THE EDITOR'S APPEAL. lL .W — E^mrades,—3-he PIONUR" MUST live. Prao- y everybody I meetperson of note in the ment, aad nobodies like myself—are unani- ? in their declaration that, come what may, PIONLIRR must be preserved, a solitary de- er of Democracy and Free Speech and Con- ?ce in our midst. I agree, nay, I will go ?her and say that if we have to print the BEit on a piece of note-paper its individual- shaM be preserved against the time when douds having lifted, we can resure our al size. The PIONEER WILL live, but un- you decide practically how much You think ..Jttisx live, it will be but a faint echo of it- Now is when we must need the PIONEER, II unrnediate future offers you and I an op- t uity to expound the gospel of hope and ■' <1Q"wllI such as we have never had, and if we to take advantage of it, it must be by us- the PIONEER to its fullest possible extent. I a matter that every Democrat in Wales t .\I111d take to himself, and to his lodge and ch. If everyone who looks forward to the When under the shade of the Red Flag, J hall reach peace and plenitude, and good i adeship were to give a. shilling, our diffi- *3s would be almost ended. Is it worth it? tisr aware of the terrible food prices, of the 131ng wagfc earners, and the multiplicity of AN on your Purses; but the PIONEER is a vital of your organisation. Will you keep it, ?e yo? content to amputate the most im- '"?t member? ^nt member F Yours hopefully, THE EDITOR. (Received wetjfc ending March 25). Iape Capital. £ s. d. ￼ 0 5 0 ?Morris. 0 5 0 R vans 0 7 6 ir.EJs" g g ?WilHams 0 5 0 *Sth LIovd. 0 5 0 Taylor 0 5 0 £1 12 Fund. £ s. d. I%K.W! Prosser. 0 5 ? Warhead 0 5 0 }. Other 0 3 0 I I w \Williams. Tonyrefail 0 5 0 \Svans 0 5 0 5 i;n: gig ?'?s 0 2 6 tefail Pioneer Committee 1 10 0 £ 2 16 6
J?goed aod District Trades and 1 141 Ccund!. Labour Council. IHE. CONDEMNED AS REACTIONARY ordinary meeting of the above Council dd on Thursday, March 16, Mr. W. T. in the chair. 6 deport of the joint meeting of representa- s from the local Trades and Labour Councils deceived and adopted, the following resolu- L av*ttg been passed:— "That this meeting lIlt representatives views with distrust the t. of the Military Service Bill, and points II L L danger which may accrue to the work- ses owing to its inaction affecting in- pondence was read from the Bakers' B er stating that the recent dispu-te bet- iSr the bakers and their employers had end- lcably, case of a conscientious objector before n Tribunal, with the usual decision, ussed, showing that this young man ot received fair treatment at the hands ? Members, no vote being taken as to the come to. The Military Representat- d not the Chairman. giving the deoi- j. Seeing that this man was known by ?bers of the Tirbunal for his recent ac- ? in Trades Union matters, the Council ?e opinion that his case was prejud- ? that the M.R. dominates the Tribu- te Secremry was instructed to forward ?f protest to Messrs. Walter Long, M.P.. ?nnant. MP, and J. S. Middleton (Sec- 'Val' Emergency Committee). .Secretary read a reply from the Secret- 1d he New Tredegar Co-op. Society on the ? ? of the C.W.S. Bank and current ac- <' If this movement could inaugurate ?e system dealing with current accounts sint stock banks do, what an advantage ? be to the workers; also a tremendous ? ? the C.W.S. movement. -Further a,c- ?tU be taken, and it is to be hoped ?e matter will be taken up seriously by ?M-s that be in the C.W.S. movement. ocular was read from the Joint Trades ?Committee dealing with the position of ?pe.rative Employees' Union and the ?nion Congress '(September) resolution. ? ?wing resolution by the Bargoed Shop ?s' Union was passed:—" That in view V^eision of the Amalgamated Union of tiv.e Empoyees to open the ranks of anisation to all persons employed by ^tive Societies which have an effective 'Jnioi? or not, this delegate meeting of J.s Council hereby declares such deci- tL?e reacHonary and a menace to the i?ent of industrial organisation in so t it tends to divide the workers into passes of employment instead of deve- ?ades Unionism on the lines of one or- i?. for all engaged in an occupation re- ??f whom their particular employer may | 't was read from the Taxation of Land '?pom.mitt?e offering dates for speakers, ??ing members to attend the annual ?t Cardiff on the 18th inst. The Secre- te asked to arrange a suitable date for a ??eting. and also to attend the annual ?t from the Rents Committee was given ?ding that the Council should follow '?es of other Trades Councils by having lWHMas bills printed showing the main points [ ?striction of Rents Act. The report was ^^sion arose on the question of the two ? ?t to the Press of the previous or- ??ting. The reports, which were an ??. were sent to the "Pioneer" and 16 local press, had omitted two very im- <'(. ?ms. The Council decided that in ?rts should be sent to the Pioneer" ??y Jones (Organiser of the Bast i1r Party) was present at tHe meet- ?!' ?iU be with us again at the ?ext E?. The Council will a-atKate with the ?-r- ?? ? y:a.r diSiculty a?smg with the Bar- i .1k?&tn Coaa De??gate8 in attending the' iX-v ^etings, it was decided to change to i ?"?sda-y in the month for the
I Aberdare Tribunal. I I JOHN THOMAS, B.A., COMPLIMENTED ON I CANDID STATEMENT OF OBJECTIONS. Before a crowded audience at the Aberdare Towia Hall CouncJI Chamber, the local Tribunal (witfe Mr. Charles Kenshole as chairman) heard the application of Mr. John Thomas, B.A., on Wednesday, March 22. His grounds for exemp- tion on conscientious grounds weire as follow 1—RELIGIOUS REASONS From the earliest recollections I have, thanks to the teaching of my devout and God- fearing parents, my Sunday school teachers, and other spiritual advisers in the Church of Christ, to which I have belonged as a full member since I was 12 years of age, I have been brought up in the spirit and faith of Love ye one another" "Do unto others as ye would have others to do unto you," and Thou shalt not kill." In later years, after my experience of the world of men and books, Í have been strengthened in my belief and conviction of the reajsonableness and power underlying the principles of the Christ- ian. Church I "belong to, which emphasises the Fatherhood of God over all men and the Brotherhood of Man. And further, as a Pro- testant, I believe in the fundamental sanctity and saoredness of the individual and human personality. I believe it to be inconsistent with and disloyal to the practice and the spirit of the teachings of Christ, as interpre- ted by my conscience to associate myself with in any way combatant or non-combatant mi- litary service, and assume the responsibility of bearing arms and inflicting death on my fellow-men. These convictions I have held and expressed as a. Sunday school teacher and as a Sunday school superintendent, long befoaje this European War broke out, since which time my convictions have been strengthened. 2—MORAL AND ETHICAL REASONS On moral and ethical grounds, I conscienti- ously believe that militarism, particularly when conscript, is an unmitigated evil, be- e,ause it leads to national hatreds, suspicions and jealousies, culminating in misunderstand- ing between peoples and leading directly to gigantic organised bloodshed now ruining the homes of European families. My study of society in various climes and epochs shews that the best and noblest in the nation is suppressed a,nd checked by the military ma- chine. 3—SOCIAL AND POLITICAL REASONS My serious and sincere study of social and political phenomena has led me to the firm conviction that where the State has coerced the individual, who has arrived at his con- viction after a mental struggle, to do a thing against his will, it is over-stepping its legitimate power and infringes on the in- violable liberty of the individual, as empha- sised by John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, and others. I am convinced that the militarism of mo dern nations is a barrier to the progress of Democracy and a hindrance and menace to the realisation of our hopes for permanent paoe, for which 1 have devoted my untir- ing energies on every possible occasion. As a worker in the cause of peace, I cannot un- dertake to engage in war without shattering my noblest and most cherished ideals. • My association with various movements— dating long before the outbreak of the Eu- ropean War—which aim at the betterment of human life, both within the nation and am- ong the nations, has matured in me a solemn conviction, after due meditation and serious thought, that the only conscientious and right thing for me to do is to refuse to take part in any war, whatever the penalties be for refusal. The above are in support of my exemption under (f). The Chairman: This statement of yours is very candid and dear Have you tried to inculcate any of these views or doctrines since the outbreak of war P Mr. Thomas: No; but I have taken every opportunity to associate myself with and con- fer with persons who hold similar views to my- self on war and militarism. Wherever I have been approached by individuals about my views on war. I have spoken fearless! and candidly about my views on war. I have not acted the hypocrite with regard to my whole-hearted op- position to war and militarism. The Ch air man I a dmir e the candid way in which you answer, Mr. Thomas, but supposing the Germans actually invaded this town, what would be your attitude then? Mr. Thomas I don't thnk your question is a fair One, to answer, as it. is purely an hypothetical question, and as I have arrived at my conscientious objection as the result of an analysis of facts, it is unfair to test it by this supposition. Still I'll endeavour to answer you in this way. It is a matter of little consequence to me whether the Germans land here in person or not, the fact that the spirit of militarism or Pruisisianism is here now compelling young. men against their convictions to take up arms 16 a sufficient fact for me to oppose it with all my power, whatever the penalties be for refusal. The Chairman: Very well. Again. I must say I admire the candid way you state the mat- ter but supposing the Germans actually had in- vaded the town and attacked your mother, would you defend her? Mr Thomas: That question again is purely hypothetical, and on general grounds it is be- side the point. Still, I will say again that as far as I know now, in any case I would not take up arms to kill someone who attack- ed my mother. If at the moment I would kill someone in defending her. I would be cer- tain of one thing: that my conscience would haunt me ever after, i.e., if I did anything of that nature as an individual. One thing lam certain of: that I would not allow myself to become a part of the military machine to de- fend with arms my mother if she were attacked The Chairman: But surely these outrages by the Germans are not hypothetical? They are well established facts. Have you read Bryce's Report on German Atrocities? Mr Thomas: Yes, I have perused Bryce's report very carefully, and other pamphlets by Professor Morgan, the Government Special Com- missioner the very perusal of these reports on atrocities simply endorsed my conscientious ob- jections and opposition to wars in all forms. War carried on by any country is accompanied by atrocities, as shown by reports on even our own South African War, and -as clearly shown by the Carnegie's International Commission on the Balkan Wars. The crimes and -atrocities committed by soldiers are the result of war, and I aim personally opposed to war itself, which is the atrocities and outrages on the civil population. The Chairman: So as far as you yourself are concerned, you would let England be over-run by the Germans in the same way as Belgium was over-run and rained. Mr. Thomas: I don't think that interprets my attitude at all. If every one shared my views, no arms would be taken up even if the Germans decided to invade Itngland. Then the Germans, meeting no resistance,, would not damage the country or molest tie inhabitants, just as the Germans, when Luxemburg offered no resistance in this war, left her intact. The Chairman: Well I must compliment you, Mi. Thomas, for being so candid with us. So I am to understand that in the event of an inva sion, and if your mother was attacked, you would not defend her. Mr Thomas: No, I would not defend her by the use of arms. The Ohawinaii: Does any member of the Tri- bunal desire to ask the application a question? (Not a. single question was asked by any mem- her of the Tribunal.) You know that the Tri- bunal can only exempt you from combatant ser- vice ? Mr. Thomas. That is an interpretation of the Act that I oannot acoept. The Act provides for absolute and complete exemption to the bona-iide conscientious objector, and the in- structions of the Local Government Board to Tribunals are very clear on the point. In any case I shall appeal against your decision if you will decide to exempt me from combatant ser- vices only. The Chairman: Very well; we shall let you know our decision by post. Later the applicant heard the decision. The question was put to the vate: four members voted for absolute exemption and six (including the Chairman) for exemption from combatant service only Mr. Thomas has appealed against the decision Immediately on retiring from the Court while the Tribunal decided on Mr. Thomas' case, the audience ad journed, and under the presidency of Councillor Idwal Thomas, at a public meeting the following resolution was unanimously passed and communicated to the Press: Having heard the ruling given by the Chairman of the Aberdare Tribunal during the case of a conscientious objector to the effect that as a Tribunal they could only ex- empt a conscientious objector from combatant services only," we hereby moat vigorously pro- test against such a ruling as it is contrary to the letter and spirit of the Military Service Act, 1916, which empowers the Local T'ri- bunal to grant complete and absolute exemp- tion to a r-lotiscientious objector from both combatant and non-combatant services. -Further, the instructions of the Local Government Board to Tribunals is equally specific about the matter, as shown by tlie followng extract:—" There may be excep- tional cases in which the genuine convictions of the eonscientous objectors) and the cir- cumstances of the men are such that nei- ther exemption from combatant service nor a conditional exemption will adequately meet the case. Absolute exemption can be gran- ted in their cases if the Tribunal are fully satisfied of the facts. Mr. Turvey, a conscientious objector from Hirwain. next appeared before the Tribunal. The Chairman: Do you belong to any body that Objects to war, such as the Quakers or Christadelphions.?—Applicant: No, but I be- long to a Church of Christ, to which I have belonged for 12 years, and I take the Bible as the only rule in life. Chairman: Would you have any objection to doing non-combatant service say as orderly in a hospital? Surely it is a Christian duty to tend the wounded ?—Applicant: T have no ob- jection to being a hospital orderly. Mr. T. Walter Williams: Do you object con- scientiously to mine sweeping, which has the meritorious object of protecting the lives of British merchant men and passengers ?—Appli- cant: Yes, as far as that mine sweeping is un- der the control of the War Office or Admiralty. Mr. T. W. Williams: Do you f_.ay that you would not assist in mine sweeping, knowing that thereby we as inhabitants of this island would st,a,rveP-Ap-plicant: I cannot help that, it wowld be a, direct result of warfare. Mr T. W. Williams: So you would prefer starving vourself than help in mine sweeping?— Applicant: I would not be allowed to starve, as they would forcibly feed me. Major Grey: Have you attended any meet- ings of an organisation against Cbnserip- tion which held a Mock Tribunal about three Sundays ago?—Applicant: No. Chairman Very well, we'll consider your case The Tribunal later gave its decison to ex- empt Turvey from combatant service only. After the above case was heard. Mr. John Thomas entered the court and approached the Press Table as the official representative of the PIONEEII. The other press representatives, of the S.W.D.N. and "Aberdare Leader "had previously left the room. The Court having, been cleared of the audi- ence because the next applicant desired his case to be heard in private, Major Grey looked ac- ross to the press table and called the attention of the Chairman to the nresence of Mr. Tho- mas. who ought to have retired as a member of the public. Mr. Thomas replied that he was not there now in a private capacity as a member of the public, but as the official repre- sentative of the PIONEER; and as such he had as much right to sit at the press table as the representatives of the S.W.D.N.and "Ab- e-rdalre Leader. This remark drew the following comment from Major Grey: Mr. Obam-man, I object to the PIONEER having a representative in the room as it published in its issue a week or so ago not a report of the proceedings at Mountain Ash Tribunal, but what you may call a funny or silly aifticle by a member wk. actually was appealing before that Tribunal on conscientious grounds. (Obviously referring to Mr. Emrys Hughes.) After reading a communication from the Editor of the PIONEBR asking Mr. Thomas to act as their representative, the Chairman put the question to the Tribunal as to whether Mr. Thomas was to remain in as the press re- presentative.—On the motion of Mr. Stonelake, it was decided to allow Mr. Tioimas to remain in the Press representative of the PIONEER on the same terms as the other Press representatives. The Tribunal then resumed its deliberations on applications for exemption. Mr. John Price, from Aoerewmboi, hairdres- ser, who desired to be exempt on business and domestic grounds, had his appeal dismissed. Edmund R. Evans, solicitor, who appealed on grounds of business hardship and ill-health, had one month's extension. T. Charles Davies, tramwayman, Trecynon, who appealed for exemption on medical and do- mestic. grounds, was given 7 days' adjournment to be medically examined at Cardiff Mr. Fine an Abéramåll pawnbroker, appeal- ed for exemption on business grounds.—The ap- plication was refused. Mr. Davies, a commercial traveller, who had appealed en oonscientioms grMtMie and domestic reasons, asked leave to withdraw his conscienti- ous objections, as he was now prepared to joirr the army if he had a little extension.—Granted one month's extension.
I To Mr. Walter Long, M.P. I By THOMAS THOMAS Sir,-P,ray excuse the presumption of an ordi- nary working-man like myself addressing a man of importaaice like yourself. I would not dream of taking such a liberty were it not that your last circular letter of advice to the Tri- bunals has somewhat landed me in a mental bog. Your instructions are explicit and baffling reasonable and inexplicable. Were the Tribunals composed of intelligent and unbiassed men, your circular would be intelligible; but judg- ing from the reports in the newspapers, more egregious dunderheads never essayed to inter- pret an Act of Parliament than the men who sit on the Tribunals, and consequently your advice, to be effective, needs amplifications. You "state in your circular that "It is, of course, necessary that the Tribunals should satisfy themselves of the bona-fides of an appli- cant, and of the precise grounds and nature of his objections, but it is desirable that inqui- ries should be made with tolerance and impar- tiality." Now, this advice of yours, judged superficially, is fair and plain; and were it di- rected to ordinary men of ordinary mental at- tainments, would probably be acted upon with- out any serious deviations into by-paths of irrel- evancy but you have intended the advice for the guidance of the members of the Tribunals, and in that lies the difficulty. First of all I would remind you that the Tribunals had dealt with thousands of cases before your circular came into their hands. The very fact that you have felt constrained to send this advice clearly proves that, in your opin- ion. the Tribunals have not been doing their work properly. In face of this fact, would it not have been better, and more in accord with justice, to rectify the mis-deeds of the Tribunals, and thus demonstrate the sincerity of your intentions? Has the possibility not suggested itself to you that these Tribunals ha- ving already decided on so many claims for exemption, and having, in the cases of the con- scientious objectors, dealt with the claims in such an arrogant, pig-headed, malignant man- ner—that even were there an inclination to mo- dify their rigorous course, the Tribunals would hardly conduct, their future proceedings in accordance with your instructions, for the rea- son that having been allowed, without protest, to travesty the conscientious clause in the Com- pulsory Army Act, to reform now would be an admission of their own incompetency and piggishness? If you really intended your in- structions to be carried out, you should have annulled the iniquitous decisions passed on those claimants who have passed through the Tri- bunals. Having refused to do this elementary justice, you stand convicted of dissimulation. You ask the Tribunals to practice tolerance and impartiality, knowing that impartiality ip. the present war is a physical impossibility; and although the Government made much ado about getting Labour representation, on the Tribunals, so apprehensive were you that this Labour representation might interpret the Com- pulsory Act in favour of the claimant for ex- emption, that you felt it a duty to elect a military representative to sit on each Tribu- nal. and to whom was given powers supersed- ing the powers of the whole civil members. Moreover, the qualifications essential for the proper acquital of the military representatives' duties were the ability to brow-beat and make ignorant alilld sneering remarks. Truly, you left no loophole for the conscientious objector, and Urs aarefui preparation in the formation of the Tribunals makes your last letter of advice the more ridiculous. But the obstruse part of your circular lies in your request that the Tribunals should satisfy themselves of the bona-fides of an applicant, and of the precise grounds and nature of his ob- jections." What do you mean by "the bona- fides of an applicant?" What is your standard of judging the bona-fides of a conscientious ob- jector? When Tribunals disallow the claims of a man like Clifford Allen, who has devoted his time and risked his life in the cause of peace. it is evident that something more than vague advice is necessary. If a man with a natural reputation as an anti.militarist-who denounced war in pre-war days, and spent his time and energies in furthering the cause of interna- tional amity, cannot be considered as entitled to absolute exemption from military service, then in heaven's name tell us who is entitled! The worker has been refused at the Tribunals; the claimants on religious, moral and political grounds—all have been ruthlessK dismissed, ',al- though proofs irrefutable have been adduced in support of the claims. Of what good, then, is ycur circular letter of advice if you won't say by what criterion conscience is to be judged? A few men have had their claims allowed, and yet these few had no stronger testimony than the many who were rejected. Every applicant for exemption stated on his form the precise grounds" and nature of his objection, and many ably supplemented their statements by logical answers to the questions put to them. In fact. the majority of consci- entious objectors proved conclusively the bona- fides of their claims; but, unfortunately, the men who slat in judgment upon them were partly mugs and partly domineering brutes. It would be interesting and helpful to get your opinion upon what constitutes a just claim for exemption from military duties. Perhaps you have no opinion? The Government have allowed the claims of the clergy, although the majority of these reverend gentlemen are blat- ant jingoes who even believe the war to bo of divine inspiration. Surely, if such persons as these can lay claim to a conscientious objection to fulfilling duties which they believe to be sac- cred, men who have a hatred of war, and who have always opposed the prepajptions for war ought to be allowed a conscientious objection? I, with the utmost diffidence, suggest that you issue another circular, with precise in- structions as to what proof would really be considered as sufficient to exempt a conscienti- ous db jector. Of course, in asking this, I do not for a moment think the Tribunals would abide bv your instructions; but were you to make the position quite dear, the country then might distinguish between honesty and dis- honesty, and grant sincerity of purpose to those whose sole crime is allegiance to conscience.
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I Tonyrefail Notes. I Miners' Meetings, The local lodges (Coed Ely and Oilely) of the S.W.M.F. held meetings on Saturday and Sunday, March 25 and 26 respectively, to dis- cuss the agenda of the annual conference. Both meetings, although most important, were mea- grely attended. It is obvious by the attend- ance and by the spirit of discussion that the majority of workmen are indifferent to their own welfare. A solution of this difficulty will have to be found before any progress can be made in the Labour movement. It may be-sug- gested that if the leaders were to pay more attention to the work they have been ap- pointed to do, instead of contemplating pro- jects for the military caste, perchance this de- deplorable condition of the movement would not be so acute. Pernicious ideas are rife concern- ing the Trade Union movement, that it is no longer beneficial, that it is no longer a protec- tion from the unscrupulous employer. Suspicion and disapproval have considerably increased since the war. As the rank and file have seen their liberties and powers of control one by one given up, without the employers conceding any- thing. have seen the tightening of the chains faster around the workers day by day. This last non-Unionist move, with the co-operation of the employer; and in spite of the leaders' claim that it is a miners" victory, does not at all seem palatable. This suspicion and antipathy towards Trade Unionism must be removed. The movement must be so re-organised that its benefits and vu'tues will be apparent to all. Trade Unionism is the workers' only hope. And the sooner the workers will realise it the better. Ti acle Unionism must be inspired with a new spirit. The movement must be preached and propagated with a religious fervour. Organised Labour must no longer rest content with acting as a brake on oppression. It must force its way into the managemtmtaJld control of in- dustry. Unless the workers are inspired by an aggressive spirit, organisation bv industry will bring them no nearer to emancipation or free- dom. Freedom is a word that sounds sweet, and in these days is on the lips of everyone. How much of it we enjoy is a question of metaphysical abstraction; nevertheless sweet in contemplation. Freedom is recognised by all as a first condition of well-being. It is the most inspiring and appealing word in the vocabulary. Instinctively, the workers have as- pired in their organisations, although some- what blindly, to the grand ideal of freedom. So far, success has only followed their attempt at a distance. We hope, in the near future, that our ideals will be realised. But before we can attain such, there is work to be done. With sucli an ideal and goal before us we should feeii inspired at such a possibility, that we all par- take in the pleasure of contemplating and wor- king towards establishing better conditions for ourselves and those who come after us. Now the war has opened our eyes to many grave dangers that threaten our liberty. Already we have our rubers dictating almost all that we shall think and do. Although they may suc- ceed for a period, their future is doomed, their end is inevitable. The proletariats will soon awake from their slumJbers, the workers are already beginning to become conscious of the mal-administrations of their rulers. The new age is dawning, the old is passing away. Wor- kers must organise and adapt themselves to the shanging order of things. All workers, it mat- ters not wha,t they are doing, must tois the line; must fall in the ranks to fight the only common enemy-the exploiter. In honour bound to those of his family, every worker should con- sider his Trade Union as a sacred organisation. He should be able to find all his temporal and eternal welfare in the means and ways whereby his economic emancipation will be realised. You cannot be moral or religious without a fair standard of living. The economic conditions decide our characters. To read," says Ruskin. "is one of the paths to happiness." To read is one of the luxuries the workmen have soreiv ne,Ieeted. It is one of the meaas whereby we can learn to manage our own af- fairs. Truly as workers, in the past we have had very little time, either to think or to read And those who have been able to read have been supplied by their exploiters with ready-made ideas justifying exploitation. Dur- ing these latter years Labour organisations have established training colleges, and the workers are beginning to be supplied with ideas in their own favour. But there is yet a tremendous am- ount of prejudice in the Labour movement, which must be removed. The workers must be supplied with more literature to read. Litera- ture that will gradually educate him to his own interests, so that misery and slavery will be abolished, and in its stead Freedom. Freedom from oppression, opportunity for self-expres- sion. the right to choose one's work and to enjoy a fair share in the fruits of one's lab- our. In a free society the organised producers must control their own life and work and such control can come only through the development of Trado Unionism. Workers! read Labour literature, for herein lies your future welfare.
I Workers' Educational Association. DISCUSSION ON LIBERTY v. AUTHORITY A meeting of members of the Aberdare W.E.A. took place in the Boys' County School last Tuesday evening, when Mr. John Thomas, B A., was the speaker. He discussed eloquently the question of liberty as opposed to authority. Many people, he began, did not realise, what liberty meant until an attempt was made to wrest it from them. The two aspects of society in which authority enjoyed full sway was the political sphere and in the religious. In the minds of most people the State, and the indi- vidual were opposed to each other. Custom and tradition were two forces in politics op- posed to change In religion the great word was orthodoxy Those who were not orthodox were heretics." Unfortunately those who cried for toleration when they were oppressed were the severest suppressors of other people's liber- ties when they themselves had authority The struggle between libertv and authority was really the struggle of the unit and, the aroup The group insisted on uniformity, the mdivi- d-ual wanted variety. As exponents of the cause of liberu t. were mentioned Tom Payne, J. Stuart Mill. Herbert Spencer, Tolstoy. ana Kropotkm Those who carried the struggle for individualism! to its furthest limits were the Anarchists. The lecturer then gave a short and interest- ing epitome of the chief worki, of the writers In the discussion that followed MiasM. A. Edwards. B.A., Councillor David E. Daviae, Messrs. W. Rogers, T. Williams and F. Eicib took an aetive part. A hearty vote of thanks to M' Thomas was proposed by Miss Edwards, and canned.
This terrible war is kiJItng a let of businMses. Make it a personal resolve that the "Pioneer" shall not be kilted. I