MERTHYR I DEATH OF ME. JOHN REES.-The death oc- Cfurred at his residence (Arosfa, the Grove, M-eirtbyi, on Friday, of Mr John Rees, building inspector under the Merthyr Corporation for the last 20 years. The deceased, who was ab- out 73 years of age, was very well known in the borough, having been in business as a builder at Treharris prior to his appointment under the Corporation. SEDITIOUS PAMPHLETS.—Major F. T. James, the military representative for the Merthyr ■area called attentat at Monday s meeting of the Council to reports he had received that seditious pamphlets had been distributed iJa S the district. anions other places at Heolgerrig, Councilor D. W. Mones, Chairman of the Watch Committee, said he believed the Chief Constable was thoroughly alive to the work, and had been in communication with the offi- ^als at Whitehall on numerous occasions. — No action was taken. MERTHYR EXEMPTIONS- At the Merthyr Tri- MERTHYR EXEMPTIONS.—At the Merthyr Tr? ?unal on Monday William Augustus Col- bourne a dental assistant, who was granted total exemption, stated that he was one of five 'brothers, four of whom had been in the Army. and two of whom had been killed. His em- plover. Captain Musgiove, had been invalided home, and without applicant the business would have to be closed.—Mr J. S. Simons, who appeared on behalf of William Toomey, wholesale fish dealer, of Pontmorlals, stated that of eight so iis-two oi whom were adopted -—seven were with the amiy. Exemption was granted. Jolin Pleivs. one of the best- known lawyers on the South Wales Circuit, died on Saturday night at his residence, The Cottage, Gwaelodvgart-h, after having been con- fine-el to his bed for some days. Mr Plews, who was about 90 yeais of age, was a native -of Yorkshire. He came to Merthyr in 1860 and entered into partnership with 'Mr W. Si- mons, father of Mr F. S. Simons. This conti- nued until 1891, when Mr Plews was called to the Bar at the Inner lempie. He was a Free- mason, having been initiated into the Loyal Cambrian Lodge ill IS60. At one time the -deceased was the Higjl Constable for the dist- J'id, and for many years he was a J.P. for ''Glamorgan and Deputy-Stipendiary for Mer- thyr. He was a life governor of the Merthyr Hospital and Chairman of the Executive Board ft that institution. THE SOCIALIST SpTRIT Our rates have in- Our i,,ates bane I n- creased alarmingly, and I believe Merthyr will start this year as the town with the highest rate in tJe country," remarked Alder- man William Lewis, of Treharris, at a meeting If}f the Merthyr Corporation on Monday, the Mayor (Conn. John Harpur) presiding. Aid. Lewis added that the rates were 11/5 in the £ They were increasing their rates and were doing nothing to economise,. but proposed ad- opting a resolution to purchase instruments for the Cyfarthfa and Municipal Band am- ounting to £ 21 15s 3d. He moved tkat the minute be not adopted. The committee's report was adopted, Alderman Lewis' amendment re- ceiving no seconder, whereupon the Alderman exclaimed, "It's a scandal the way we incur unnecessary expenditure. The rates will soon 'be 241- in the £ with the Socialistic spirit that is going on here." (Laughtei.) L -——— RAUA TO THE FLA?.—It is particularly de- oiled thai old members of the I.L.P. will rally to the suppefrt of the branch during the, trying period through which we are passing. Already the calls of military service have de- pleted our ranks, and the new all-round Com- pulsion Bill imposes further handicaps wbiclr -can only be overcome through the loyalty of those members who are outside its provisions—- either on grounds of age. physical unfitness or 'engagement in work of national importance. MUNICIPAL BAND PERFORMANCE.—The open- air band performances were re-commenced in Thomas town Park last night (Thursday) un- der the baton of A. R. V. Lavernock (late bandmaster of the Garneronians). The Municipal Band was never in better musical, condition than now; and the programmes have been bunded with a true musicianly spirit, without going beyond the ability of the people -to follow them. Offenbach. Tieke. Kela •' Bela, Corbin and Brewer were all represeinted in last night's programme, respecting which we hope to have twoiL'e to say next week.
Esperanto. Lingvo helpa lnternacia estas absolute ne- i oesa. La tuta tero estas nun kiel granda tioro 13abø],a. La rilatoj inter la homoj de la div- ersaj nacioj ne estas facila, ec je 180 tempo de paco. Rimedo per kompreno reciproka estas necesa. La lingvo Esperanta perfekte taugas por tiu celo. Oar di rimarkas" kiel piu lingvo estas simpla kaj facila. Tamen multaj per- sonaj ekzistas, kiuj pensas, ke tio ne estas vera. Nenin estas pli blinda, ol tiu, kiu ne volas vidi; neniu estas pli surda ol tiu kiu ne Tolas audi. Pli rigardu kaj attentu, ili ausk- ultn ka.j legu kaj iii konstatos haMau, ke ni estas pravaj kiam ni diras. ke nenia na- tnra lingvo estas pli facila kaj' regula ol Espe- ranto. EL ESPERANTO FOR THE MILLION. 'WBCTrilrtirtH
Abercynon Objectors Fined. The Jhree last cases of court-martial of the five Abercynon Comrades were heard at Cardiff on Wednesday. They were those in which Bethuel W. Morgan, Percy Thomas Kendall, and Idwal Williams were charged with refus- ing to obey the commands of their superior officers. The evidence was substantially 'What had been offered in the previous cases. The sentences will be made known later.
CORRESPONDENCE. I THE MISSIONARY PEST. I (To the Editor of the PIONEER.) I Sir, I wish to draw the notice of the public of Merthyr Vale, through the medium of your valuable paper, to the missionary pest. I have answered "the knocks of children at the door a score of times within the last few weeks, to be greeted with. Please will you put some- thing on the missionary card?" I do not question the good work that is done by the society, but it ought to be left aside. at any rate, for the period of war. People have got enough to do to provide for the various ne- cessaries of life for themselves and families. In my opinion we do not want to send mission- aries at this period to foreign lands; we have get enough to do to put our own house in order first, and to preach the Gospel of Peace and Goodwill, not hate as is being done. Then if we succeed in doing this, we will accomplish something to be proud of.—Yours, etc., THOMAS LLOYD. I sit ■
Emrys Hughes on Trial. I "YOU WILL HAVE HELL AT THE I DEPOT." I CAPT. CREMLYN AND "FANATtCS." I The General Court-Martial on the five Aber- cynon Conscientious Objectors was resumed at the Cardiff Depot on Tuesday, when Emrys Hughes was charged with refusing to obey the orders of his superior officers; and furthermore with using threatening language. The president of the court was Major A. B. Mosloy (Western Cavalry Depot), and sitting with him were Captain L. S. B. Tristram (Welsh Depot) and Captain M. P. R. Oakes (Western Cavalry Depot). The prosecutor was Captain J. W. Cremlyn (21st Welsh). Mr Edward Roberts, Dowlais, defended, Major Reade, of the Headquarters Recruit- ing Staff at Cardiff, gave evidence to the effect that on April 20 prisoner, when ordered to strip for medical examination, refused to do so. Major Lucas and Colonel Cocks, R.A.M.C, T,I' "eid to induce him to strip, but he still re- fused. Sergeant-Maj or Ashton, of the Headquarters Recruiting Staff, Cardiff, gave corroborative evidence. Prisoner first of all refused to obey witness's order to strip, and when he refused witness sent for Major Reade. who again gave the order, and again prisoner refused. On Tuesday, April 25, prisoner was taken to the recruiting office, and again refused to strip, and when taken to the attestation room re- fused to sign his attestation papers; when leaving the recruiting office prisoner turned to witness in a threatening manner and said, "All right. sergeant-major, if. "I can't do you in, someone else will for me. Mr Roberts pressed witness as to how he could account for prisoner threatening him. Did you say, I hope you will be shot"? Witness: No, sir. Mr Roberts: It was an extraordinary threat for prisoner to make to you for nothing at all. Can. you not suggest a reason P Witness: Unless he held me responsible for the position he was in. Serg"eant T. Hughes said he heard the pri- soner threaten Sergeant-Major Ashton. At this point Mr Roberts urged that no evidence was forthcoming that prisoner was attached to a force actually engaged in ope- rations against the enemy. The President: But he belongs to the Welsh Regiment, which is on active service. Captain Oremlyn submitted, in reply. that anybody in training in this country was on active service. La,tice-C,orporal A. Hooper gave corroborat- ive evidence with regard to the alleged threat. By Prisoner: He did not hear Ashton say, "You ought to be shot." Prisoner, giving evidence, sad that in civil life lie was a schoolmaster, and son of a Non- conformist minister. He was a Socialist, a member of the I.L.P., and Secretary of the Aberdare Valley No-Conscription Fellowship. Proceeding, witness said: Together with Smith Morgan and Kendall I was taken to the recruiting office. The man I have since recognised as Sergeant-Maor Ashton called our names. We said Here,* whereupon Ash- ton said, 'We'll teach you to say Here, sir,' you Proceeding, witness said they were then taken upstairs to the stripping- room. and courteously gave naanes, addresses and particulars, which were taken. Thev were then taken to the examination room and ordered to strip. They refused,' whereupon Ashton described them as swine." Sev- eral times Ashton used indecent language, and urged on several private soldiers in the same way. One of these soldiers said to Smith, "Before God, if there were no one else present I would tear you limb from limb." Major Lucas was brought, and the situation explained to him. "He told me," added wit- ness, You wiH have hell at the depot, and be fed on bread and water.' A civilian cilerk also insulted them, They were taken to the doctors, who were courteous. Major Lucas was present there, and there he was courte- ous. The doctor said that what had been made to them was a request and not a com- mand, Witness said he refused to obey milit- ary orders. The doctor said "You know you are liable to be shot," and witness replied "You can bring your firing party." Sub- sequently they were escorted by 16 men with fixed bayonets to the depot, where, apart from missing my watch," they had been treated civ illy and courteously. Maj or Tristram: Your watch is no doubt be- ing kept safely in the guard room. Witness No, sir; the sergeant of the guard has not got it, it is missing. <Sa ubsequently they were again taken to the recruiting office, and as they were leaving Ash- ton remarked, "I hope you'll be shot," and witness replied, "We'll meet again." I reply to Captain Cremlyn, witness denied havmg mad use of the expression alleged by SQ ergeant-Major Ashton. Private Percy Taane,; Kendall, who is also awaiting trial at the Cardiff Depot, spoke of tile I aa,lgu.a.ge used by 8()trgecnt-Major Ash- ton on April 20. Ashton said, "Y ou're b- welkin the army now and will have to say 811', 1) "W ien they were "oeing marched off towards the barracks Sergeant-Maj or Ashton said to the prisoners, Vl hope you will be shot." To this prisoner replied "Never mind we will meet again. I ever mind': we Private Bethuel William Morgan, another consicientious objector awaiting trial, gave corroborative evidence. In his address to the Court, prisoner fully admitted disobeying the commands of the mili- tary. It was one of the inevitable results of conscription. He knew he was in a minority, and in a minority that was very unpopular. Referring to the charge, of using threatening language, he denied it absolutely. Sergeant- Major Ashton, he said, used violent language throughout, and the whole atmosphere of the recruiting office was one of bullying and cow- ardice. The stripping room was a den of bullies, blackguards and liars. Captain Cremlyn said no matter how sincere or honest the prisoner might be, these people could not be allowed to resist the, law, because history showed that revolutions were easier to promote than contrel, and that revolutions had nearly always been promoted by a fanati- cal people who believed that they had a duty to perform. Evidence of character having been given, the court was closed. The finding of the Court will be promulgated in due course.
Our Appeal for Navvy Pat. I s. d. Pioneer 2 6 Lewis Wat-ken (Ystradgynlais) 1 0 A. M., Cflydach 1 0 Tonyrerail Pioneer League 1 0 Bargoed Pioneer Committee 6 5 1111
I Food Reform. I AN ECHO OF THE CONFERENCE. I I have been much impressed lately by articles appearing in the "Labour Leader" and else- where, on diet. I have been informed in the articles tha* all my life, my brain has been dulled and my body weakened by eating the wong food in the wrong way at the wrong time. It was very awful to me to reflect that I had been so wicked, and I longed to begin the new diet which should clear my brain and make me more useful and energetic than I had ever been before. I was anxious to get to the fountain head as it were, and- try the really genuine article at a real food reform establishment. My golden opportunity came at the Newcastle Confer- ence. At lunch time we all trooped gaily to the elaborately decorated restaurant which contained the new vegetarian dishes. The decorations certainly were all that could be desired—painted ceilings, oaken alcoves, and a presiding genius in the shape of a man at- tired in a kind of blue nightdress. On the menu instructions were printed: "It is desirable to take hard foods, such as biscuits, with soft foods in order to ensure correct salivation." People as a rule are tempted to eat too much of vegetarian foods." This last was quite un- necessary, as t here was no possible chance of anyone eating too much in that particular place. Half an hour after we got in we stilil waited patiently, and the painted ceiling had begun to pall. Then the Editor of the "Labour Lea- der" carefully wrote down orders and marched up to the counter; returning, he said loftily, I have ordered the things." We still waited: nothing happened. Then the Chairman of the No-Conscription Fellowship arose in his wrath to see justice done. He also walked up to the counter and remained so long that we thought the people had gone back on their vegetarian iirincipleR and cooked HIM. However, he eventually returned, bearing four apptes and a plate of penny cakes. Five minutes before the time of the re-assembling of Conference we managed to obtain three tomato omellettes between four of vis. Thus ended my first experience as a food reformer. At present I am still clogging my brain by eating ordinary things; but one ought to say in justice to him of the night- gown. that it was Bank Holidav, and all res- taurants were supposed to be shut. I am still anxious to try the new diet. A DELEGATE. I
South Wales Conscientious Objectors. THEIR POSITION UNDER THE MILITARY NOTE FROM EMRYS HUGHES. The following summary of the South Wales Conscientious Objectors has been prepared by the Wales Division of the N.C.F. for us, and is complete up to the 10th inst. We have had a letter card this week from Emrys Hughes, in which he mentions that the court-martiaj in the ease of himself and his Abercynon comrades was further postponed on Saturday until Tues- day. He says: The five of us were charged yesterday (Saturday), but we were not all tried together. We are to be tried separately. Smith was on yesterday; Morgan, Kendall, myself and Idwal Williams- follow in i-otatio-i. I am also charged with threatening Sergeant- Major Ashton. The Press and relatives are admitted. There seems plenty of opportu- nity for propaganda speeches." George Neighbour. Aberdare Valley, Kin- met Park, Abergele, undergoing 18 days field punishment 2nd class. W. Rees and Stanley Minor: Aberdare Valley Branch; Released, medically unfit. Hugh Powell and Tom Griffiths: Aberdare Valley; accepted Home Service. Emrys Hughes, Gwilym Smith, Beth Mor- gan and Percy Kendall: Aberdare Valley; Cardiff Barracks, Welsh Regt. Depot; court- martial fixed for 6/5/16 (postponed). will be tried 13/5/16 probably. Idwal Williams: Tonyrefail; Cardiff Bar- racks. Welsh Regiment Depot; awaiting court-martral, plobahly 13/5 J 16. G. Dardis, C. James, R. James, E. James (Risca); P. Pope, A. Rudall, A. J. Hewin- son, H J. Davies, B. G. Da vies D Herbert (Newport); 1. Shepherd, J. Shepherd, and W. Jones (Pontypridd); Kinmel Park Camp, Abergele; Transferred 10/5/16 from Garrison Artllery Barracks, Cardiff, to Kinmel Park Camp, Abergele. W. J. Jenkins (Caerphilly), Bargoed Branch; Garrison Artillery Depot, Cardiff; will probably be sent to KinmeJ Park, Aber- gele. G. Reynolds, Newport arrested, fined. handed over to military authorities at New- port, but no further information yet.
Glais Notes. cc inspector for an Hour. I The performance of the operetta, An In- spector for an Hour," recently described in these colums, at the Clydach Public Hall by the Glais Juvenile Choir, was a great succcess. The hall was crowded, and nothing but plea- sure and praise for the ability of the perfor- mers was heard at the close. The procee ds were in aid of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Fund. "Jack Martin." I A report performance of the Welsh drama, "Jack Martin," by the Rev. J. T. Jones, of Glais, was given at St. Paul's Church on Sat- urday last, in aid of Mr James Griffiths, Cefngai th Road, who has been ill for many years. The following distinguished themselves In the pa,rts:-Mssrs J. Williams, P. Gethin, Isaac Powell, David Griffiths and Miss Gwen Morgan. The promoters were well satisfied with the success. An Interesting Wedding. I I- I An interesting wedding of much local inter- est was celebrated at the Swansea Register Of- fice n Saturday last, when the contracting par- ties were Mr Arthur Rees, Bryncelyn, Glais, and Miss Maud Davies, Graig Afin Par. Mr- Idris Beynon was the best man. The I.L.P. and Peace. I The Branch meeting of the I.L.P. on Sunday afternoon last devoted itself to aconsideration of the best means of forwarding the Memorial in favour of a Peace MemoriaJ being raised in connection with The Peace Negotiation Com- mittee," which has lately boen founded. It was decided to work through the Trade Un- ions, since the Christian Churches had lost their ideal and become recruiting stations ra- ther than the temples of a Gospel of Peace.
Bargoed and District Trades and Labour Council. C.W.S. BANKING EXPLAINED. I The monthly meeting of the Bargoed Trades and Labour Council took place, on Thursday week in the I.L.P. Rooms, and a lengthy ag- enda was gone through. Arising out of the minutes was a reply from the Gelligaer Urban District Council to this Council's correspondence re the dismissal of the Clerk of Works at Brithdir Cemetery, and the state of the roads and pavements.—The re- ply not being satisfactory. the Secretary was instructed to send another letter. School Age of Children. This matter was fully discussed, and Mr Tom Williams, delegate from Britannia Lodge, complained of children under six years of age being sent back home from school, pointing out that children were safer in school than run- ning about the streets. Mr Walter Lewis emphasised this point, and went further into the matter of lads leaving school at 13 years of age. In his opinion it was a great mistake and a serious drawback to the health of the boys. He said he would rather see the fathers working overtime than their boys being sent to the pits at so early an age. The Secretary was instructed to get in com- munication with the Glamorgan Education Committee on the matter, asking that an in- terview be granted to a deputation from the Coi-inell-tlio deputation consisting of three members: Messrs Walter Lewis, W. T. Lloyd, OpeT.'at'tvo Bricldaycrsl- Society (Chairman of the Council), and Tom Williams (Britanhia Lodge). Corresponcfence was read from the East Gla- morgan Labour Party confirming the date of the public meeting to be held on Monday, May 22, in the Workmen's Institute, when Mr Al- fred Onions, supported by Mr T. J, Mardy Jones, will deliver an address. The fifth cardinal point of the Union of De- mocratic Control was submitted to the meet- ing, and heartily endorsed. It reads as fol- lows:—That the European conflict shall not be continued by economic war after the military operations have ceased, and that British policy shall 'be directed towards promoting free com- mercial intercourse between all nations and the preservation and extension of the principle of the open door."—A local branch of the Un- ion of Democratic Control has been started, and the Council has decided in future to af- filiate through the branch instead of directly with headquarters. Absentees. I The Chairman pointed out that three Unions had not been represented at the last two mee- tings, and the Secretary was instructed to write the different Secretaries asking for their reasons. Advanced Price of Foodstuffs. I A committee of three was appointed to con- sider local prices with prices in other places, viz. Messrs T. D. Matthews. T. Meredith and I Jasper Owen C.W.S. Banking. I Mr R. Gold, of New Tredegar, attended by request to explain the C. W .S. Banking Sys- tem. He told the meeting, during the course of his remarks, that on deposits of £ 50 and over which mere made for at least 12 months, and subject to three months' notice of with- drawal, the O. W.S. Bank paid 4 per cent int- erest. Smaller deposits of from t5, and su b- ject to two weeks' notice of withdrawal, were, subject to Si per cent interest. Any organisa- tion desiring to do so could open a current account with the O.W.s. Bank. There was no branch in South Wales at present, but Lloyds Bank, Limited, were the local agents for them; and any deposits for the C. W .S. could be paid into Lloyds Bank. C.W.S. che- ques could be cashed at any bank; but any petty cash could be drawn from any Co-oper- ative Society branch for local purposes. There, was a small charge made for working ac- counts, but 2-21 per cent interest was paid on credit balances, also all credit balances would rank for dividend. In case of need an over- draft can be/ arranged, for which 3 per cent interest was charged.—In reply to questions, Mr Gold said he thought that if Trades Unions made use of the C.W.S. Bank, it would be possible to establish local branches. Tunnelling. I Mr Walter Lewis explained the position in regatrd to the tunnelling. After giving an ac- count of the misunderstandings that had taken place at the Colliery Tribunal, and how the action of that Tribunal had been nullified by the Home Office, he told us that owing to the action of the M.F.G.B. that the maximum pay for skilled men was 6/- per day for 7 days per week and the minimum 2/2 per day, the usual army separation allowance to be paid in addition. During his further remarks, he explained at great length the need of highly skilled men, and the nerve-racking and mono- tonous nature of the work. He said that aftei, the war the soldiers' pay, particularly that of the infantry man, would have to receive at- tention. He could not understand why a sol- tention. He could not understand why a soldiers, rate of pay had remained stationary from time immemorial. New Pensions Committee. I Coun. John Jones reported thai a new Pensions Committee would shortly take over the work of paying soldiers' allowances and pensions. The Bargoed and District quota on this Committee would be as fallows —Trades Council, 2 members; Women's Labour League 1; Rhymney Iron Company, 1; Powell Duffryn Company, 1; Labour Exchange, 1. It was agreed to appoint the Council representatives at a special meeting to be keld on Thursday (yesterda-y).
SMALL PREPAID ADVERTISEMENTS. One In- Three In- Six In- sertion. sertions. sertions. s. d. 8. d. B- & 20 words 0 6 1 0 1 9 0 words 0 9 1 6 2 9 i- 0 9 1 6 2 9 .10 words 1 0 2 0 3 6 40 words 1 3 2 6 4 6 60 words 1 6 3 0 5 6 In all c ses the Name and Address are coltiated as part of the Advertisement. These prices apply only to Advertisements ordered for consecutive insertions and which are prepaid. Trade Advertisements are inserted under the Heading Personal at 9d. per line. All Advertisements should be posted to the Office on or oefore Monday. Medical. 64- PAGE BOOK ABOUT HERBS AND Ul" for one. HOW TO USE THEM, post free. Send for one. TRIMNELL, THE HERBALIST, 144 RICHMOND ROAD, CARDIFF. Established 1879. Literary. tjNITARIAN PAMPHLETS on "The Bible," I "Heaven,' and Hell," given post free. Miss BARMBY. Mount Plea&ant, Sidmouth A N Educative Percentage Book for Miners Aand Colliery Clerks, post free 5d. E. EVANS, 38 Church Street, Penydarren, Merthyr. M jcellaneQn." A STROLOGY. Life events, changes, for- tunate days, business success, matri- mony two years' future added; send birth date, 1/- P.O. PRoF. GOULD, The Nook," Heathfield Road, Cardiff. A letter was read from the Pontypridd Tra-des and Labour Council asking our sup- port in protesting against the Government's refusal to grant adequate pensions to our dis- abled soldiers on theuu- discharge from tbo army, and thereby making them dependent on charity.—It was agreed to support the letter. fiKiardians' Election. It was agreed to take steps to nominate two members for the Merthyr Board of Guar- dians-one for Bargoed in place of Miss Hettie Jones, and one for Tirphil Ward. The appointment to take place at the special meet- mg held on Thursday, May 18, at the Work- men's Institute.
Blackwood Educational Class. The above class held its usual weekly meot- ing on Tuesday, when Mr Sydney Jones an- nounced as the subject of his lecture "England Before the Nerman Conquest." He first of all described Britain prior to the Roman Invasion, when the country was in a wild un- cultivated stitte the manners of the people rough and uncouth; their customs weird and barbaric in the extreme; and the*- social stat- us in a crude elemental-v state. In the midst of all this barbarity we find the Romans as- cending on the land and introducing their su- perior education and scientific knowledge everywhere. They were the cause of the Britons advancing intellectually, morally and .physic- ally. They taught them to till the land after the Roman fashion, to build magnificent roads, gymnasiums, baths and mightv edifices wherein to worship the gods of the Roman religion. The outcome of all this was that the Britons acquired a social status far superior to that which had obtained prior to the Roman In- vasion. Industries were formed; trades were started with other lands, while the whole coun- try gradually underwent a transformation. But by-and-bye there arose an outcry that they must have a different form of government to that which was prevalent just then. They must have a king to rule them all, said one lot; while another lot said that they should have a king to rule over a part of the coun- try here, and another ruler there. Anyway, these kings were instituted as the most pow- erful men in the land. They were given do- solute control. The result of this was that they began to lavish favours upon certain fav- ourites whom they chose. They made them lords or barons over certain villages, and gave them castles to live in. To keep up their households in a manner befitting their ranks, they (the lords) imposed exorbitant taxes upon the vil- lagers. These the latter were supposed to payor be made into serfs to serve in the house- holds of the lords. The masses bore this quietly for some time, but gradually they be- gan to be weighted with a sense of their op- pression, and to i-Is;o in indignation against their exploiters. Into this arrived William of Normandy who. as recorded in official histoi<y, conquered Harold at Hastings and instituted Norman rule in England. There followed the usual discuss-ion, which was indulged in with great zeal by the members Applications for membership should be ad- dressed to the Secretary—Mr J. T. Oakley, 45 Williams Street, Blackwood, Mon.
ARE WE DOING YOUR PRINTING ? We have the most modern equipment, and goed work is quickly turned out by Trade Unionists at reasonable rates. NOTE THE ADDRESS THE (LABOUR PIONEER PRESS Williams' Square*] Merthyr Tydfil.
r" II "_II ￼ WHEN REQUIRING "| J Is SUITS, COSTUMES, or GENERAL DAPERY | • SEND A POST CARD TO Thomas St., Z ￼ Olk 28 Thomas St., JOHN BARR I ￼ AND A RPRESENTATIVE WILL CALL. J I Cash or instalment System. I| i SUITS and COSTUMES to Measure a Speciality I