Commonsense and the Con- ￼ scientious Objector. ??i.dH.HJ'Uj ??tJ'jt.?n?&. The conscientious objector is thought to' be a queer creature. The Sunday papers delight to picture him as being either a crank c,-i, a cow- ard. and furnish pictures of long-haired specta- cled faddists, and youths- spoiled by the foolish fondness of their mothers. The mention of his deep and inward conviction creates a smile, and opinion varies as to whether he is a fool or a rogue. He is, however, a very ordinary individual; like other men, he has no inward tinkling bell" to guide his actions, and no mysterious monitor solves the problems of his life. In August, 1914, he, too, was confronted by new situations. The world seemed in the melting pot; trusted leaders took recruiting pladorms; pacifist preacher and mihh'can were united by the horror of militarism; terrible at-II rocities Riled the air, and the International had disappeared. His favourite journals gave him no guidance; the Labour Leader, Clarion," or ,'7 Justice" took opposite sides, and he had to decide his problems unaided. Perhaps Brails- ford's War of Steel and Gold," or Newbold's disclosures, or Shaw's pamphlet helped him to find his feet. A visit to a recruiting meeting may have convinced him that his place W aš i,,o,t "to Berlin. with that crowd. He may hav?? "eh b'S inadio n illogical for a while, yet as he loo ks back in the light of present- day know l ed ge, he does not regret- his deci- lie clo,es no'?, lils doe?-,? Study and reRection reveal the causes behind I the effects, war, diplomacy and atrocity. He recognises that the drum and trumpet" his- tory "which he has been taught is but a small part of histo!rv and he sees the hollowness of the oia gags of patriotism and freedom. Re- cent happening's have their morals. Thrift has been strenuously advocated; the workers must do wihout servants, motor-cars, and pianos. It is not the workers whom the conscientious ob- jector sees riding in carriages, with two stal- wart men upon the box, or lounging in luxu- rious motors. Trade Unions are forbidden to demand higher wages by a Cabinet who still draw their bit. Wondrous schemes of co- operation between Labour and Capital are being; outlined. Master and man will unite to con- tinue a war in trade after the fighting is done. The devil will enjoy holy water, and lion anci lamb lie down together. These schemes are as brilliant as the three wives to-each man proposal which forgot that the worker does not draw the salary of a Kitchener r The Conscientious Objector is not favourably impressed with the military fashions. Why should a man with a starred shoulder com- pel a respectful salute from a private? Money probably procured his rank, but does not guar- antee his ability. Unquestioning obedience is the one quality required in a soldier; militarism will never be ended by men in khaki; but by those who have out-grown national hatreds. The smuggler did not abolish smuggling: that was accomplished by the removal of the high duties. The highwayman did not invent the railroads or the exchanges, which made his profession out of date. The Conscientious Objector is often supposed to believe in a weird "non-resistance to evil" doctrine. The famous u mother and sister" I question of the Tribunals is founded on this assumption The Tribunal members may rest assured that if a Objector saw. a woman maltreate d lie would undoubtedly rest- rain the offender, if possible. The analogy is a failure circumstances alter cases: what a per- son would do in a suppositions situation has no bearing upon the present real situation. An absolute non-resistance to evil brings to mem- or.- the story of the child who, on being told that God could do> everything, asked if He could make a stone, bigger than he could lift. The same objection might be .arvnlied to the s a ore dness of human life" idea. Like other men the Conscientious Objector would shoot a mad 1. dog or even iji desperate straits a madman; but that fact does not prove that he should be now shooting sane men. in France. Bible texts do not prove his position wrong or right, The revival of the old tribal gods, who fight for each nation, is making him re- view former, beliefs. He cannot cultivate "the simple and child-like faith which R. J. Camp- bell proclaims, and wonders if the ark of old filled with this metaphysical moonshine would I be bullet-proof. The differences between rival dogmas have lost his interest: does it matter whether he spells atonement at-one-went, or takes :a "sprinkling," or a "dip," or bub- bles over with texts like a Plymouth Brother? More vital questions demand his attention: he is driven to inquire into the reasons why he is in his present, position; and to analyse the forces wihch make wars inevitable to capital- ism. He will find a guide book of present so- ciety in Marx's Capital," and the Commu- nist Manifesto" will arouse an evolutionary rhythm in his thought, and he will fight in the class war. The Trade Union meeting will dis- place the prayer meeting; a Labour Press the l chapel debt. The Conscientious Objectors are too numerous to be shot, and the strength found in association will not be forgotten. The fact of being ready to dare a law makes him consider the foundation of all laws and authority, and he will find them man-made. This fact will not make him an Anarchist who rejects evevy authority and law. Freedom is not achieved in that fashion. We are made for co-operation—like feet. like hanpfe. like eye- brows. like the rows of the urrner and lower teeth and this becomes more necessary as so- ciety develops. The collier needs the haulier; the haulier the rider; the rider the engine man, they al! need the fan-men, and so the endless chain proceeds It is upon this division of labour that our modern freedom depends. Mod- ern production cannot be carried on without capital, i.e., accumulated labour. Capitalism needs investment of surplus orofiis, and rival nations compete for spheres of exploitation, and this competition breeds war. The Con- scientious Objector wishes to abolish war. and to do so he must abolish capitalism. Common- sense should direct his efforts into controlling the accumulated labour, and his weapons are the strike and the ballot-box. Poverty is the only hell, and heaven is what he makes it. "Workers of the world unite, you have a. world to win." M.S.
5 Jobbers and Pacifists. By the REV. W. REES, Llechryd. The Chairman of a Tribunal in the Rhondda Valley, criticising a Conscientious Objector said, "This is the most unpleasant job that I ever had the job of judging a man's conscience, which belongs to none but to the Lord and man himself. An Article appeared in the London Daily News" lately, by A.G.G., entitled "How to make a better job of the world after the war." The word job struck me as significant of the trade of the Tribunals, of journalists, of politicians, of preachers, of capitalists and war- riors..A. job is a piece of selfish work which is only of a trifling and temporary nature as dis- tinguished from unselfish and real work for the sa,ke of God and man. A job, further, means a transaction, in which private gain is sought under pretence of public service and patriotism. Oar jobbers of journalism, of Church and State have been buying and selling as the Bro- kers of Mars anl Moloch, and have been the cause of breaking the world in pieces, turning it upside down, and scattering abroad the inhabit- ants. Under their hands the land is emptied and spoiled and the multitudes mourn, fade away and languish. The jobbers cannot be trusted in the creation of the new world, We expect nothing from the bailiffs of Beelzebub and the middlemen of Baal but 'official and profes- sional muster for the sake of private advantage and lucrative jobs. Those who will be worthy to recreate and reconstruct the world after the war must be distinterested pacifists, conscientious objectors, and genuine Socialist Reformers and Revolu- tionists—real creators under Christ of a new re- ligion, new journalism and new politics. The treacherous jobbers who have made the earth to reel to and fro like a drunkard and dissolved in misery will be sent to oblivion ultimately to become extinct like the antidiluvian mon- sters. The pacific creators are not like the jobbers looking for jobs after the war, they do not wait for any time, they are at it now and at all times: everlasting and ever-working peace makers. Their motto every moment is "Stop the war and Jet there be light." Their spirit ever moves on the fact of the waters and of the sea of blood. They possess the heart and the power to bring the chaos into order, and notice to quit to the jobbers. The ruling jobbers of the nations, intoxicated with the dying groans of millions, are repug- nant to the life and laws of the New Creation. Let the lions run and rave in the deserts and in the desolations which they have made, or lie down .in perpetual sleep in their dens far from the sunny fields and flocks of the New World. The jobbers of the pulpit, with hands dripping with human gore, then- incense a cloudy pillar of po-isonous gases, their tongues twisting and bendmg to utter lies, their hearts knowing no pity when the eyes of myriads run lown with tears, and their eyelids gush out ViJtll water, when the voice of wailing is heard from pole to pole, and when the carcases of men fall like heaps of dung on the open fields. Let these Judas-i obbers of the Churches keep awaV from the tender mercies of the world after the war; let them withdraw and dwell in their dark land of bitumen, Ditoh and brim- stone. The jobbers of journalism, swallowed up in the vortex of the war into the central zones of the nether world of cruelties and death, the writers of the abysses are not wanted in the va<adi^es of the new world, gained i the golden pen -of pity, equitv and equality. The journalists who bring in t] -e Everlasting Right- eousness have no concern with the conflict of crude forces; they feel themselves estranged from the insane herds and hordes which can rush murderously upon one another fascinated by the violence and brutality of war. Rev. G. Russell, -inthe "Christian Common- wealth" this week, writes of the war as follows: cannot but look out upon the world at this moment with wonder and worship in our eyes. We are standing before Calvary. In every khaki youth there is surely that divine self-giving, the only thing that saves. It is the blood of Christ flowing in the veins of human uy. He describes the spirit of our soldiers as the up-flashing of the Divine in them and the realization of Christ." Similar sentimentn are expressed in the same paper by the Rev. Dr. Selbie. The same Gospel is furiously pro- claimed by Archdeacon Wilberforce, the Bishop of T rndori, and other preachers in a fearful phalanx whilst they treat the Prussian, Aus- tnan and Turkish warriors and their lords as incanlated deyi is Such tinkering jobbers of the Divine Attributes and their up-flashings in the trade of .murder makes Christianity and its rotten churches an infernal phantasv and a fiendish foolishness which paralyse all the ner- ves of God and man, and blasts every ration- al hope. Such a Christianity is an. utter dark- ness, in which none but owls and beasts of prey can see, and that in virtue of the heat of lusb aflame in their own eyes. It belongs to the arid area of Atheism, and should be relegated to Top-bet in the Valley of Tinom and to the burnings of Gehenna outside the City of God and Man. The philosophers and professors of our uni- vÐiit.i:es Ilrmsha,notheI: brood of proud and hafghty jobbers. Men like Sir Oliver Lodge and Henry Jones, with the same class in Germany, have willingly supplied their respective Gov- ernments with subtle lies and garbled learnllng? to encourage them in their horrible carnage. The professors have shamelessly betrayed the olaims of philosophy, and silenced the silvery voice of wisdom, and proved that our teaching intellec-, tuals are as incapable to perceive the truth as the Daily Mail," and the res+ of the Jingo press. British and Prussian Culture are of the same calibre and speak with the same Chau- vinist tongue. Their metaphysics, psychology, logic and ethics go not beyond empty terms, severed from the reality or the Divine-human substance which is omnipresent in all things, even the minutest. Superficial men sit in chairs as sages performing only artificial jobs of learning filling the skies of the soul with thick smoke, and dragging the soul itself down the dust, whilst the uneducated genuine So- cialist has clear ideas of the ultimate realities of life, which axe love and the life of love. His metaphysics are human affections spreading forth in spheres of useful activities, whilst the mental activities of our philosophical jobbers are nothing but the froth of dregs and the filthy foam of their foul maelstrom. Let us be glad and rejoice in the PIONEER the real Peacemaker amongst the mercenary jobbers of the press. Let us heed the appeal of our brave Editor; support him in his high and arduous work; and emulate his splendid spirit expressed in the following words :If we have to print the PIONEER on a piece of note- paper. its individuality shall be preserved ag- ainst the time when war clouds having lifted we can resume our normal size. Beloved readers! Come forth to the help of the mighty, with practical aid. M to expound the Gospel of Hope and GoodwiK such as we have never had, and if we are to take advantage of it, it must be bv rising the PIONEER to its fullest possible ex- tent." i
The Indifference of the Working Class. It ought to be evident to anyone who cares to think, that the exploiting class aire interested in the perpetuation of the competitive system. By it they are able to enjoy themselves, while others do the necessary work. In trying to pre- serve the present system, they are but safeguar- ding themselves and their class: no one can blame them; they are looking after Number 1. But they are in the minority, and get things all their own way, while the working; class are in the majority and do what the minority teU them. Very obedient! one has to admit; but it is not the way to bring about the emanci- pation of those who are so obedient. It is fol- ly to be obedient and submissive to the ideas of others, when great work is essential in order to carve out their own destiny. When the capital- ists and landlords are abroad seeing the sights and gaining a wider knowledge of the world, they know that the good, kind-hearted working class will see that their incomes roll on There is no need for worry on their part; the worry is on the shoulders of those who supply them with the necessaries of life. This ought to be food for thought on the part of the giver; but no! the eyes that should be opened are not! Experi- ence should teach us something, but we have not gained much by what we have gone through. Experience is a dear teacher, but the workers don't gain by it, even though they have and are paying the price. The experience of the past will be repeated in the future, and the les- son will have to be drummed into the workell's before they will understand and profit by it. Good,' honest, unselfish men will. have to be found to force (intellectually) its lesson home; and a mighty task they will have, but I wish them luck. The Trades Unions. A large number of the working class are now enrolled in the Trade Union movement, and be- cause of that fact it is naturally mfernid ta t the greater part of that number take an. active interest in their organisations. This is not so. The majority are in thes Unions because they have been told by leaders, and would-be leaders, that it is the best thing for them. After becoming members they let the work reist, on the shoulders of the few. who do just what they like: that is to say the few at- tending the meetings not knowing-what the majority think, carry things out according to their own whims and 1 ancies. Those who have studied the Trade Union movement know how our forefathers fought and suffered, in order that we may enjoy something that would pro- tect our interests. This right has been handed down to us as a means to strive after some- thing greater. Yet not the eighth, part of the members of these Unions attend any meetings, and it therefore shows that they are not even interested in trying to better the conditions con- nected with their own trades. I fully under- stand that a good percentage are coerced into these L mons, and when this happens I don't think any good comes from it. If you cannot persuade a man by reason and arguement that it is wisdom, for all the workers to be in an or- ganisation. so that they can act as one unit, you will not prove it to him by coercion. Edu- cation and reason are by far better, and have given finelr results A person joining voluntarily and believing in its principles is much more likely to put his heart into the work. if any is to be done. A Trades Union is a combination of workmen joining hands together for the purpose of get- ting the best possible conditions under capital- Ism. The aim is not to abolish capitalism: that is left for greater minds and stronger personal- ities to advocate. There are a few who advocate its abolition among the organised workers, but this is apart and outside of Trade Union prinoi- ples. Principles such as these recognise capital- ism, and most of the individuals embracing them do not seek for its removal. Agreements are entered into by which capitalism, is preserved and perpetuated. In so far as these agreements are held binding and sacred, the principles of an organisation are carried out to the letter. Looking at it from the point of view of one who desires to see the ideal State realised, those arguments must become a hindrance because of the fact thaJ; they must not be broken for a certain number of years. By such conduct we may a-rrive ultimately at something very much diffemnt to all our wishes. When the majority of Trade Uniomsts do not take a hand in carving out their own destiny, things are left entirely in the hands of leaders. When I speak of leader- ■ v snip I møana certain aniountt of power being placed in the hands of a few individuate, af-S tins power being used by them without consul ing the workmen as to their wishes. Democratic control over these organisations is not desire^ j 0' y the average leader. They like to show their position, but it would be more to their credit J they carried out a little educational work- Fancy a leader trying to educate the workerS when his job might depend on their ignorance. what the leader knows, but how little the work' ers know, that allows him to keep his position- j That is the case in many instances; it is not Still, the proper thing for the leader who has the interest of the toilers at heart to do is to i t,, and bring about an educated Democracy* This the bulk of the leaders will not do, b?* cause they dread enlightened workmen. Pra:tbl"l and moonshine we hear from these men, b,tl? i their hostility is quickly shown to the man w? is better educated than themselves. If they dread one or two who are educated, they ctr ,tainiy dread and fear the whole becomino. edu cated. Why is this? Simply because they desiie to keep their positions. Position is more to them than the emancipation of the workiJJ¡? i class. With the workers' -emancipation the ders' job would be no more. The day when come into our own hangs as a nightman over the heads of these men. So we fiJI" leaders on the whole compromising with tile capitalists in order to patch up an old systewi that has—or ought to have-outlived its day- Whether this kind of conduct is the result 0 i selfishness or ignorance one can only guess; son ally, I believe it is both. First of Jr they have not thoroughly grasped advanced thought, owing to the fact that they are toø. tired to study; secondly, knowing the ]nowledge possessed by men who understand this thought; they fear being supplanted by them: tl,-il.alyl believing it be capitalist system to be, thlr only salvation, they preach what the ca;pita,bst preaches, and act as he does. we find capitalists subscribing toward: jt.estimoni.als for leaders up and down the 0on#' l try, can we honestly say they have conscien^ ouslv carried out their dutIes r Do a good tUli! tor me, and when your hour of trial comes, f snail be with you Would the persons of tfr0 o?'er class subscribe if these men fought ￼ and advocated, the abolition of capitalism ? N° EIŒly l'heysuhsûribe when individuals he V to keep them where they are, and only the' Capitalists know the game, and they walk (Yi out with their eyes open. Any weak spots 1: the Labour camp- and there are riiany--are pounced upon by those who take what is nO >< their own. They weigh the labour leadens VI) to che ounce, and they subscribe towards tb? they do most business with. Being in t?6 ranks of the workers and leading them, IJOW is it possible to die worth a great deal Of money? Yet many ad our men who are in t? ￼ limelight die worth thousands of pounds. Oo? -ands of po,ii-Ticl 0 recently I read of a labour leader leaving b, hind him something over four thousand poSn^'l rather queer, but there it is. There is a rtile connected with an organisation which states tbf no increase in contributions shall bef made WIt out first of all hallottmg the men. in this ticulai Union the leaders have fo? some ti? advocated an increase for an out of wo? func1/' s?o. The idea of the State finding wo? £ U:nCit"hi e unemployed never entered their head*' ?ieu- solution of the proMem rested in ohari?' -?w i have never known charity being the r? dy for any great evil, but this was the n°ug sense put before the miners. It must not Pj forgotten that this was advocated bv men i are supposed to be at war with the capitalis t Ah! what a world Charity at 'b?st is preveDtJ?, the State from doing its duty to those f'[ need assistance. Justice is wanted, not chari^. 11, because the one is a right, and the other h??' to keep together the competitive system. 3h der to smash this system, this filthy thing P1" be got rid of before we can hope to in authority do what is right by the con?'. nity. On three occasions the ballot was reB\e td to, and on every occasion the advice of ￼ leaders was rejected. On the majority against this advice was 68,740. ]j-v v; though the men are behind, thev at least Vr°].e ed on those three occasions that the- agents ￼ not representing them. Whether it wa?s ￼ cause it was something that a?ected their J?OcJJ ets, or not, is another matter; but there is C doubt in mv mind that it had a great deal do. with the result..
ARE" WE DOING mqutT!6 7! We have the most mo d ern equipment, aDd j good work is auickly turned out by Trade Unionists at reasonable rates. 1 NOTE THE ADDKESS THE LABOUR PIONEER PF?C-qt Williams' Square, Merthyr Tydfil- (
Gardening Notes. If any reader who is in a difficulty with refer- ence to his garden will write directly to the address given beneath, his questions will aU be answered, free of charge, in full detail, and by return of post.—EDITOR, Weed-Kiliers. In certain cases weed-killers are invaluable; notably when a particularly troublesome weed must be destroyed irrespective of injury to neighbouring plants when paths and roadways are to be rendered permanently sterile and un-I fit for growing weeds, etc. Salt is pBThaps the most .commonly used weed-killer and it is most effectively used in the form of a strong solution applied in hot, dry weather. A pound of salt in a gallon of hot water is the strength usually applied. Iron sulphate, used at a strength of lOOlbs. to 52 gallons of water, makes a good weed-killer, and even copper sulphate in 2 to 10 per cent. solutions is stronger than salt. Crude carbolic acid can be employed very ef- fectively at the rate of. 1.5 parts of water to one part of acid; but it must be frequently stirred during use. Caustic soda is a cheap weed-killer, quite efficient when used in strong solution during hot weather. By far the best of the weed-killers. however, are the arsenical compounds, which form the basis of almost all of the proprietary weed de- i destrovers. as they not only destroy weeds, but also render the ground to which they are ap- plied sterile for a very long period. It is use- less to describe how these preparations are made, since it would be impossible for ordina,ry users to obtain the ingredients in other than; the commercial and ready prepared weed-killers, while they are mostly quite reasonable in price. E-,ierfps*ling Floviers, i These are flowers that retain their shape and mostly their colours as well when they are dried, and they are particularlv useful for win- ter decoration of living rooms. AM can be grown easily as annuals from seeds sown now; and amongst the best are Helichrysum, Am- and Acroolinium. The blossoms should be cut just before they are fully opened, and with long stems. They are then hung to dry in any airy place away from the sunshine. Notes on Ferns Most ferns grow mcelv in a mixture of fib- rous turf soil, loam, and sand, if given ample drainage and can be divided when additional plants are needed. It does not do to attach too much importance to special mixtures of soils, since perfect drainage and great care in water- ing have much more to do with the success of the plants. Water-logged soils are vevy harm- ful; but. on the other hand, if the drainage at the bottom of the pot be ample, there is practi- cally no risk of over-watering, Clay soils are most unsuitable for ferns, which also need to be protected against direct sunshine. They love a moist ati-iiosphei-e and many kinds will be found to thrive perfectly in a close glass case or in the window garden. Most of the native ferns can be moved from their natural habitat to the garden, provided that they are given a position protected from winds anM direct sunshine. Either wind or sun- shine causes 'the plants to shrivel. The shady side of a building is the best position for them, and the ground ought to be kept uni- formly moist. A dressing of leaf-mould in aut- umn is very desirable and helpful Flower Beds. Many flower beds are made at this time of year, and upon the care given to their making success largely depends. The land needs to be well drained, deep and worked into friable con- dition, whif ? it should also be well enriched, All flower beds should, during autumn, receive a dressing of well-decayed manure and this can be forked in during the following spring. Where, however, the ground is clayey in nature, it is well to dig it up roughly in autumn and leave it so for the winter. Artificial manures may al- so be given with benefit in spring and autumn, There an many disadvantages attached to growing formal beds, and in particular the oc- casional failure of a plant or two may practic- ally spoil the appearance of the bed. Where, however, flowers, are grown in large, irregular however, this difficulty disappears as the death masses, of a few plants makes no material difference. Broadly speaking, formal beds are so trou ble- some to keen prim and neat that the pleasure of growing the plants is destroyed. j Poppies, I Tbe.se beautiful lfowers are rather neglected in many gardens, and deserve much, wider eul- tivation than they enj oy. This relates particu- larly to the splendid scarlet and crimson Orien- tal poppies, which are. of course, perennials, and which brighten up dark places wonderful- ly, Poppies do not much like being moved, so that the safest way of growing them to perfec- tion is to sow the seeds where the plants are re- quired to grow; and, fortunately, all the kinds are grown very easily and readily from seed. As a matter of fact, if the seed-pods are not removed when they form, seedlingss will come up everywhere, and in some cases prove an ac- tual nuisartce. Hollyhocks, It is a pity to see these old garden favourites so neglected as they seem to be now, as they are really amongst the noblest of all hardy
'Phone 597. 'Phone 597. WILLIAM TRESEDER, Ltd. THE NURSERIES, CARDIFF. WREATHS, CROSSES, CUT FLOWERS, &c. BEDDING PLANTS. Asters, Stocks, Dahlias, Marguerites, Lobelia, &c. Tela UTRESEDER. FLORIST, C-KPDIF F. flowers4 The reason is probablv to be found in the prevalence of hollyhock rust disease, to which, by the way, the double flowered kinds seem most subject. We have found that plants grown from seeds are much less subject to dis- ease than are those raised from root-divisions; and plants can be grown very easily from seed, whileey will also flower the year after the seed is sown. It is a good plan to raiser fresh plants every two years, as the old plants do not seem to thrive for very long. E. KEMP TOOGOOD, F.L.S., F.R.Met.S., pro Toogood and Sons, The King's Seedsmen, I Southampton.
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