Open Letter to the Iron and Sft" Owners of South Wales. Dear Sirs,—I hope yott will pardon ine writing this open letter to you in the nud f of a terrible war, especially so when the hof our and integrity of our dearly beloved coull t 18 at stake. But, I can assure you that It i the patriotic feeling which I have toward A. fellow man that compels me to address this. you at this juncture. I was very pleased j hear that you also had been animated with 7 same patriotic feeling towards the lower Pj m orders in your employ in granting thool weekly bonus of 51- on wages ranging from JIll to 30i-, on condition that they worked time. Of course, you agreed on this account of the high cost of living, knowing tb the lower paid man was not in a. position | meet it. I must confess that to a very gr extent I agree with you on this point, bec? apart from the increased cost of living lower paid mn, working side by side with jjjll. higher paid, has always been a menace to i' higher paid man. ￼ It has been pointed out by you that this is a war bonus. That means It will be in opeo, tion for the duration of the war. 'Vhat JI!¡I I ask, is to become of it afterwards. Th. ?. may be over in three months from now or io?? months, or, perhaps, it may last another Ø,< years, but whenever the war is over the bo%; wIll be over also, whether the cost of living have decreased or not. Don't you thin? would be far more honourable to have ad^ it to the standard rate of wages? Or ivr°V it not be better stJJL if you wiped out M maximum in your Sliding Scale Agreement "*3 give the extra percentages instead? there, your works to-day are controlled e,s lishments, and, as yell say, you are entirely the hands OT the Government. You could 11 touch the agreement if you wished. According to the last iepoi? of the j? auditors, the average selling price of rails ? tin bars was ?8 9s 6d per ton. wl)ich me? that on that scHmg- pr?c i' is El 19s 6d ?, ton above the maximum in the agreement. 19s 6d per ton, and as the agreement st^ at present, the worker bus no share from th?' But you say that although the selling price' the ('ommOdiJeS worked at your works is higjL V to-day than it has ever been, the extra pi'^t that should accrue are swallowed up in < mcreased cost of freightage and so forth. l' t1i\ was the argument used by you at the Board meeting, but, it is stated, that when 1 ting yom- case to the Committee on Product'0!' yon argued that if the maximum in the ?': re?ment was wiped out, you could not <n?)-? the output of munitions that were requir, ,h \ause, ,t present, you had all y(;mr work ?' out to fuJul contracts, OWIng to time lost by j h.gher paid men. Still, at the same time, y } were quite prepared to consider the raising A' ti1,0 paid. The only conclusion one ?! come to from such an argument is. that 1j were prepared to grant an increase to the Io?? )' man, so that he also would be able to get holiday, now and again. If is true, it was,'? ? nature of; n, bonus that you were prepaded t°.^| liatill-e ol.t, b,oi,itis that voii we-,j,e 1.)i,e,padea to, i that way. Well, whatever may be your ￼ of the Sliding Scale Agreement? as it at pt'? stands, it is. to the man in the street. anachronism. There is just another point before I conc!?t? and that is in regard to a rumour that ;,$'gl rond, U?at you have foremen and timokoep<,r,*j your employ at the princely sum of 30/- ?t week and that when these men are oif ??? in for one, two. three or more days, the s"P?? one shi1.lill'u and eightpence per day is ded? | ￼ from their wages. I am sorrv to .say th^ J? fail to see the drift of this, unless it be v they aw paid their iv,,t9 Icsn the sick JV allowed in the National^'Insurance Act. f from the deductions in the wages ?Jtog'?t iust to think that you have omcials t-eC??B ing such pay is ,iot.hi?,, short of a scandal- ^1 ii Tn cOJlrlusion I sincereh- hop(. if you s .j? perchance read this letter, you will accept, con tents in the ?od feeling in which wntten.. t Yours smcMph-. L rXTKRF<H>-
Gardening Notes.. If any reader who is in a clLiriculty with refer- ence to his garden will write directly to the address given beneath, his questions will all be answered, free of charge, in full detail, and by return of post.—Editok. ANTS IN CAP Ants are very troublesome in. gardens and lawns occasionally: and the way to get ria of them there is to find the nests and so treat these as to destroy the queen. The simplest way is to use bi-sulphide of carbon. One or two holes are bored into each nest with an iron. bar, and into every one of the holes should ba poured about two ounces of the liquid chemical mentioned. The holes should then be closed with clods, pressed down by means of the foot of the worker; and it is a good plan to throw a wet blanket or other heavy cloth over the nest, to he-lp keep the vapour in. The liquid evaporates producing a heavy and poisonous gas that sinks down to the bottom of the gal- leries of the nest. destroying all life therein. In handling the bi-sulphide of carbon, bear in mind that it j;; highly inflammable. and must not be used near any sort of fire. Thus, for instance, a light pipe or cigarette might ignite the vapour of the chemical. Green Manuring, Ordinary manure is becoming very scarce in. some districts, and may be practically impos- sible to obtain there, so that artificial fertilis- ers must be made to take its place as far as pos- sible. Unfortunately, thev do not furnish the humus or decayed vegetable matter that does so much to improve soil and to render it a fit and suitable home for the roots of plants. This difficulty can be overcome by employing green manuring in connection with artificial Fertilising. Bv green manuring is meant the growing of green crops to be dug into the ground. there to decay and form humus. This treatment also makes the soil mbre porous, and brings up and deposits near the surface for the use of plants food-constituents that were pre- viously out of reach of surface-feeding subjects. The best plants to use for green manuring are those of the leguminous family, such as peas, beans, clovers, etc., as these actually enrich the land with nitrogen they assimilate from the air. They not only retuiyt to the ground all they have taken out of it. but store up nitrogen from the atmosphere, and. when turned in, give it up to the soil for future crops. Other than leguminous crops add to the soil relatively nothing but wha^; they take from it. except the mass of vegetable matter that, when de- cayed, forms humus. In the way of artificial fertilisers to use with a system of green manur- ing by means of leguminous orops. it is only necessary to add potash and phosphoric acid, as a rule. the green manuring supplying the ne- cessary nitrogen. To gardeners who cannot get stable or farm- yard manure. we strongly recommend the grow- ing of leguminous crops for green manure. It is a cheap and simple way of supplying the humus needed, and it also ensure's obtaining from the air freely nil" of the mast costly of manurial constituents. Annual Flowers. Fi-oti-, the gardener's point of view, annual flowers are those that yield their finest blossoms the N-ear the seed of them is sown. Most of them can be sown out of doors when the weather is warm, but others, with a long grow- ing season, are best' .raised under glass and planted out. As such quick growth is made, the ground intended for annual, plants must be well prepared, and must contain sufficient humus Well-rotted manure or mould from the woods is desirable if dug well into the ground and a light dressing of ai?tfie?ial manure is very help- ful. The ground intended for the cultivation of annuals should be prepared as early as pos- sible in spring, and then kept well raked over to prevent too much of the soil-moisture being evaporated. Seeds should be sown thickly, to allow of on- ly the most promising plants being left at thin- ning time, and also because seeds do not ger- minute quite so well in open beds as they do in seed-pans of suitable soil. Generally speak- ing, it is better to grow a mass of one colour at a place rather than to dot colours ( uni- formly about. It is important to pick all ￼ o ihi?s flowers when they begin to fade, as this great- ly lengthens the blossoming season. A plant that has been permitted to produce seeds seems to feel that its duty is done. and so ceases to flower. There is such a wealth of anIllIa 1 tiowPfS that one should be guided by one's personal preferences in selecting the sorts to grow. Am- cngst the best are asters, stocks, nasturtiums, petunias, phloxes, diantbuses, eschseholtzias, candytufts. nernophilas, poppies, sweet peas, etc Dahlias. Some of the splendid w-evv sorts of cactus and paeony-flowered dahlias should be grown in ev- ery" flower garden where reasonahlv good condi- tions can be provided. They must be protected from high winds, but need abundant air and sun shine. Any rich soil that wiU hold water during drought is suitable for the II- culture we have known plants grow to perfection in both sand and elav where the necessary plant foods were provided. Neither dahlias nor any other garden plants can. however, be expected to thrive in a hard clay ground, imperfectly tilled and de- ficient in humus. The manure for dahlias must he thoroughly well dug into the ground, particularly if it be not perfectly decayed. For heavy and gravelly soils coarse manure can be used, but light and sandy soils must only have s hort and well- rotted manure. Generally speaking, the best way to buy dahlias in III the form of green plants during May, at the proper time for putting them out. These .small plants must not be set out till dan- ger of frost is over but large roots can be planted a fortnight earlier than that if desired. The first essential to success is thorough pre- paration of the ground, involving deep digging and eiii.-Icil I ng. de+-,p tillage should be given until the plants begin to flower; but there! after only the surface soil must be stirred, just to prevent its becoming hard and baked. As the season progresses, the plants seem to be checked and the flowers to commence to become smal- ler. This is an indication that the available food supply has been us ad up, and a small handful of artificial manure should be distribut- ed around each plant. That most commonly used consists of four parts of bonemoal to one part of nitrate of soda. The dressing needs to be carefully faked into the soil. During dry spells an occasional heavy soaking of water is beneficial, but too frequent water- ing results in too sappy growth. Thorough stir- I ring of the surface soil is extremely beneficial, and where it is attended to. the necessity for watering artificially is greatly reduced. In all cases the soil must. Iyo stirred'to a depth of 2in. the day after the watering has been done. While the plants should not be allowed to ac- tually lack water, it is wise to water only when positively needed. E. KEMP TOOGOOD, F.L.S.; F.R.Met.S pro Toogood and Sons, The King's Seedsmen, Southampton. I
'Phone 597. 'Phone 597. WILLIAM TRESEDER, Ltd. THE NURSERIES, CARDIFF. WREATHS, CROSSES, CUT FLOWERS, &c. BEDDING PLANTS. Asters, Stocks, Dahlias, Marguerites, Lobelia, &c. Tela "Tkesbder, Florist:, Cmsdiff.
Three Years for Maclean EX-TEACHER SENT TO PENAL SERVI- TUDE. SEQUEL TO RECENT TROUBLE ON CLYDE Three years' penal servitude was the sentence pronounced in the High Court, Edinburgh, upon Jo-hn Maclean, an ex-school teacher, of Glasgow, who was charged with grave offences under the Defence of the JKealm Act. The indictment alleg- ed that prisoner used statements likely to pre- judice recruiting, training and discipline; that lie attempted to cause mutiny, sedition, and disaffection among the civilian population, and to impede and delay the production and trans- port of war material. The alleged statements were made on six different occasions from Jan- uary- 16 to 30, at one indoor and five open-air meetings in Glasgow. The statements set out in the irid, I ctni eut, we're He was against the war. and wanted peace. I Conscription was not necessary, and if adopted it would he used afterwards for the purpose of getting cheaper labour, and if the workers struck they would be sent back to the Army as soldiers. We had plenty of soldiers and plenty of munitions. If the Government passed the Conscription Bill and a Bill for the dilu- tion of labour, he advised the Clyde workers to down tools," but to do it discreetly and m a, body. Be was quite satisfied that if the British soldiers laid down their arms the Ger- man soldiers woutd do the same, for they were all tired of the war long ago. The best weapon :he workers could use against Conscription i was the strike. Lloyd George had hroughtl German gold to Weir's Works Glasgow, and it was that gold that the men were being i pa.id with now. workers were being made slaves to suit the bloody English capitalists; which was pure Kaiserism and Prussianism. The Clyde workers should strike at once, and those who had guns to use them also. At another meetng he did not advise his hearers to strike. Wilt they should sell or pledge their alarm clock and sleep in the morning and not go to work. There were 23 witnesses, all police officers, from Glasgow, who attended the various meet- ings as part of their duty, and for the most part made written reports of the speeches from mem- ory afterwards. One detective said he wrote two Hues of shorthand oE. the back of a label. The cross-examination was directed chiefly to estab- lish discrepancies of recollection of what was said and to show that prisoner's speeches were directed against compulsory service, which had nut then been adopted, and that a similar line of argument against 10 -was used in the House of Commons by Sir John Simon. Air. MacRobert .ai.'gested that the remark aoout the workers in n Glasgow munition factory being paid with German gold referred to a controversy then proceeding between the "Glasgow Record" and the" Bulletin" as to German gold heing; dis- tributed to workmen on the Clyde. and that meetings of the workmen were held almost daily to protest against the insult. Witness insisted that Maclean's statement was made seriously, and that the munition workers who heard it lis- tened in silence.—Evidence for the defence was then called.—Joseph Milne, of the Independent Labour Party, who presided over one of the meetings, .addressed by prisoner, was questioned about the "down arms" allegation. He said that a number of the a. ildici-tee asked if it was not obvious that if the soldiers laid down their rifles the war would end, and that Maclean replied that it would, but that the idea was too Utopian.—Thomas Henderson, a. memberof the I.L.P.. said that Maclean did not advise the workers to "down tools." but a member of the audience recommended that the soldiers should "lay down their bloody too], of war."—Maclean was the last witness called. He denied using the seditious words alleged. He was opposed 80 strikes among munition workers at the present time, he said, but not as re- garded other workers.—There was a grave and vital conflict (/ evidence, said Lord Strathely' de, the judge.—The jury returned a verdict of guilty on four of the charges. They held that the charges of advocating an immediate strike and the use of guns were not proved. —Maclean waa sentenced to three years' penal servitude.— Sympathisers in the gaMerv cheered prisoner and sang "The Red Flag. Four of them were de- sait?, 'I T?,e, R,(,d Fniir of t-heill Were ta,itie.(l I)N- police. Tliev ivie,t?e £ 2 or 14 days.
THE "WORKER l ARTICLES. 12 MONTHS FOR GALLACHER AND MUIR Ln passing sentence at Edinburgh on Thursday last upon three young Socialists, who were found guilty by nr: of having published a seditious article in the "Worker." the organ of the Clyde Workers' Committee, the Lord Justice General said the jury had found the ar- ticle was calculated to stir up sedition and to production of munitions of war. That. is n, the present juncture." said his Lo.rd.sbtp. "a.s you well know, one of the most I serious charges that can.be preferred against. a citizen of this country. The article seems to be ,v i m ie artie] E, -,eenin to b?e in very plain and forcible language to tell the workers that physical force is their last resort after the method of a universal strike fails to protect the workers against the supposed at- tack made upon them through the Munitions Act, the Military Service Act, and the dilution of labour. It is not easy to believe that you were not conscious of that." On the other hand, Lord Strathclyde said they had expressed their regret for publication of the article, but his Lordship was sorry that regret was not expressed at an earlier stage of the case. With respect to two of accused, William Gallacher, Chairman of the Clyde Workers' Committee, and John Muir, editor of the Worker." he was, however, satisfied that in re- cent times they had apparently exercised their influence for good among their fellow workers, and that hitherto their character had been un- impeachable. Accordingly he was not disposed to pass sentence of penal servitude. The sentence upon these two was 12 months' imprisonment, and upon the other accused, Walter- Bell, busi- ness manager of the Socialist Labour Press, Glasgow, 3 months' imprisonment. A Glasgow Meeting, the Gtesgow magistrates have prohibiten a demonstration which was being promoted for Glasgow Green on Sunday to protest against the deportation 'of Clyde workers. Tie authorities also refused permission to organise a procession through the streets. A special meeting of the Glasgow Trades Council on Thursday last decid- ed to abandon both gatherings in deference to the authorities, but agreed to take legal advice whether the magistrates have power to prohibit I a public meeting on the Green.
STRIKERS FINED £25. I PENALTIES INFLICTED UPON CLYDE MUNITION WORKERS. Fines, amounting to £ 230, and ranging from t2,5 to £0. were inflicted at Glasgow on. a. num- ber of munition workers at Beardinore's fac- tory. who ca-me out on strike because the firm refused to allow a delegate named Kirwkood— since deported-—to visit departments in which the dilution of labour was operating. A. man named Hanlon, one of two shop stewards who were fined £ 2-5 oach--the highest penalty yet inflicted in the Clyde district—declared, in an- swer to the representative of the Ministry of Munitions, that the men were justified in strik- ing in this instance, even though they were en- gaged on munitions urgently needed by the British Army <1c11d our Allies. An American engi- neer was f¡n(d £20.
I Co-Operators After Scalps. MERTHYR AND TROEDYRHIW MEM- I BERS HECKLE THE COMMITTEE. ABERCANAID STORES TO BE OPENED, I AND MERTHYR CENTRAL RUMOUR. The quarterly meeting of the Merthyr and Troedyrhiw Co-operative Society reminded us of the large towns of the North, where Co-opera- tion is part of the lives of the people, and where the members are as quick to criticise as they arc loyal to support. It was a meeting of critical Co-operators with an interest in the So- ciety and a determination to see that the re- reputed Democratic management of Co-opera- tion is not a ch imera so far as the local So- ciety was concerned, and it was a large meeting. Some interest of the members may be gleaned from the a act that at the scheduled time for starting the business the members gathered were so numerous that the original intention to hold the meeting in the Society's own rooms at Troedyrhiw had to be abandoned, and an ad- journment made to the larger Tabernacle Hall, which was comfortably filled, and also from the fact that the discussion did not end until close on 11 o'clock—almost lour hours of continuous business, and not of the mutual admiration type -as any member of the Board of Management will freely admit. Merthyr had sent down a heavy contingent with bones to pick; but the most determined element was the "crowd" from Abercanaid, who for same years now have been expecting a branoh store in their own particular township, and who, growing tired in the ima- gined or real dilatoriness of the Committee, had come to determine by the inexorable right of the ballot their right to a shop in their midst. They got what was tantamount to a promise of fulfilment, and we should not like to be on the Committee if that promise is not kept; :\1r. Edwards, of Penvdarren. had a crow to pick over Co-operative Banking. methods in the district, and lie picked it clean, as did several other members present their various points of divergence from the Committee's policv. So far as the finances of the district activities are concerned, the question has been a good one, and it was an excellent, balance sheet which Mr. Enoch Mori-ell had to present from the chair. One trembles to think what would have hap- pened had it been otherwise. After Mr. Mofrell had clealt at some length with the statement of accounts, pointing out the increase in trade and the sums allocated to profit, reserve fund, and educational fund, the question of the Abercanaid branch store was mtroduted. and the fun com- menced. The Abercanaid "band" was not to be put off with honeyed words or half promises, and they fulfilled their determination to carry it to the ballot, with the result that by a oig maionly of the members present it was decided that feheir claim was a just one, a.nd it was decided to proceed with the opening of a branch store. An important announcement bv the President was that to the effect that in future the So- ciety is to use motor 'busses for the delivery of goods, a.nd that the first will appear on the roads within the next few weeks. Mr. Burrows was re-elected secretary for the ensuing 12 months. In addition to the Abercanaid Stores, we understand that the question of a huge Central Stores in Merthyr is on the tapis, and that the President and Committee are giving this matter their serious attention. We trust that it will materialise, and materialise quickly, for to a Co-operator it is painful to see the way in which the huge syndicate shops are living on the workers in this area. In the words of Harry Lauder's song. )a<t wetk's meeting was "Jil- ,t like being at ham," and we rejoice, as we are sure the Committee does, now that it has got over the soreness of the meeting, that this interest is being shown by the members, for these "rowdy" meetings as we have heard them erroneously called, are re- garded "m Lancashire as being the surest sign of progress, and if they are not forthcoming, then both members and Commit cce feel that they have failed in their duty somewhere. The nearer we can get -to Lancashire the better 1. we shall like it from a Co-operative point of view, and if these meetings are to help in the propaganda will help towards the attainment of an annual turnover of half-a-million a year -t quite possible ideal here—then they are to be welcomed. A. P. Y
DOWLAIS GO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY, Limited. I" II I DOWLAIS CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY, limited, I 16, ;e:aiS' I We are now showing a Largs Assortment of New Goods for the I Coming Season :— I Household Linen. B?an?ets. Quilts. Sheets. ■■ I Carpets and Rtgs.. '? MILLINERY DEPT. I | Costumes. Jackets. Blouses* Ladies and • S CoaiM?ea. Jackets. B!?-Mse@. Ladses and I Children's Millinery. ) Chs!d?'en'@ !??!sne?, ￼ VALUE AND QUALITY GUARANTEED IF YOU BUY AT 16, 17, 18 & 19, Union Street, Dowlais. j Parstscaliog, Dowlais. Caeharrlss Dowlais* I High Street, Penydarren. t Station Terrace, Bediinog- 1.11. II I'II -tI1lllU- "-1' .A,
An Appeal for "Naw Pal." By M. J. Fitzgimjox. f The old warrior is on his last legs, and it be- hoves everyone interested in what has come from his pen to do all they can now; his hour of trial has come. His fight has been long, and always against the forces of capitalism and reaction. Now, in the evening of his life, he finds that he is not so well provided for as he might be. Taking a different course in early life, things for him would be much more com- fortable than what they are. It wants a man with courage, strength and principle to wade through life unsullied and unsoiled. This has been done by our old Comrade. Sharks and trick- sters don't like him, because he exposes them, and shows what they say and write to be false. He is poor because he is-and has been—hon- est. He has not succeeded in getting the good things of life, because he always held to what was true. Position, wealth and power are not held by people owing to their honesty and upright moral character, but very often the re- verse. "Bigger the rogue, better the luck," is an old and true saying. The position of the old chan just now is that he is living on parish relief. Everything being up in prices, there is a difficulty with him of makng both ends meet. If we are Socialists, we will not allow him to be kicked aside like a wet rag that is of no further use. This is a chance that we can show what'fellowship and comradeship mean. At--teN a conversation with Pat; J I believe that if we would get him 15 j a week, that amount would enable him to rub along. When we consider the amount, it ought not to be so hard to get it. I say this. of course, thinking that we believe in what we preach. 60 persons sending 3d. per wpek would do the needful; 18U every week sending a solitary copper would keep the wolf from the door. Not the price of. a packet of Woodbines! We have a few Pioneer Col-ritilit- tees scattered over the South Wales Coalfield j and I think the members of those committees ought to deal with this matter. It would be quite an easy matter for them to collect a shilling or two, and send the sum to the Editor of the Pioneer." The Editor, in his turn, could forward the amount on to "Pat. It would also be wise to open a "Navvy Pat Fund" In the Pioneer," so that anyone out- side the committees who may have a stray cop- per could send it on. The position could be made clear every week as to the., amount receiv- ed, and what was sent on to the man who sti, ll bits out although he has gone by his 74th milestone. Many may not know the great work lie- has done, ever since he has been connected with the .Piotie,(,j-. From the miners' point of view, he has shown that every agreement en- of v i ew, he has s h tnvn that agreement en- tered into between the employers and the leaders the rate per cent, per shilling has been on the decrease. That is to say, that as we go along the position of capitalism is made more powerful every time anything is drawn up. The position of the capitalists being made stronger by these methods; the worker becomes more de- pendent on the exploiters, and therefore more servile and degrading. Where such conditions prevail, taat. which is good, noble and true has a hard j.h to raise its head. Leaders of the organisation don't like this an. Why ? Because he has given pnblicitty to their ignorance and folly. None of this Fraud like the individual, who looks to the future and his ideals, and moulds his actions accordingly. "Pat" has also pointed out that the men who lead the organisation want that body to be run to suit their particular fancies, and not in accordance, with the ideas of the ,ma«s. In a word they liKe power, and that power In a wor d they power, and flint power to be manipulated from their outlook. Organisa- tions used. for leaders, and not the leaders for the organisations, mean that such men are opposed to democratic rule. Opposition to de- mocracy is hindering progress, and the realisa- tion of advanced ideas. If "Pat" was wrong, how is it that these chaps have not proved it? H? has invited them into the "arena." time after time. but ?ey have been clever in avoiding that which they should meet. We are right in thinking them incapable, in so far as they have not had the courage to take him on The figures of the coalowners have been taken to task, and they have also been invited to step to the front, but like the leaders the have fought shy. So from these two sources we cannot expect any help; therefore we must do it ourselves. Contributions from employers aire not given to a man like "Pat." There isn't anything so pleasing to them as to see the workhouse door closing on the likes of him. If we want, to stop this from happening, read- ers of the "Pioneer" must send on their mite., 1, take it that we all want the best his br can give; if so, we must do our bit." J Is this man to go under when a helping from us would save him? Lip sympathy is y use; it never did fill the stomach. To the d1 with words let us have action. What say yo: comrade r1
I This terrible war is killing a lot of busi*28 -es] Make it a personal resolve that the Pi0t18eeSI shall not be killed.