The Triumph of Reaction. By PHILIP FRANKFOUD. The ar e rage man and woman is so busy with decrying the Germans and their atroci- ties" that they never dream of asking them- j selves. What is coming to our own country? j What sore of bed a,re we making for our- solves, for our children and for our children's ch I ld i,e n The nation to-day collectively is acting like a madman. The people are now al- I owing their rulers to carry them to the edge of the precipice; they are within an inch of being hurled into the awful abyss of rum and reaction. No sane individual in his private life would allow or countenance the things that are taking place nationally to occur within the limits of his own family circle. No loving pa- rent would plan such a heritage of ruin and disaster for his children and his grandchildren as the nation is piling up for posterity to-day. Forsake all, leave all, sacrifice everything you possess-love. honour, home, freedom, liberty. LI-I III!, you most desire. What for? In order that our land mav be economically frc* P Or to clear the slums.of our great cities? To feed the starving school children ? To cloth the naked? To stamp out poverty? To make this land of vours more of a pleasure house of the poor, and less of a treasure house for the rich? To achieve some worthy object? To ■ accomplish some lasting good for our people by rescuing them from the thraldom of landlord- ism and capitalism? Not for one of these ob- jects is the war. Not one of these rjaueli- to-be-desired things will this sacrifice accomp- lish. On the other hand the war will make, and is making, the poor poorer and the pri- vileged few richer. It is trampling upon the slowly gathered harvest of right; it is giving the reactionists an excuse for sweeping a-gjdewith the stroke of a pen all that our noble forefathers have fought and died for. Habeas Corpus and Magna Ohalrta have been Swept away. The right of trial by his peers for every suspected Britisher; the voluntary System of enlistment; free speech a free press— all gone. Then on the industrial fields the slowly gathered rights of Trades Unions, all swept away. The triumph of the reactionists is complete. There remains nothing for which the most ardent reformer fought for during the 19th century—even free trade—that has not been swept away. And all this without hardly a murmur. Eagerly have one and all surren- dered #he best traditions and the noblest herit- age of a nation, at the behest of the most Unscrupulous gang that ever ruled a people stricken with war madness. Perhaps the saddest sight of all in this iiiid of war fever was the complete surrender first of all of the Trades Unions and then of the La- hour Party. Or perhans we may say first of all of the Labour Party, and then of the Trades Unions. The entry' of the so-called Labour Riftmbers into the Cabinet was a signal for the complete sacrifice of all we who love freedom hold dear. The day Henderson, Brace and Roberts entered the ministry, the doom of Trades UnionislTn, of the voluntary system of recruiting, and of freedom generally was seal- ed It is true the Trades Union Conference Condemned Conscription by over one million votes in Januarv last. It is true also that after this event Henderson, Brace and Roberts of- fered their resignations, but the rulers per- suaded them not to throw away their £ 4,000 Manual salaries, and in return for this favour those "Labour" leaders" were expected to 8e?uro the complete surrender of Labour. And this task they set themselves to accomplish, J^th what results we now know. And never h?vp the workers of any country been more ruthlessly betrayed than by these men. The Plot to enslave Labour, to build up the mili- ar ism we were; out to destroy, and to reduce the working classes for generations under the thumb of the master class, is more vile than the history of any nation ever had to chroni- cle. To-day the masses think all is well; to- morrow. when the strife is over. the eyes of the blind will lie open. But to-morrow we shall he under military rule. to-morrow your masters can call you back as Conscripts when you Ko out on strike; to-morrow, when the war is over. you will be faced with millions from the disbanded armies and from the munition finns. who will be thrown into the overcrowded Labour market. Yet a market in which the Existence of female lanour will still further reduce wages. The darkest hour is the hour before the dawn. Is there vet hope that La- hour will -see that every country has its real onemy. and that enemv is not the foreign foe. but the enemy -within the Œat<? Is it possi- ble that the blood of those who have died for Liberty, and the sufferings of those brave ^nti-militarists who have braved the tyrants' Wrath may vet not be in vain? Is it possible that Labour may even at the eleventh hour. rise in spite of the betrayal of its leaders like k giant refreshed with wine, and with one •ound drive back the reactionists, and save the unborn from the misery, enslavement and Poverty which the capitalists and militarists are Ilow preparing for them? Labour, united m its Unions, can yet save us. Let them remem- W that an injury to one is an injury to all. Let them know that their real enemies are within the gates, who are preparing to bind them hand and foot with military and indus- trial cords from now onwards. Let not the [fascination of killing Germans bind not only us. hut unborn generations. To-day there is yet time. Is it possible Labour will rise to-morrow wll(,n it, is too late?
National Amalgamated Lab- I ourers' Union. PROGRESSIVE QUARTER REPORTED AT SWANSEA. Conn. T. J. Wilson presided over a meeting of the Executive Committee of the above body, held at their Central Office. Swansea, on Mon- day and Tuesday of last week. Mr. John Twomey. General Secretary, report- ed an increase of 264 members, and an addi- tion of £ 569 to their funds, during the quarter 6uding March. A resolution was carried against the deporta- tion of the Clyde workers and the excessive Sentence passed upon John McLean. It was decided to submit the following reso- lution at the Annual Council Meeting of the National Transport Federation: — "That this Annual General Council Meeting expresses its endorsement and cordial ap- preciation of the work of the Triple Alliance of Miners. Railwaymen and Transport Workers to provide for the position of La- bour after the war. It instructs the Exe- cutive Council to leave nothing undone to maintain unworsened m any manner the Trade Union organisation upon which the vital interests of our members depend." ^Another resolution' was carried asking the ?oration to arrange for a uniform scale of ^ntributions to %.Il affiliated societies. Grants of £ 5 each were made to the Burston gchool Str' and the Dennis Beyley Red Cross society. rfcr
The W.E.A. and the Labour Movement. -1 By W. J. EDWARDS. In the year 1790, on the platform of the Con- stituent Assembly of France, the Marquis of Fouoault declared that to be a labourer it was not necessary to know how to read and write. And he was right. Under the then prevailing method of producing wealth any simple-minded serf could manipulate the crude tools of wealth production. Since those days, however, the rigid necessities of industrial development, have compelled the capitalist class to speak in lan- guage altogether different. The economic and social interests of their class nave taught them that it is better to encourage and develop both elementary and higher education. To make the modern labourers more efficient as producers of surplus value, to enhance the market value of the wage slave seems to be the underlying motive running through all of their educational systems. This motive- was the outcome of eco- nomic forces that had gone before. But along- side of this class view of what constitutes edu- cation, there has developed during the last ten years another conception of education, one which has a peculiar growth, and which arises out of the needs of the Labour Movement. The closer binding of the workers into large organ- isations has brought about a- consciousness of their economic and social interests, and this conception of education to which we refer fits in with those interests. Because the economic interests of the workers demand the abolition of capital, so their education must be of the kind capitaw].i_ ll show them how to do it. This con- ception of the workers, like that of the shirkers, is determined by economic interests To the economic of class corresponds the psychology of classes. We have, then, in modern society two distinct conceptions as to what education 'really is. and each conception is determined to a great extent by the value or utility it has for each re- spective class. Looking at education from the workers point of view, we often ask what reJ turns it will bring. If a man is educated we that particular education in relation to what it will do to help the Labour Movement. This is the point of view from which I want the readers of the "Pioneer' to examine the W.E.A. Greek mythology tells us how Midas had the happy knack of transforming everything he touched into gold. Midas still lives: and" car- ries on his trade. His alchemy still exists. rhe capttahsts transform everything thev touch into merchandise. It does not matter whether its beer or bacon or intellectual capacities, this transformation is wrought by the magic wand of capital. Chemists or engineers, Latin scholars, or university professors are bought and sold like umbrellas. The great -and mighty Curirer served with trust and fide,litv the French Republic. Napolean. Louis XVIII.. Charles X., and Louis Philippe, the last of whom awarded him a peerage as a reward for his servility. Spencer and Haeckel, coming under this wand of capital, try to prove the classification of hu- man beings into rich and poor workers and shirkers, capitalists and wage slaves, is the ne- cessary outcome- of the laws of nature. Before science held the field religion served the same purpose, and accomplished the same end. The intellectual lackeys of capital told us that the division of society into classes was the will of God. A king ruled by divine right. The poor and their miserable existence was justified by the Holy Scriptures. Wealthy capitalists who owned silver mines secured the servcies of ser- vile economists to sing the praises of Bi-metal- ism; the owners of gold mines secured their ser- vices to boom the uses of gold. And so it went on i,ii.-d on until the same wand was applied to the" open mind" of the W.E.A. I have before me as I write a book written by Mr. Albert Mansbridge, sercretary until re- cently of the W.E.A. It is called "University Extension Classes. On page 56 we read tha following significant statementThe actual number of students who have accepted appoint- ments as Labour Exchange officials, or in con- nection with the Insurance Act, is not to hand, but the effect is considerable." Now, let us look at this admission from the point of view of the La bour Movement. These University Tutorial classes aire formed by the W.E.A. and the uni- versities. •• A young working class student, at- tracted by the glamour of the universities, be- comes a member of a tutorial class. He under- goes a period of education under the W.E.A. teachers. When the ordeal is over he enters the Labour Exchange or the Insurance Act. rhe education he has received enables him to do so. It has erea,t,ed in him a servile state of mmd. Had he gone to some other institution I could name, and where he could have assimi- | lated a revolutionary view of things, he would nave vomited on a Labour Exchange. Lloyd George :and his Insurance would have been re- pusjv-e to him. He would come back to the movement, and proceed to show up the r-eac- tl'ona.rv nature of such politicaj institutions as +1.0 ^wA* ??ad, however, he entered the w iTP a nii 88' ? developed as a result that ro?omm?pi?onn-smg pourt-sustaining type of mind towards capitah?m. Have you evS- noticed a cab tout wi *tll Ins üringing crouching nature as he holds out a dirty polm for a coin ? He hS the soul of a slave. Of the same nature are these people who enter a Labour Exchange. They are the touts to capital. Of what use are they to the proletarian movement these hangers-on to capitalist legislation. They hold out their dirty palms for a soft job, and get it. By-and-bye they come to assimilate Lab- our Exchange ideas and ideals-, and they look out upon the world as the best possible 'world The mental atmosphere of reactionary legisla- tion weighs upon their mentality like an alp. They develop ideas quite harmless to capitalism. and for ever they are lost to the Labour movement. How different are these respect- able humbugs, with their grandmotherly no- tions of social development, to some of those, young men who contribute to much to the cause of Labour? In my mind's eye I can see an earnest crowd of young men, full of enthu- siasm for the movement, whose object it is to overthrow capitalism. Economic forces, like all natural forces have no soul. They do not feel 1 bey pull through the mill everyone who come into grips with them. In spite of all, however, I can see the earnest voung men and women grappling with these forces with all their might. Towards capitalism their attitude is al- ways uncompromising, They expect no qua-rter; they give no quarter. Victimisation stares them in the face, but they still keep up the fight. Tihev refuse to be drawn into Labour Exchanges and Insurance Act- But these men have never been to the W.E.A. classes. These are the men our movements depends upon; theirs is the stuff that go to make revolutions. Obedient to the call of their class, Its impulses and aspirations, they go forward with one supreme object —the abolition of wage slavery and the establishment of Socialism. Comrades, where will your support go? To the movement that boasts of sending a large percentage of their students into the Labour Exchange and Insurance, or to that movement which trains men and women to help make possible a system of human society where Labour Exchanges will be un- necessary, and where insurance against want will become "the third eyelid" of social orga- nisation. Will you support the reactionary teaching of the W.E.A. and the capitalist uni- versities, or will you support the Central La- bour College, which gives an education which will not "compromise with truth to make a friend, or withhold a blow from error lest it make an enemy"?
The Influence of the Home I- on Children. By BILLIE JONES. Everyone will agree that the influence of the home has an important bearing on children. When we realise the children of to-day will eventually become the men and women of to- morrow seeing what slow progress is being made in enlightening the older persons to their emancipation, I think it would be wise to divert our attention more in endeavouring, by the use of our influence and practical know- ledge and experience, to guide the younger generation consciously to the basic principles of Socialism, and what the word really means. It has been said that man at his first birth is like ground in which no seeds are im- planted, but which is capable of receiving all seeds, and of bringing forth and multiplying without end. Now, if that is so, and we edu- cated the children to the need of co-operation in all things, and that co-operation was organi- sation, a, combination of forces to accomplish a certain end: the children should be trained in a natural, practical and scientific manner. I don't believe in the old idea because one child is older than another that the younger should obey them; that at once puts the elder into power which would be used to dominate the younger children, and would therefore, be con- trary to ideal Socialism. Individualism must be abolished; each child should have a certain amount of attention and guidance, and al- though inclined to follow its natural bent or trait in whatever direction it might be in- clined to go individually, there should be a consciousness that collectively they were tend- ing to the same ideal. The child should be encouraged to think and reason for itself; then, with only a fairly or- ganised store of knowledge, it would not so readily be hypnotised with any suggested ideas that might be placed before it. For instance, if a child was told to light the candle, it would naturally obtain a box of matches and uncon- sciously rub the brimstone end on the sand- paper; the result would be a flame, and the same applied to the wick of the oomp. If the child was asked by the parent why he did it, he would probably say because he saw someone else do it. Here would be afforded an opportunity for a practical and scientific lesson that would impress itself on the child's mind for ever. Assuming the parent to explain that the match stick previous to becoming a match proper had been dipped in phosphorus, and in applying it to the rough surface of the sand paper friction was caused, such friction generating heat, igniting the phosphorus, and allowing the stick to burn with a flame which gave heat and light. The child should then be asked: What if the whole of the matches were ignited, what would happen? In this way the child would have a slight knowledge of chem- istry, light and heat, and a practical illustra- tion of co-operation. The dangers of our posi- tion as a class, or the indifference of the workers is due probably to the fact that they are reared in a certain environment oreafed for them by the capitalist; therefore, a change of condition is necessary previous to' a change in thought. How are we going to accomplish this change? The workers contribute towards an educational system that ensnares the feet and mind of their children, and guides them in any direction other than towards their own emancipation. It is admitted that the influ- ence of the home excels that of the school in the child's minds; if that is so. then certain working class parents, with careful attention bestowed upon their children,-might do a great deal towards directing the thoughts of their children to the change in condition necessary, and through contact with other less fortunate children would set up a communication to reach the home of the parents of such. and have a certain effect there. Personally, I should like to see working class schools erected, knowing how fruitful our Co- operative movements and Trade Unions are. The control of such in the hands of the work- er's. if only to obliterate to a large extent the prejudice and distinction of the children in the I various classes in the elementary schools. We must get the younger generation to realise that they should have equal opportunities in life for the further afield we are able to till in the minds of the children, so much less room will be left for the power of capitalism. It appears that until steps are taken in other directions, the task has been left to the influence of the home It is therefore a duty on each parent of our class, if possible, to endeavour to exer- cise their abilities to train their children to further their cause. There is a natural desire for learning in everyone. The first opportuni- ty the-refore, is with the parent: create a de- sire in the child to think and decide for itself, and not be led away by any and every thing that might be said or heard.
The Men of To-morrow. I A PLEA FOR THE CHILDHOOD OF I TO-DAY. Never in the history of the world have- the chidren received proper treatment. To-day also they are almost forgotten. They stand in hud- dled heaps on the margin of political conscious- ness. In justice they can stand nowhere, ex- cept in the centre, in the focus of civilized in- terest, and thus are they being sinned against. No words are too strong to censure the age which is heedless of the welfare of our sons and daughters, and which has impregnated their minds with ideas which must bring sorrow and tribulation of the future. When will emascul- ateu and debilitated man realise his errors and hearken to the voice of reason, which tells us to keep the children pure. The 'children of this generation know too much of the evil side of ,war an d mil?liaiis of t h war and millions of them will grow up in the belief that the present indescribable carnage is righteous. To those who have their gaze fixed on the time when wars will be no more, this is an appalling wrong and an unholy catastrophe which only long years of toil will obscure. The efforts of pacifist organisations in at- tempting to point the wav to a better civiliza- tion is laudable, but the European mind is. to a large extent, of a stable character, and pro- gress must of necessity be slow. Yet the;? should not forget that the impressionable child's mind, filled with the right ideas, wiU later de- velop into a power which will inevitably drive the car of progress towards the fair City of V Ultimate Peace. At present this tremendous potential force is being undermined and sub- verted by the pseudo glories of war. The child's rough and turbulent instinct of pug- nacity finds a concrete embodiment in emulat- ing the deeds of the British soldier. Obviously our duty is to draw hs from the spurious but powerful attraction, and attempt to develop his mind in a manner that will be a power in the future progress of the world. Did a civilian enter the elementary school to- day lie would not find a subject which is not contaminated by the war. History and geo- graphy are taught by the war-map. Drawing has degenerated into the decoration of the class-room walls wth pictrues of dreadnoughts, Union Jacks, and submarines. The music les- son is little more than the singing of patriotic songs, whose fervour and bellicosity augur ill for the future peace of the world. Composition is frequently on the illuminating subject of what would happen to the Kaiser if by some remarkable chance he were suddenly confronted by his schoolboy vilifiers. Very few schools are free from the rankling Jingoism which is so deleterious to our children, and we should real- ise that there is growing in the heart of child- hood a mighty and impassable barrier to social reform, which generations of reformers wiir um overcome. Ere it is too late our leaders should come to some conclusions as to the line of ac- tion which, when taken, will bring about a vic- tory for the ideals and principles which So- cialism advocates. How is this to be done? Firstly, the parents must look after their sons and daughters. Many members of the Socialist movement do not do this. It would be interesting to find out the num ber of pacifists who have allowed their sons to join the British Army. Many have done this, some of whom are nrominent men in the world of democracy. These men, who have been so strenuous in preaching the ideals of peace, have failed to apply them efficaciously to their own sons. This is a great lass to our cause. for we should at least expect the sons to help father's principles. Again, let us seriously talk- to our children, and occasionally reflect on their moral and mental welfare. Secondly, organisations like the I.L.P. should draw up syllabuses on their own principles, so that the children could sometimes attend the branch meetings for the purpose of listening to a, lecture delivered by a member. This could be done effectively if the hearty co-operation of the parents was received. In this respect elementary school teachers are especially useful, since their influence would be felt both in the branches and in the schools. Thirdly, the Labour Leader," the Her- ald and papers of a similar character should publish from time to time special articles for children. This has been done in a small mea- sure. but it could be made successful with the further co-operation of parents. Therefore, in as many ways as possible, let us endeavour to help to educate our children in a direction which we ourselves have followed only since the year's of manhood. Let us be secure in the thought that our children will be ardent in Socialistic work. Let us convert them while they are yet young, before obsti- nacy and dignitv come along and give us a stern battle and make us weary. This properly done, the dreams of a, Ion, night will be nearer realisation, the evolution amelioration of mankind will be at hand.
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ABERDARE. CHURCH CONFERENCE AND DRINKING.—The an- nual conference of the churches in the Aberdare Valley District of the Evangelical Union of Wales took place at Rhos Chapel, Mountain Ash, last Friday. The Rev. James Griffiths. of Aberdare, was elected president for the ensuing year, with Dr. Arthur Jones, Mountain Ash, as vice-chairman. On the motion of the Rev. T. Powell, Cwmdare, a resolution was adopted deploring the increase in intemperance, especi- ally among women, and protesting against the action of the Glamorgan Licensing Committee in discouraging the efforts of the licensing jus- tices by only imposing a tenth of the compensa- tion levy last year, the churches being urged to exert every effort to "remove this wrong." Resolutions were also adopted protesting against Sunday trading and the tendency generally to desecrate the Sabbath, and calling upon the justices to punish not only the seller but also the buyer on the Sabbath, also deploring the prevalence of gambling.
OUR PRINTING IS GOOD. OUR TERMS ARE MODERATE. OUR STAFF IS TRADES-UNION 1ST, And we give a guarantsed undertaking to DELIVER IN TIME.
I Guy Aldred Handed Over. 1 I "FREE UNÎON" DEFENCE OVER- 1 I, RULED. I LAWYER HOLDS 'SCOTTISH MARRIED" PROVED. Guy A. Aldred (29, the Editor of the "Spur," appeared on remand at West London, towards the close of last week, charged with failing to surrender himself for service under the Military Service Act. The defence he put forward was that he had contracted a Scottish marriage with one Rose lteop, who was formerly his housekeeper. On his registration card he described himself as married, justified by the words "free union." Evidence had been given by a witness from Scotland that Aldred and the woman he lived with were recognised as husband and wife. Cross-examining defendant, Mr Muskett (prosecuting) asked, in reference to the woman: How do you consider you were living with her since 1908 P—I consider that I was living in the moral and social state of marriage, but not in accordance with certain statutes of the laws of England. You do not believe in marriage?—1 believe the ceremony is unnecessary, but I believe in the virtue of the morality of the married state. Defendant said that he was of the opinion that if war was right every man should fight, but if the war was wrong every man should refuse. He believed this war to be wrong. Mr Fordham: You believe you are married according to the Scottish laws.P-Yes. And you believed so when you filled in your registration form?—Yes I put in ".Free Union" to be quite honest. Mr Fordham: But there is nothing wrong in a Scottish marr.age. It is as legal a marriage as a marriage in the Church of England. Mr W. K. Steedman, of Edinburgh, and Coleman Street. E.C., expressed the opinion, after reading the notes of the evidence, that defendant and the lady he lived with were married according to Scottish law. The consent' to marriage in itself perfected marriage, and nothing but consent was essential. Mr Fordham Supposing a man and woman go to Scotland and live together as huband and wife for a month, does that constitute a marriage?—Not unless there was consent of both parties—deliberate consent. In reply to Mr Muskett. witness said that the fact that the parties were English and not Scot- tish did not make any difference nor did it make any difference that the agreement bet- ween the couple to live together was made in England. The magistrate found thai defendant was not married and fined him £ 5 and handed him over to an escort. Mr Fordham declined to state a case.
The Fruits of Compulsion. We take the following article from the "Man- chester Guardian" Correspondence Column of last Friday. The letter speaks for itself:- Sir,—One of the young schoolmasters of whom I wrote on March 12 is now in the bar- racks at Felixstowe, under the' control of the 4th Bedfordshires, with 15 others who refuse military orders from a sense of duty. They are in dark cells, on bread and water, and are put in irons for certain hours daily. This is to go on for 28 days. This torment of a month's darkness on men always hungry, with the pain and degradation of fetters, is given to men of the highest character and most sensitive mind. How can this have come about in England after two centuries of religious freedom and eager humanity? There must, first, be a strain of primitive brutality in the military commander responsible then there may have been gross incapacity on the part of the Herefordshire and other Tribunals. But the inherent vice is in Conscription itself. The evil fruit comes from an evil tree. A certain halfpenny daily boasts aloud on its placards to-day: We have done it; it is our triumph." I believe they are right. Tricks and terrors alternately have brought down a Prime Minister who himself disbe- lieves in Compulsion. And the people can only think of one thing at a time—victory in the war-and so are allowing their elemen- tary liberties to be lost in their preoccupation and their fear.Yours. etc.. JOHN W. GRAHAM. Dalton Ran, May W. GRAHAM.