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" Teachers and the War."

Peace By Negotiation. I

" Is Democracy Possible?"


Is Democracy Possible?" RAMSAY MACDONALD'S ARTICLE IN THE "I REVIEW." The new number of the quarterly "Socialist Review" is a really valuable International num- ber. George Gothem, member of the Ger- man Reichstag, writes on Armaments after the War Dr. Rudolph Broda, of Austria, the' Editor of Documents du Progress," and whose property in Austria has just been confis- oated writes on War and Democracy while Emil Stang, a Norwegian Socialist Jur- is t of high repute, deals with the subject of "Peace and International Law. The In- ternational Notes of Lancelot Eden are spe- cially interesting, and include a summary of some of the points in a manifesto issued by the Austrian Socialist Minority, which has not previously been published in this cpuntry. Bruce Glasier, m his "Editorial Outlook," deals with the Dawn of Peace Discussion, the Tribunals, the Labour Party Conference and Conscription, and also roams abroad and gives some attention to Australia and the Hon. Wil- liam Morris Hughes (alas, the William Morris !) a.s imperial avator, J. Ramsay Macdonald, M.P., under the title of "Is Democracy Possible?" has a critical though provoking review of Professor MickePs book on "Political Parties." Incidentally, Mr. MacDonald expresses profound disappoint- ment with some of his colleagues in the Labour Party, and declares that- The failure, of iiie Labour leaders was an intellectual one, not a moral one. This is seen not only in their actions but in their speechet and writings. When the time for settlement comes, I fear they will be in the same position. The war will have come and gone and the Labour leaders will have ren- dered none of those services to the State which a Labour Party ought to have done, it will have pulled up by the roots none of those errors which belong to the political regime which Labour Parties have been cre- ated to end." Unpleasant failures and difficulties are no new things for a Labour Party. They must be overcome. TJhe Labour Party must open its doors to young men who have been trained to act independently, and who have come to it by roads other than those of Trade Unionism. One nowadays all too frequently hears ant argument by some Trade Union leaders that their influence inside the Labour Party should be in proportion to the money they put into it. Money did not make the Party, and money will not keep it going; ideas made and ideas are necessary to maintain it. In the partnership of Trade Unionism and So- cialism, which constitutes the Party, the Trade Unionist qught not to say. I am the more important, nor should the Socialist say, I am the more important,' for neither can do without the other. One brings one quality, and the other brings another; and the qualities together are the Party. This must be reflected in the composition of the Party in Parliament. The Party must give careers of usefulness and importance to men who have gone through universities and who are in the professions, provided, of course, that their opinions are so-and. And if the Party is to flourish. it must give young men some chances." Philip Snowden, M.P., writes with his usual clarity on Iree Trade and International Peace." He points out that none of the causes which have contributed to bring about the war has been more important than the competition of European capitalists and financiers for spheres of commercial and economic inffuence, and dealing with the agitation for Protection declares— If a prohibitive tariff against German manufactures can be proved to be necessary for our future national safety, then the trade loss which might result from such a policy would be a small thing to put against the na- tional security it would provide. But that eoatention assumes a number of extremely improbable conditions. It supposes that the present alliances of European Powers will be permanent. It assumes that such a fiscal policy on the part of the present Allies would have such a disastrous effect upon Germany's trade and economic reconstruction that she would be unable to re-establish herself as a military Power. It is based upon the wicked idea that the end of the wa.r is not to be followed by a serious eiffort I to establish a real European partnership but by a deliberate and determined effort to per- manently, divide Europe into two combina- tions using all their resources and directing all their powers to crush each other." Under the evident nom-de-plume of "John Barleycorn," one who is evidently well inform- ed with regard to the licensed trade writes on "The Rational Solution of the Drink Prob- leiri. He advocates, as a means towards el- lmmating drunkenness, the brewing of lighter beers. the prohibition of the use of cane sugar in brewing, and the improvement of public- houses by radical alteration and the intro- duction of features which are now practically forbidden. To successfully introduce reforms of so far-reaching a character, which radically break away from all hitherto conceived ideas of the licensed trade in this coun" try, it is obviously and primarily essential, as has already been laid down that the whole ques- tion be divested of the shackles of rabid fanaticism on the one hand and the interested opposition of the trade on the other, and this can only be brought about by the State's purchase of the interests involved, not, as proposed by the teetotal party, with a view to the uJltynateextinction of the trade, but with the dual object of promoting true tem- perance, and at the same time securing a fresh source of revenue to helo pay for the war, which the liquor trade would most as- suredly provide." We trust that our brief survey of the cont- ents of "The Socialist Review will encourage many who are not yet regufer subscribers to secure the present number. The Review is published bv thelndependent Labour Party, St. Bride's House, Salisbury Square. London, E.C., at 6d. net. Annual subscription for four is- sues, commencing any issue, 2/6 post free.


The Case for the Light Employment…

~( ,Letter from a Man in the…



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Gardening Notes.