetting by purchasing. Mr. Lewis added- that since these shops had been introduced into the district the position was most abominable." Our Sunday is gone worse than any week-day," he said. The Chairman: Yes, it is the time and money spent there. Quite apart from the Sabbatharian question it is very undesirable just now. Mr. Lewis: I think it is good time for us to put our foot down. Otherwise the town will be I in a few years the most immoral town in the country. -1 Llc)3,d sligge?sl.(,, d petitioning Par- Mr. H. M. Lloyd suggested petitioning Par- liament to legislate anew with regard to Sunday closing. The present act was two feeble. Mr. F. A .Phillips: I think if it were once known this committee were taking steps to pro- ceed against aiders and abettors (the purchasers) our object would succeed. The Chairman: ft is no good petitioning Par- liament at the present time. Mr. Llovd said if the Act were enforced milk sellers and people going by train would have to be dealt with. The Chairman pointed out only closing of shops was being discussed. shops ?vas 0?eing diseti?,ed. dealing with the JIT. (Ioaliii, The Chairman: That seems at logical way to set. We can give a. general order. Mr. T. Williams: It is .a dangerous proceeding a general order. Mr. Lewis moved that the Act shouJfl be en- forced and the Chief Constable be instructed to deal with the most flagrant cases as a beginning. Mr. F. A. Phillips seconded, Mr. T. Williams moved an amendment that matters be left alone. Mr. N. F. Hankey (mayor) seconded. The voting was four for the motion (including the chairman) and four for the amendment. A tie was accordingly declared. The Chairman: If there is any doubt, I shall i not give my casting vote and refer the matter to the Coliiit-il.
I Conciliation k Metiios Outgrown. BY RICHARD BENNETTA, Working-cl ass organisation in several indus- tries—the mining industry in which we South Wales miners are more immediately concerned being one of them-liiis reached that stage of development when its policy must be re-con- sidered if we are to continue to make further progress in waging the class-struggle. In fact, we have no choice but to progress in line with the development of the industry itself—or be hurled back to re-traverse that portion of the path of social evolution which we have so far travelled. So the sooner we set to work the better. Economically, a conciliation board is the high- I est attainable expression of the activities of a working-class organisation, with a trade or craft .?l, d o or craft basis. For when all organisation has for its object merely the protection of a certain craft I and not necessarily the overthrow of a system of exploitation, it is compelled to recognise "the just rights of employer and employee." Such an organisation does not object to a system of exploitation. It demands merely a means where- by it can have a voice, in friendly conclave with the employing class, in determining the ex- tent" of that exploitation. The means are es- tablished by the erecting of a Conciliation Board. There its function ends. A conciliation board can be varied or extended (as, e.g., the resolu- tion of the Maesteg district at the last annual conference of the S.W .M..E'. to establish a Na- tional Board"), but such an extension cannot change its function. It still has as its basis the equal right of the capitalist-class and the working-#lass to exist." In other words, it sup- wor- k ii- ct i I ports the present system of exploitation. We are told that, if conciliation does not tend to overthrow capitalism, it at least wrings from the canitalist-dlass higher wages and better conditions of labour for the workers." Concilia- tion never did and never can do any such thing. It has never added a penny to the wage-rate nor to the wa,-e-rate nor shortened the labour time by one hour. It has used up the strength, intelligence, and finance of the working-class organisations in assisting the capitalist-class to retard the progress of the working-class. Let us see how this works out. Say that, e.g., certain concessions have been gained by a working-class organisation—take the Miners' Federation—such as a new wage rate or a reduction in the hours of labour. How and when are they gained? They are gained only— (1) when war has been declared by the workers in the form of a strike—the direct opposite of conciliation- wL"n 0h;1 <vciaraiion is threatened or becomes imminent —cocn con- cessions are granted to avoid such a, ca-tis- trophe." (Or course, the success or non-success of a strike depends upon conditions outside the scope of this article. But let it be remembered that whether or not concessions are gained de- peftds upon the success or non-success of the strike, and not upon conciliation.) After con- cessions have been gained conciliation is again adopted. But for what purpose ? To bind both parties for a certain definite number of years to remain statIonary-an utter impossibility. It implies the absurd notion that industry will cease developing and newer conditions cease arising for any period which meets with the ap- proval of the conciliation board. During the term of an agreement—an agreement based upon terms gained by the opposite of conciliation— the futility of such a. policy is again expressed. The resources of the labour movement are prac- tically used up—for what? Not in gaining better terms for the workers; not in attempting to hasten, the overthrow of a system by which the workers are exploited; but to prevent either the employers to commit any breach of the agreement, or the workers from, breaking out into hostilities to gain any better conditions than the "agreement" provides for. In short, it is a futile and absurd attempt to maintain the in- dustry stationary and to prevent newer condi- tions arising during that period. But the agree- ment terminates and, at the same time, so does conciliation. That good, conciliatory spirit— cone I ei l ifttor.)? spirit-- born of "brotherhood" and "identity of inter- est is thrown overboard and the fight for im- proved conditions is again renewed. But with this difference. The workers' organisation stands practically stripped of its resources, i.e., intellectually, physically, and financially— stripped by the "labour leaders' golden, 'balmy dream of conciliation. But what are we to do? That is precisely what our lodges, districts, con- ference, and executive council should be con- sidering. Conciliation has proved itself, by re- sults, a dismal failure. Moreover, it is "played out." As a suggestion toward a new policy a few observations will not be out of place. But first let us see" where we stand." What is the re- lationship that exists between ourselves and our employers ? Briefly stated, society is divided, I mainly, into two class.oo-the capitalist class and the working class. The capitalist class is that class which owns the means of social produc- tion (tools, machinery, etc.) and employs wage- a o y, wocre- labour. While the working-class—the wage- workers—is that class which, stripped of the means of production, are reduced to selling their labour-power, i.e., their capacity to labour, in order to live. The price of that commodity— la bour-power—7s termed wages. The struggle that ensues between these two classes-—conse- quent upon the means of social production being appropriated by a certain class and used in their own particular class interest—is manifested by the capitalist class, on their, part, striving to maintain the domination over the working-class which the ownership of the means .of production places in its hands. On the part of the working- class it-is-manifested by ltsstriving. to seize the- means of production and using them in the com- mon interest. Thus freeing themselves from the domination of the capitalist-class. Consequently, while such a relationship exists, we must free ourselves of all notions of conciliation. The! struggle will continue until either the working- chrss is totally subjugated-or the capitalist-class —'as a class—is entirely abolished. — v- o Proceeding from this knowledge we must or- ganise upon industrial lines. That is, the basis, of organisation must be industry instead of trade or craft. The object is not to "protect" the industry—but to seize it. This method of or- ganisation to be adopted in all industries, until the whole working class is organised on an indus-j trial basis. These industrial unions can then be linkel up for common action. In the mean- time draw up a set of demands, the magnitude of which should correspond with what our or- ganisation as it now stands is capable of en- forcing. Lav them before our employers when- ever they can least bear a stoppage. But they are not for the purpose of "negotiation" or modification." Neither are they for the pur- pose of impressing the Board of Trade repre- sentatives with the seriousness of the "situa- tion. Say to our employers there are our terms. They have already been negotiated upon and modified" to an absolute minimum. W e make no agreement ranging over a term of yea rs. We agree to abide by them only so long as it will take us to get our house in order to demand more. Our demand will not be based upon tae increased selling price, but calculated to take a slice from your profit until such time when we are sufficiently organised to relieve you of the burden and worry of the means of pro- flu en on themselves.
I A Hopefu! Sign STRONG CALL FOR TECHNICAL EDU8A- TION IN WALES. -j The long overdue question of proper technical education for Merthyr was raised by Councillor D. W, ? at Monday's meeting of the local Education Authority, when he urged that steps should be taken to present opportunities to Mer- thyr's young people that would fit them to take positions of trust in the impetus which it was generally admitted that the manufacture of steel and machinery would receive at the con- clusion of this war. Councillor Owen supported Councillor Jones and hoped that the development of technical education would not be restricted to Merthvr but would be general throughout the whole country. The question had received considera- tion in prewar days but had been dropped on account of the war, but, in his opinion, it was one which should be re-taken up and continued at once. Councillor Alai-sh said that the scheme had got so far as considering a site at Cyfarthfa and de- putations had been appointed to visit centres of technical education. Councillor Jone* was s^ongly of opHinion hnt t]le scheme waf> kjrw>, 8 would be forthcomhig from loc?I?'??P?, *uiu others, and urged that Councillor Marsh and the Director should make the visit of inspection to Leeds, which was dropped on account of the war. The committee ought to make a start, and they could not do that without a schemer He was whole-heartedlv in support of a properly equipped school of engineering. (Cheers ) The Chairman (Councillor E, Morrel): We are all in favour of that. The Director of Education (Mr. Rhys Elias): You cannot hope to do anything after the war is over unless you prepare your way now. We ought to do something! All the other county boroughs in Wales are getting far ahead of i-ls. Swansea received a gift of £ 10,000 the other day to assist the development of their technical course. I wish we could have, a similar wind- f all. Coun,cilloi- D, W- Jones: We mtiit help our- It was ultimately agreed to call a meetino"- to spur on the scheme collateral with Oyfarthfa. The question of a whole time instructor in mining qi.s now on the tapis.
Women's Labour League Conference. IMPORTANT RESOLUTIONS FOR MAN- CHESTER GATHERING. The eleventh annual conference of the Woiii(-n's La l )oiit* League Women's Lahour League will be held at Caxton Hall, Salford, Manchester, on Monday, January 22nd, the day^before the Labour Party Confer- ence opens. The Final Agenda of the confer- ence, which is just issued, contains a number of resolutions of the first importance to the work- ing women of this country. First on the list co.iii. -es the? Cost )f L i viii, comes trie Cost of Living, on which no less than twelve branches have submitted resolutions, de- manding Government action to reduce the cost of the necessaries of life. Education holds the second place, and the resolutions coves a com- plete educational programme, including the gradual raising of the school age to 16, and the provision of half-time education up to 18 years. The agenda also deals with Adult Suffrage. Women's Employment, and many other topics. The conference will be followed by a public meeting at 7.30 p.m., at which Mrs. Annot Ro- binson, of Manchester, will be in the chair, and the speakers will include Mr. W. C. Anderson M.P., Mr. J. R. dynes, M.P., and Dr. Ethel Bentham.
Socialism for Pacifists FENNER BROCKWAY'S NEW BOOK. Mr. A. Fenner Brockway, editor of The La- hour Leader," now undergoing a term of impri- sonment as a, conscientious objector at Worm- wood Scrubbs, wrote, whilst awaiting arrest, an interesting and mforinative act-ouut of the. vela- | tions of Socialism to the Pacifist movement. The book win t>e published shortly by the National Labour Press, under the title" of Socialism for Pacifists," and will be sold at the price of six- pence. Many Pacifists who have come into contact with Socialism through their co-operation with Sosialist comrades in the present Pacifist move- ment will find this book of extraordinary value in leading them to a better understanding of the close relations between Socialism and Paci- fism.
I The Theatre Royal. "Don't Crush," which is packing the Royal from gods to circle this week is one of those productions—unfortunately all too rare—that create a very real desire for more, and that makes one regret that the convenient two houses a night principle was ever evolved. Pretty, witty and merry it is all that revue is at its best; its dialogue sparkles as only the dialogues of the countrymen of this one's author's dia- logues sparkle—like a first-class vintage of cham- pagne. I do not remember having 'before seen any of Sydney Dooley's matter produced, but if this is a fair sample of his work then I shall certainly keep my eyes open for any more that is running in the provinces. It should be well worth it. I am not sure whether Dooley is re- sponsible for the lyrics as well as the dialogue; and if he is then he is easily the most pro- mising of our younger writers, for they trip along like a sweet poem from the pen of a Ten- nyson or Longfellow—easy, uplifting, catchy. But, after all, the book is but the raw material on which the artistes have to work, and good as it is in this case it is not one whit too good for the company that fe handling it. It is not placing too high a merit on the company to place it with the O'mara, Cinema Star, Gold- man Ltd., and that vaudeville bill that fea- tured Charles Mott, as one of the five veiy best bills that Merthyr has ever seen. It is a revue of sunshine and laughter—hearty, health-giving, gloom-removing laughter; and It Is with sincere pleasure that I oan praise Mr. Rea for having beaten the Cardiff people in his bid for the se- cond Welsh week of "Don't Crush." "Don't Crush has been fortunate in having such a capable man as Jack Gallagher to handle the principle comedy part. Jack Gallagher is so good a comedian that he recalled forcibly to my mind the times I have seen Kitchen at his best, and yet there was something entirely distinct in his work; something not Kitchenesque, but pure Gallagher that mada him all the more enjoyable. The worst revue ever written would go" with The worst rei,ue ever wri him in it; with a really good one such aa this, it is easy to understand how the Moss Empires records were broken so consistently during its tour. Fanny Wallace is another of the distinguished company, full of charming lightness and unobjectionable fun. She is an ideal comedienne; Ken Barton and Sid Dee are also doing excellent work in the comedy side. Lellie Ansell is one of the most captivating leading ladies that ever tripped lightly through revue-lilting, lusciotte lyrics. She is as light as thistle down, and as sweetly vocal as a grand con- cert principal. Betty May and John Goodier are both dese^^g ^'iail that I could say oi tftem .mfH + h.!I.t ues»-v < c, *>'>t "1- presses. My strongest advice to all my readers is pay extra doors at the Royal, get a good seat, and you will call me a benefactor. Next week that plum pudding revue of revueg is coming-" Nearlv Through." It is a distinc- tive piece of work, quite apart from Don't Crush," but equally good in a separate way. Like "Don't Crush," it is ideally caste from amongst the London shows. Its principals in- clude Harry Dean and Harry Matto, the cele- brated "fool and "fop" comedians; that bewitching soubrette, Madge Furnival; charm- ing May Shepherd, one of the daintiest dancers in the priesthood of Terpsichore; and golden- voiced Norman Granville, the baritone, as well as Bertie West, Kem Black, Fred Dale, Evelyn Davies and Madge Merry, together with ft bustling chorus of real beauties with ears sensi- tive to discord, and voices nicely attuned in har- mony. "Nearly Through" is said to be the best dressed, best staged, chic-est revue that has ever reviewed the revues, or packed the houses in the principal towns. I PLATGOBR.
Aberdare's Protest. I NEW ORDER'S DEFECTS AND A LAND- LORD'S CHARGE. Aberdare District Council on Monday (Mr. J. O. George presiding) heard a report from Mr-. George Powell on negotiations for allotments in the district. In some cases, said Mr. Powell, landlords were dealing direct with the tenants, and at Llwydcoed, where they were dealing with sympathetic landlords, they hoped to be able to meet demands for thirty allotments. Mr. A. P. Jones ,of the Bute Estate, had extended sym- pathetic co-operation in the matter. The co- operation of landlord and tenant, Mr. Powell added, was necessary in order io- obtain allot- ments, and where these conditions did not exist the new Order of the Board of Agriculture was powerless to help them. In conjunction with the clerk he had addressed a letter to the board pointing out this fact, and explaining that, see- ing there was not a yard of unoccupied land in the district, the Order did not in any way assist them. < Mr. Powell further stated that powers ought to be enjoyed by local bodies, in cases where set- I tlement by arrangement between the parties was not arrived at, whereby the matter would be dealt with by arbitration, and in a more simple, way than was the case under the Lands Clause Acts to-day. j Mr. Powell's report was confirmed, and a voto of thanks accorded him for his valuable services. A small committee was appointed to proceed with the letting of allotments. It transpired that a local landlord was making a charge of £ 10 an acre for land for allotments, and it was agreed, on the motion of Mr. Illtvd Hopkins, seconded by Mr. Idwal Thomas, that II a communication be addressed to the Board of Agriculture pointing out these facts and the treatment accoided the council by the landlord I in question, further stating that unless he was I prepared to take a more reasonable attitude to- wards the council steps might be taken to com- mandeer the land.
I FW* MP LP THOSE WHO HELP J YOUR PAPER!