Teachers and the War." The following article, under the above title, appeared in the Western Mail" on the 10th instant: One of the problems which arise out of the application of compulsion to recruiting is that whioh concerns the many teachers who have sought exemption on the ground of Conscientioifs Objection. The teacher has a general responsibility for the mental and moral outlook of the child, and where Ave find a teacher who has so poor a concep- tion of civil obligation, public policy and military necessity as to be unwilling to take a personal share in the task of national defence, at a time when the enemy is thundering at the gates, it is necessary to ask the question whether the teacher has not missed his vocation. We believe that the sense of the nation disapproves a system under which those who belong to the next generation of citizens come under the influ- ence of teachers who, while they may not be disloyal, appear not to comprehend the essen- tials of loyalty. It will not have been over- looked that some of the chief leaders of the Sinn Fein movement were teachers. It is possible perhaps to over-estimate the signi- ficance of this fact, but we believe that the nation is not in a mood to prolong the risks whicti have become so painfully ob- vious. The education authorities ought well to consider whether these dangerous elements in the schools ought not to be removed and forbidden future ingress. Under normal circumstances we have little sympathy with the imposition of conscience tests in cont- racts of employment, but the education "^au- thorities must be on their guard against har- bouring influences in the schools which tend to a poor type of citizenship if not to active disloyalty. Several replies to the above were probably sent in to the "Western Mail," but that news- paper's only acknowledgment was the following note: To the correspondents who have written, to us on this subject, we beg to state: (1) That we cannot find space for letters for the de- fence of the teaching profession, as the tea- ching profession has not been attacked; (2) that we cannot publish seditious utterances. The following reply was sent in by Mr. Dan Griffiths, Llanelly: — (To the Editor of the Western Mail." Sir,—The moral of your leader on "Teachers and the War" is "Don't educate." The teachers who are conscientious objector and rebels have been produced in our elementary and secondary schools, with, possibly. the added help of private observation and study. Citizenship and patriotism are not very de- finite terms. They do not conaste the same things to Socialists and Anti-Socialists. There is a citizenship that would abolish all social injustices aiM establish a new Jerusalem on earth. There may be a citizenship which would defend ihe "status quo," and leave things where they are. There is a patriot- ism which means loving humanity in general and which has no room for a militarist and spurious nationalism. There may. be a pat- riotism which waves a. flag and shouts "Empire" antl My County—right or wrong. The crux of the matter is that eckication, like everything else takes its farm and col- our from the powers that be whoever they may be. At present the workers are cer- tainly not in control of our public bodies, although they make up 85 per cent. of the electorate. Those who own the means of life, that is, the land and capital, own ev- erything else—the pulpit, the press; aye, and even the schools. The enemy is in possession everywhere, and might is right. • It is legal and" quite alright to teach the children ".od Save the Kingand "Rule Britannia," but to teach" Bngland, Arise," "When- Wilt Thou Save the People?" or "The Red Flag" would be heresy and sedi- tion. It is perfectly in order to adorn our school walls with portraits (paid for with public money!) of Lord Kitchener, Admiral JeMicoe. Messrs. Asquith. Lloyd George and Balfour but the teacher who would dare add a portrait of the late Mr. Keir Hardie would receive the "sack," if not ten vears"! v One of the best hopes of Democracy is that an increasingly large number of teachers is rallying to the cause of social justice and peace. _———
Peace By Negotiation. MFMOPIAI TO THE PRIME MINISTER. A large and representative committee has been formed for the purpose of securing sig- natures to a Memorial to the Prime Minister, "urging H.M. Government > 0 seek the earliest opportunity of promoting negotiations with the object of securing a just and lasting peace." The object of .the Memorialists is not to ham- per, but to help the Government by demonstra- ting that there are hundreds of thousands of men and women who will eagerly support it in any step it may take to secure by negotia- tio-M a settlement that is just and a peace that is likely to be lasting. The Manifesto of the Memorial states that the unnecessary prolongation of this bitten struggle, even for a single day. when every hour costs so much in terms of human life, and economic loss., is an unpardonable atrocity, but that such is inevitable if the war is per- mitted to drag on until one side, if not both, are exhausted. The offices of the Committee are at 47 New Broad Street, London. E.C., and the Honorary Secretary is the Rev. Herbert Dnnnico, who v^ill be glad to hear from those willing to assist.
Is Democracy Possible?" RAMSAY MACDONALD'S ARTICLE IN THE "I REVIEW." The new number of the quarterly "Socialist Review" is a really valuable International num- ber. George Gothem, member of the Ger- man Reichstag, writes on Armaments after the War Dr. Rudolph Broda, of Austria, the' Editor of Documents du Progress," and whose property in Austria has just been confis- oated writes on War and Democracy while Emil Stang, a Norwegian Socialist Jur- is t of high repute, deals with the subject of "Peace and International Law. The In- ternational Notes of Lancelot Eden are spe- cially interesting, and include a summary of some of the points in a manifesto issued by the Austrian Socialist Minority, which has not previously been published in this cpuntry. Bruce Glasier, m his "Editorial Outlook," deals with the Dawn of Peace Discussion, the Tribunals, the Labour Party Conference and Conscription, and also roams abroad and gives some attention to Australia and the Hon. Wil- liam Morris Hughes (alas, the William Morris !) a.s imperial avator, J. Ramsay Macdonald, M.P., under the title of "Is Democracy Possible?" has a critical though provoking review of Professor MickePs book on "Political Parties." Incidentally, Mr. MacDonald expresses profound disappoint- ment with some of his colleagues in the Labour Party, and declares that- The failure, of iiie Labour leaders was an intellectual one, not a moral one. This is seen not only in their actions but in their speechet and writings. When the time for settlement comes, I fear they will be in the same position. The war will have come and gone and the Labour leaders will have ren- dered none of those services to the State which a Labour Party ought to have done, it will have pulled up by the roots none of those errors which belong to the political regime which Labour Parties have been cre- ated to end." Unpleasant failures and difficulties are no new things for a Labour Party. They must be overcome. TJhe Labour Party must open its doors to young men who have been trained to act independently, and who have come to it by roads other than those of Trade Unionism. One nowadays all too frequently hears ant argument by some Trade Union leaders that their influence inside the Labour Party should be in proportion to the money they put into it. Money did not make the Party, and money will not keep it going; ideas made and ideas are necessary to maintain it. In the partnership of Trade Unionism and So- cialism, which constitutes the Party, the Trade Unionist qught not to say. I am the more important, nor should the Socialist say, I am the more important,' for neither can do without the other. One brings one quality, and the other brings another; and the qualities together are the Party. This must be reflected in the composition of the Party in Parliament. The Party must give careers of usefulness and importance to men who have gone through universities and who are in the professions, provided, of course, that their opinions are so-and. And if the Party is to flourish. it must give young men some chances." Philip Snowden, M.P., writes with his usual clarity on Iree Trade and International Peace." He points out that none of the causes which have contributed to bring about the war has been more important than the competition of European capitalists and financiers for spheres of commercial and economic inffuence, and dealing with the agitation for Protection declares— If a prohibitive tariff against German manufactures can be proved to be necessary for our future national safety, then the trade loss which might result from such a policy would be a small thing to put against the na- tional security it would provide. But that eoatention assumes a number of extremely improbable conditions. It supposes that the present alliances of European Powers will be permanent. It assumes that such a fiscal policy on the part of the present Allies would have such a disastrous effect upon Germany's trade and economic reconstruction that she would be unable to re-establish herself as a military Power. It is based upon the wicked idea that the end of the wa.r is not to be followed by a serious eiffort I to establish a real European partnership but by a deliberate and determined effort to per- manently, divide Europe into two combina- tions using all their resources and directing all their powers to crush each other." Under the evident nom-de-plume of "John Barleycorn," one who is evidently well inform- ed with regard to the licensed trade writes on "The Rational Solution of the Drink Prob- leiri. He advocates, as a means towards el- lmmating drunkenness, the brewing of lighter beers. the prohibition of the use of cane sugar in brewing, and the improvement of public- houses by radical alteration and the intro- duction of features which are now practically forbidden. To successfully introduce reforms of so far-reaching a character, which radically break away from all hitherto conceived ideas of the licensed trade in this coun" try, it is obviously and primarily essential, as has already been laid down that the whole ques- tion be divested of the shackles of rabid fanaticism on the one hand and the interested opposition of the trade on the other, and this can only be brought about by the State's purchase of the interests involved, not, as proposed by the teetotal party, with a view to the uJltynateextinction of the trade, but with the dual object of promoting true tem- perance, and at the same time securing a fresh source of revenue to helo pay for the war, which the liquor trade would most as- suredly provide." We trust that our brief survey of the cont- ents of "The Socialist Review will encourage many who are not yet regufer subscribers to secure the present number. The Review is published bv thelndependent Labour Party, St. Bride's House, Salisbury Square. London, E.C., at 6d. net. Annual subscription for four is- sues, commencing any issue, 2/6 post free.
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The Case for the Light Employment Men. as I By JOHN HAWKINS. Should injured workmen, when partially re- covered, and able to perform work suitable to their condition, be compelled to pay 2/- per month into the South Wales Miners' Federa- tion. when they do not receive the full bene- fits derived by and through this organisation? I intend to prove very conclusively that it is unjust and unfair to expect any such thing. But, before coming to the present situation, I desire to place before your readers the agita- tion carried on in 1914, for this class of man to be exempted from paying a levy placed upon them by conference. My idea of the co-opera- tion of the workers is: that they combine for the sole purpose of making the individual's life easier, not heavier; therefore, the levies which we. the injured, have to bear out of our decreased wages is an illogical imposition. I take up this attitude solely because I deem it necessary to place our true position before the miners of Wales. At a special conference held at Cardiff on Mondav July 13, 1914, it was decided to call Mond shiHing levy in order to supplement the funds of the South Wales Miners' Federation. This levy, I understand, was. in the opinion of the members of that conference, necessary, because of the fact that a number of sectional strikes had taken place in the coalfield. I agree that all the members of the above organi- sation must do their utmost to make it as ef- ficient as possible, especially if we want to progress in the way of our emancipation. A. Trades Union has always appeared to me to be an organisation through which the workmen, when they had any demand to make, could speak as one solid whole. The delegates at that oonference seemed to have the opinion that the employers can be beaten from the point of view of money. If this is the boiief held, then those persons are living in a fool's paradise. The employers are too strongly entrenched in this direction to be beaten by any organisation of workmen by money alone. Leaving the employers' side just now. let us look at the workmen's. Was it right to ask every workman to pay this levy, considering the position some of those men are in? In the past we have seen honest Tirade Unionists ma de non-Unionists because they have been taxed by levies too often, and much too heavily. The wages that men receive in exchange for their labour are not. sufficlient to meet the expenditure of the home/ and when they are compelled to pay levies it is asking too much. There was a large number of men employed in the collieries previous to the outbreak of war who did not earn more than 30 per week; aye! some were going home with less. That being the case, was it reasonable to make these men pay these extra taxes? When a man has a family, it is con- trary to reason to expect him to do it. I am not one of those who receive t400 a year; if I was, I may have advised that conference I was, in the way tEe delegates did. Again, most of the delegates who attend conference are doing well, and are inside the pearly gates. To the individuals who are in decent positions, and getting good wages, this levy meant no difficulty; but to the man who had to struggle on low wages, it's well nigh the breaking point. I would like to know if those who attend conferences ever give a kind thought to their unfortunate comrades who have met with partialy permanent injuries, and are now working on light employment at a reduced rate of wag<?s ? Some time ago—in the latter part of 1913 or the beginning of 1914-a deputation waited upon the Executive Council to see if it were, possible to alter a cerofein rule, so that the light employment man would be exempted from paying any levies. The Executive Council re- plied that under no consideration would they agree that the rule should be altered. Is this class of man to receive no consideration from his able-bodied fellow-workmen ? ijfter a persons sustains'an injury and recovers suffi- ciently to re-start on light work, he is not gett- ing anything like the money he received previous to his accident. He is paid 2/8 per, day plus percentage, for such light work that he performs, which works out at the maximum something like 25/7 per week. Now, previous to his accident, he may have earned C2 per week, a very unlikely assumption in thousands of cases at that time. Half the difference be- tween, let us say, 25/- and C2 would be added to the wages of the light employment man, and his wages, with the difference added, would be 32/6 per week. Let us look at the loss per annum in wages to the light employment man because of his injury. His loss every week on the scale just quoted is 7/6; consequently he loses £19 10s. per year plus the percentage If a man was injured eight years ago, and was at that time earning the sum mentioned his aggregate loss would be, assuming the percentage then to be 40, and 60 now £145 ]2s. During the intervening time the cost of living has gone up at least 15 per cent, No one for a moment will dispute the fact that the necessaries of life have increased up to this point. That being the case, how in the name of Heaven can anyone expect a light employment man to keep his wife and child- ren decently and at the same time pay levies called in by the Federation? I have heard it advocated by aspirants to Parliamentary hon- ours that the salary a Member of Parliament receives is not too much for him to keep up his social status. If that is so, how is it pos- sible for a poor unfortunate crippllfl to live properly, let alone pay levies, on the pittance he now "receives as wages. If it is an uphill battle for a man to live as an M.P. on C400 a year, what kind of a fight must it fee for one whose position does not bring him in more than 30/- per week? It is surely obvious to everybody that a family of six, after paying for clothes, shoes, house and all domestic necessa- ries, must be living on something near a penny a meal. Is this the principle of Trades Un- ionism or is it greedy, selfish, grasping indivi- =? Some of the workers I know are trying to get the whole of the workers to co- operate for the purpose of bettering the condi- tion and position of themselves and their weaker brothers, but there are others who without any hesitation, levy the weak without troubling to investigate whether they are able to pay it or not. This is not a reasonable and wise way of carrying out a programme of social reform; it is simply creating dissension among the workers, and may be the cause of bringing about their ultimate ruin. The immediate object should be solidarity, al- ways solidarity; but the leaders and would-be leaders are going the wrong way to achieve this end. All social reformers to-day knew that a person s environment determines the charac- ter of the individual. Then why skin the bot- tom dog? If the cripple at present has not enough to bring up his family, because of his reduced wages and the rise in the price of the necessaries of life, what is he going to do if he is compelled to pay levies ? Let it be clearly understood by every workman that a parson on light work does not reap the benefit of the rise in percentages. He receives what the Act of Parliament grants him, and not, a peony more; and that is another reason whY we ask for exemption, A rise in wages a.I ways results in a rise in the cost of food « stuffs, because it gives the workers a grea -? demand over the necessaries of life, It] pointed out by many economists that the 10 t of supply and demand governs the price 0 '€' commodities, and this has been proved beyon t dispute if any person would only attend ? of our exchange markets, he would see tb? l law in operation. When the price of food high many a home is ruined, because of th t Mother doing that, owin? to the scarcity °] '? money, which she is forced to do, to keep fo0o1 a in the stomachs of her young. The best ho111 t have only a. month between them and star- s vation, a?? others are on the brink, and ar t likely—with a little extra pressure, to be hur led into the abyss of vice and squalor, Th squeezing and grabbing method of the bulk 0ol ( our Trade Unionists is going to crush us PhYs a cally, men felly and morally. Is it right an just to ask a man to deprive his children 0 food and clothing in order that he may be 3ib to pay levies? That is what is being cicc when the light employment man pays them, 1: The capitalist system has been the cause of t thousands of our workmen bartering their bd: t ies to get food for themselves and their child* 1 ren; and I hope that our fellow workers are not going to help them in this darnnab t practice. When children want food. tIle sm committed by the parent is excusable. L? ^y me say that an appeal has been made to tb? m sy that an appeal has been made to t. District and the Executive Council, but thef J would no# move in the matter. We have ine '0 v. m a proper constitutional waty, but ''1 without any result, As it is the man who wear S the boot who knows where it pinches we app? to the members of the Federation to assist us i" j this matter. We know it is not in ?ooordanc? ?' with rule, but a rule that is unfair and ? poses hardships on those who are least able t°l bear them, should be abrogated at once; and ￼ ask you to do so by taking responsibility o' ? exempting us by a resolution in conference ? If this action is not taken, we shall be m? non-Unionists, because of our inabnity to p?V' ? We want to be Unionists, but we can't afford W ￼ pay our 1/- contribution per month, witho?' talking about more. (To be Continued.) < r
( Letter from a Man in the Non- • Combatant Corps. "'0 WR!TTEN FROM FEDXTOWE BARRACK* FIRST WEEK IN MAY ? lhey then put us is cells. I was put one that was absolutely dark; not a light shovf ]\ ing (only what came through the keyhole). Th" I cell was VERY DAMP, and I would not keep pig in it—much less a human being. d You have no idea what a lot of bullies tha1 d 0 are at the prison. They swear at you whe" ft giving orders, and in the event of your ob- o jecting to this treatment they put you in cell?' ti or in "irons." I have seen four men put$m these inhuman things while I have been there' c, What they consist of is they are just like hand, cuffs, only, instead of having a chain between u the two ouffs. theyaore solid, as 'b these irons give no end of pain to the Oil j t. who has them on, as you will perceive. lIe cannot move his hands now; they have nff right to do this until the prisoner has ,j mitted a very bad offence. J r; AfteT tea we are expected to do o&e 6o!? r. hour's dnil (gymnastics), and I can tell y? A anyone is absolutely racked when they b? p finished this. 'P We go to bed at 8 o'clock; we are locked ? c our rooms, and there were about 12 others ? t? my room to sleep. The languaga used was 0 B the vilest nature. All the men—with the c?' -a oeption of a comrade of mine—were in th? either for desertion or for striking officers, V Now with regard to the men in there. thoS« j ,a marked are the ones that were put in iro?- I They are as follows: — I | d *C. Barritt, of Pinner. f *H. C. Martin, of Pinner. *Adam Pritestley, of Stafford. |: R. Wyatt, of Cambridge, a teacher. 1: *H. Plummer, of Luton. N.C.F. s Mr Ring. Mr Bonner. Mr Evans, Soufhall. N.C.F. I inli- Bromberger, of EaJing (now in guar* g room at Felixstowe). Mr H. Wilson ditto ditto. Mr Hicks, Hove, N.C. F J Total 11. All there are determined to see this thillo l, < through. Four of these men are now do ] ing 72 hours, bread and water, in cells that 00 <1: cold and damp. They are Wilsoll, Bonner, Wt < att and Plummer. The others are waitingtheif 1 turns, as there are not enough celts. J Plummer has had a very hard fig-h,4 since < has not been granted N.O.C, and "the SorgeOt < has told him he is not a Conscientious Ob- i jector. He has been in irons for one hour; ill 1 cells for 48 and 72 hours fet, refusing to drar ? or do military work." i 1 SUBSEQUENT LETTER FROM SAME MA" 1 1 DATED 8th MAY, 1916: 3 seventeen prisoners have been sent to, France, from Harwich, this msrning. They took the place of ordinary N.C.C. men who ha been ctyssen to go. Please try and get qUt!&' tions asked in Parliament. I know this is a positive fact. Tliev were escorted to the stfr tion." LETTER FROM A CONSCIENTIOUS OBJE^ ￼ TOR IN THE NON-COMBATANT CORPS ( ( Written from Shoreham Barracks (May 10 ?/ 1 The writer speaks warmly of the kindnesS and consideration shown to himself and t'? 1 other C.O's by the authorities there. f Last night several N.C.C. men arrived fi?010 |( Felixstowe. One of them saw the last draft fO France being maTched off. It included 17 JN? ￼ who had been in detention, among whom wei'e || those in Harwich prison (Barritt, Marten, Oto-I J They were with an armed escort. This is ?eriotls J and I hope it will be investigated by tb? N.C.F. and the Friends' Service Committee ? once No one here saw the actual ømha:rkation. so far as I can gather. We are told we are to be sent out on Wed? J nesday week."
LLANELLY i: LLANELLY i TOTAL EXEMPTION FOR D. GXIFFITHS. 1 Dan Griffiths (Llanelly), a well-known member of the I.L.P, has been granted absolute ex- emption on conscientious grounds. The Militarf Representative gave notice of appeal.
I ST HELP THOSE WHO HELP IV* YOUR PAPER! ) t ? i
Gardening Notes. W any reader who is in a difficulty with refer- ence to his garden will write directly to the address given beneath, his questions will all be answered, free of charge, in full detail, and by return of post.-EDITOR. SUMMER BEDDING. T' The time for summer bedding is now at hand; and charming summer eflectts can be had by using geraniums coleus begonias agerartmms: salvias petunias; verbenas; asters stocks and similarly half-hardy flowers. Geraniums, antir- rhinums dianthus phlox drummondi; stocks; verbenas, and otheis of the less tender group can be planted out about mid-May, while the more tender kinds, such as coleus. balsams, pe- turtifts and zinnias, are set out a little later, when danger from frost is quite past. All the summer-bedding plants love sunlight, excepting only tuberous-rooted begonias and fuchsias, which prefer shade. Few plants give such excel- lent results as begonias if they are given shade and shelter, and provided with moisture at their roots. Some plants, like coleus, a.re not a recti success unless they are exposed to the di- rect rays of the sunshine, which tends to bring ouot the beautiful colouring of the foliage of ce teus. It is often possible, in the case of such plants as salvias and verbenas, to get either seedlings or stock that has been raised from cuttings. Plants from cuttings flower the earlier, but they do not blossom for such a long period or so profusely as do the seed- lings. Salvias are particularly useful when the beds are to be seen from a distance. The flower beds need careful preparation be-1 fore planting is done. The soil should be- rich, Drnl, mellow and full of humus or decayed veg- etable matter: and it should be dug at least a foot deep, preferably 18 inches. When pos- sible it is best to apply the manure in the autumn the bed being then spaded over and left rough through the winter. At planting- time begin at the middle or back of the bed. and work towards the edges or front. as the case may be. Give a thorough soaking of water after planting, to settle the soil around the roots. It is most important to water during dry weather, but a mid-summer mulch of half- rotted manure enables the bed to retain much S the moisture that would otherwise evaporate Most amateur gardeners are attracted by ?.rpet-bedding of formal character. It ??vooi??es *o use of such plants as coleus. alternanthera^s, achyranthes. centaurea, gymnoc-aipa, eche- vreriaii etc and is the most costly and trouble- some of all kinds of bedding, We regard it ?:m?imes?IraMe in -pu?l-i?c pa?rks as such are more or less in the nature of public muse ?ms but it is certainly out of place m or din- ? gardens, for the beds, expensive as they are, ? ?niv in full beauty for two or three mon? of tl* year, and resemble dust heaps for the rest of the 12 aonths. Carpet-beds require, too, iiiow technical skill and experience than, any other sorts oftlower beds. Dahlias. Dahlias mav be planted out in May, and every garden should have at least a few of the lovely new sorts now obtainable so cheaply in the form of green plants. Cactus dahlias are so familiar as to need no description bu I relatively few people have any idea of the w?on- derful improvement which has been made in them of recent years. Paeony-nowered dahlias are becoming deservedly popular, as thei?r iy?p? of blossom is quite distinct and usually resem- b?ea a semi-double Paeony. The broad, flat, somewhat irregularly formed blossoms are oorne verv freely and on long stems, the plants being clothed with bloom the season through. The colla,rette dahlia is also a distinct and nov.e1 tvp?. The blossoms are single, ^rt have an additional row of short petals round the central disc, forming a frill or collar, which is usu- ally of different colour to the rest of the flower. Dahlias require a position where they are sheltered from high winds, but yet get plenty of air and sunshine. Severe winds destroy them quickly, and on the other hand their growth is sappy and their colours become poor in close, airless spaces. Plants can be RC}WL* in almost anv sort of soil that is well e-uriched and tilled, and that contains plenty of humus. In applying the manure, it is best to broadcast it over the surface and then dig it in. Coarse manure can be used on heavy and clay soils; but onlv fine and well-rotted manure should be employed for lighter soils. Any good complete commercial fertiliser will be beneficial to sup- plement the farmyard or stable manure. peep preparatory tillage of the ground is exceedingly important to enable the roots to ramify freely and secure abundant nourishment. In its early stages of growth the dahlia benefits much by tillage but tillage must be confined to stirring the surface inch or so after once lfowers begin to appear, as deeper tillage tends to destroy the to appear, While the plants must not be allow- ed to suffer from lack of water, it is better not to water them until they actually need it. Then o- ire a heavy watering. In hot and dry weather, a liberal watering can be given with advantage once the drought ceases. 7 oi, 10 days, until the droi4giit Syringing Plants. Under certain conditions water may make quite a good insecticide. For instance, if syringed rather forcibly on to plants it will wash off any insect pests and kill many of them. For this purpose a fine spray should be em- ployed. and it must not be so forcible as to tear the plants or to bruise them. Again, red spider, which is one of the most troublesome of house peats in dry seasons, can be kept in check by spraying the plants affected, as it thrives only in a dry atmosphere. Rose peste are generally easily kept under control if fairly frequent spraying be practised. Syringing is also useful to prevent excessive transpiration of water from the leaves of re- cently transplanted plants in the greenhouse or frame. Care must be taken that the soil round the roots does not become too wet during the syringing process, as otherwise the plant may be seriously injured. Syringing in the green- house is usually best dene when the weather is bright and the temperature rising, so that the plants do not go into the night in wet condition. Out of doors syringing may be done in the evening during hot weather; and it is very rare that foliage suffers in such cases. E. KEMP TOOGOOD. F.L.S.. F.R.Met.S., pro Toogood and Sons, The King's Seedsmen, Southampton.
'Phone 597. 'Phone 397. WILLIAM TRESEDER, Ltd. THE NURSERIES, CARDIFF. WREATHS, CROSSES, CUT FLOWERS, &c. BEDDING PLANTS. A sters, Stocks, Dahlias, Marguerites, Lobelia, &C; Tela TRESEDEB, FLORIST, CARDIFF.