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I C.O. Sl in Walton Gaol, Liverpool. y- S £ E PAGE 3
The Harnessing of Psychic Forces. PAGE 3.
Political Notes -
Political Notes -1 By F. W. Jowett, M.P. I WAR AIMS MEMORANDUM. I wonder who is responsible for the report of a speed] by Mr. A. Henderson on the Inter- Allied Labour and Socialist War Aims Memo- randum that has found its way to Germany through the Reiiter news agency? Mr. Hen- derson is represented by tlw report in question as having said that the War Aims Memorandum contains the minimum terms for acceptance by, the Central Powers. I cannot find any proof that Mr. Henderson has said that. If he has, then it must be acknowledged that he has gone far towards destroying the object of the Inter- Allied Conference. It is unreasonable to expect that German and Austrian Socialists will attend an international conference mere ly to ratify the conclusions come to in their absence by La- bour and Socialist repsesentatives of the Allied nations. J. NOT AN ULTIMATUM. I 11 The whole object ot the proposed lntei national conference is to endeavour to arrive at a com- mon understanding after hearing both sides. It is absurd to suggest that there is no other point of view than that of the Allies to be considered. The" Times" has all along done its best to make it impossible for an international confer- ence to niett by pretending that the Laoour and Socialist Memorandnn) is a sort of ultima- tuili to German Socialists. May we conclude that this garbled version ol Mr. Henderson s speech that has been sent to Germany is one of the first fruits of appointing Lord Northcliffe as Minister for propaganda in enemy countries? He, of course, is opposed to an international conference, and may be trusted to take care that its object is misrepresented in Germany. A MUTUAL WAR AIM. At last, the Governments of all the nations now at war have found a war aim they can all pursue quite sincerely. Germany is genuinely anxious to destroy the Bolshevists and all they stand for, and, with the connivance of the pro- pertied classes of Russia the German Army is executing revolutionaries whose names have been supplied to them by wealthy Russians who are opposed to the revolution. The Allied Gov- ernments are equally determined to destroy" the revolution if possible. France. Italy, and Great Britain are said to be united in requesting Japan to seize Vladivostock and move her forces with all speed into Russian territory. Needless to say, Japan is quite willing to get a foothold in Russia, but some delay has been caused by the umviilingness of America to sanction the plot. Germany is anxious for "the liberation of people from the tyranny of the Bolsheviks." Japan, too, feels anxious to put down tyranny—in Rus- sia. Japan also pretends that she must invade Russia bemfpi* the German Army—which is thousand s of miles away, with little or no means of transporting itself across Siberia, which lies between—threatens her. And Great Britain. France, and Italy are jointly associated with Japan in this pretence. SINS OF GOVERNMENTS. -? It is difficult for those in each of the belliger- ent countries who are earnestly skiying: rufter an agreed peace to pursue their object whilst their governments are continually putting themselves in the wrong. The press, in all the allied coun- tries. makes the mos.t it can of the conduct of Germany towards poor helpless Russia. On the other hand the press in Germany makes the most of the threatened Japanese invasion and of the secret treaties to which the Allies are Lonnd in a policy of annexation. In these cir- cumstances it is the duty of all who desire a just and lasting peace at the earliest ]>os»ible moment to denounce the sins of their own gov- ernment. The thing to be remembered in re- gard to both the German and the Allied Gov- ernments and their policy concerning Russia is that all the Governments—the Allied Govern- ments as well as the Governments of the Central Powers—are engaged in a struggle'between the governing and the oppressed classes of Russia, and. of course, they are all on the side of the oppressors. AMENACE TO CA PiTALISM. The triumph ot the Russian revolution would mean the nationalisation of land, the democratic control of industry, and, the destruction of the system of private banking in Russia. No Capi- tahst covo'nnicnt can lie expected to favour such a revolution. A revolution which begins its work of social reconstruction by throwing open the palaces and mansions of the rich to the slum population—enacting that no family7 shall enjoy spare rooms until every person has been provided with one room—is not .to be tolerated in a Capitalist world. GERMAN MAJORITY SOCIALISTS AND I RUSSIA. Whatever the yellow press and the Govern- ment's socialists of this country may say to the contrary, the German Socialists do. in fact, de- notjne-e the sins of their government on every possible occasion. Even Sheideman. the leader of the majority Socialists ill Germany, does this repeatedly. He has over and over again repu- diated-on behalf of the majority Socialists of Germanv-the action of the German Govern ment in carrying on military operations against Russia. Here, in this country, not a single one of the Government's socialists have said a word against the wretched and discreditable secret treaties into which the British Government has 1 ent-ered. and not a word of protest bas come from any one of them, or may lie expected, against the proposed invasion of Russia by Japan. I THE MINORITY SOCIALISTS. I As tor the minority, or independent, Socialists of Germany, Haase. their leader, dealt faithfully with the German Government concerning its treatment of Russia, as the following passage, extracted from his speech in the Reichstag, shows: — ''After the ultimatum to Russia," said Herr Ha ise. there can no longer be any question of a peace of understanding: Luidendorff reigns over us. Give proofs of German faith, even towards our enemies. The alleged mo- tive for the march into Northern Russia is the protection of the maltreated popula.tion. I alll sceptical concerning reports of cruelty. We protest strongly against this policy. Our pos- terity will experience the certain consequences of this jjeaee with^Russia. We are against an English, French, or Italian bi.it we are also against German peace." AN AMERICAN VIEW. I With regard to the allegations of cruelty against the Bolsheviks, of which allegations the Socialist leader Haase expressed his doubts, Mr. King. in the House of Commons, quoted the experience of Colonel Tliomsett, who was Mili- tary Attache in Petrograd, and has returned to New York. Colonel Thomsett has publicly said that:— "It is astonishing the degree of order which they' (the Bolsheviks) have main- tained in Russia. lnPetTograd during the first months of the November revolution, I can say from my own personal observation, that there was better order than at any other time during my four nioiitti,' stay in Russia." FOREIGN OFFICE CONTROL. I Lord Robert Cecil, in reply to a question in Parliament recently, announced, with an air as if it were a matter of no concern outside the .Foreign Office itself, that the Government in- tends to re-organ ise the Foreign Office and the diplomatic service. He was immediately asked whether the Government intends to carry the contemplated changes through without consult- ing Parliament as to the nature and scope of the changes. He replied, with emphasis, that there was no intention of consulting Parliament on the matter, which he renrdedas merely one of administration. A running fire of supple- mentary questions followed, but Lord Robert could not be made to see that the public has suffered enough u consequence of the sumed superiority of the Foreign Office and its repudiation of parliamentary control, and can- not afford, therefore, to leave the question of reforming its methods to its own determination. The has been chiefly responsible for bringing the country ilito its present desper- ate condition and for the wholesale destruction of British lives during the last three and la-half years. It must therefore be reformed, but not by itself. What is required is that the control lot foreign affair.4 should be brought effectively under the House of Commons, and this cannot be done unless the Foreign Office is placed under the management of a Parliamentary Committee. MR. BALFOUR'S FOLLY. f What a.re we to think of a Foreign Secretary who, on being reminded of the fact that his speech would be used in Germany by the mili- tarists there for the purpose of preventing the German people from wanting peace, answered that the German Chancellor set him the ex- ample. however, exactly represents the -1 1 1 lia l foii;- N I I ease of Mr. Balfour. Mr. Mncdonald in the re- cent peace debate said, after pointing out the folly of Mr. Bail our in ignoring the essential .things that matter in his reply to Count Hert- ling and devoting his attention to mere denun- ciation and contradiction of Count Hertling himself:— The one hope we have of establishing a seeure peace in Europe is to get the German peopie to speak apart from the German Gov- ernment, and everything we say and do which enaoles thel German Government to go to the German people and say We told you so,' must bo avoided." Ifr. H!]foUl' BII t Court Hertling began this I« did not. W ith what wisdom we are governed
Trial of Rev. Herbert Dunnico
[ (Continued from Column 5). Then you agree that your report is incom- plete?—i do not sav that ever word that the rev. gentleman uttered is in my report. PUBLIC PROSECUTOR INTERVENES. I Hie cross-examination had proceeded only a little further, when a police-officer'entered the Court- and handed a paper to Mr. Powell, and the Solicitor for the Prosecution rising, an- nounced that it. was a telephonic communication from the Director of Public Prosecutions an- nouncing that if the Defendant expressed re- r sse d I grets and undertook, in the fullest possible way, not to repeat the offence the case was not to be pressed. Mr. Llewellyn Williams There is no one sor- rier than ni He has already expressed unfeigned regret, and he asks 11W now to express his regret for a statement which he ought never to have accepted. He feels that he ought to have made more diligent enquiries before ex- pressing such a statement, and he also under- takes in no way to repent such conduct. In re- gard to the speech as a whole, of. course, he must not. be taken to undertake not to address meetings. He undertakes not to make false statements, or use any seditions language. Mr. Powell It is altogether a matter for the discretion of your Worships. The Stipendiary: If you are satisfied. with the apology offered by Mr. Llewellyn Williams on behalf of his .client we shall offer no objection to the course which von propose to take. Mr. Powell said that in view of "tlw yen handsome apology tendered by Mr. Williams he did not wish to press the case. The Stipendiary: For onr part we are verv phsed to be relieved of a most unpleasant duty. Mr. Powell asked for costs and was granted 420 for the day.
Trial of Rev. Herbert Dunnico
Trial of Rev. Herbert Dunnico UNEXPECTED TERMINATION OF ABER. I DARE D.O.R.A. CASE. A POLICEMAN'S NOTES. AND SUGGESTED I PARALLEL PASSAGES. I do not know of anything more likely to cause I muting, sedition or disaffection. As briefly announced in our issue of last week, there was a sudden and unexpected termination to the trial of the Rev. Herbert Dunnico. secre- tary of the Peace Society, for an alleged con- travention of Regulation 42 of the Defence of the Realm Act. at the Aberdare Police Court on Wednesday last week. Mr. E. Powell, who figured as prosecuting solicitor in the Wallhead and other D.O.R.A. proceedings at Neath, again appeared for the Public Prosecutor: whilst Air. \Y. Llewellyn Williams. K.C.. ALP. (instructed by Mr. Edward Roberts) defended. The Sti- pendiary (Mr. R. A. Griffiths) presided over the Bench. There were five summonses taken out against the Rev. Dunnico, hut as Mr. Llewellyn Williams elected to have them taken separately, only one, that lie did unlawfully attempt to cause disaffection amongst the civilian popula- tion," contrary to Regular ion 42. was men- tioned. THE OBJECTED PASSAGE. I The alleged offence was stated to have been committed at an I.L.P. demonstration in the Grand Theatre, Aberaman, on Sunday evening, January 20th. and consisted of the following statement: "The stomach, though, is a wonderful correc- tive of a false idea. A man who stops at home and lobs the wives and children of the man who is out fighting, and then goes to the Tank and invests his money at Ji per cent, is not a pa- triot, neither is a man who hides himself behind an exemption badge or age limit, a. patriot. Let us destroy that spurious, !»st-ard patriotism. What. constitutes the highest patriotism is the man who sheds a tear when lie sees a ragged little urchin on the street, or feels a pang in his heart when he sees young girls in the big cities selling their bodies for a living. I would rather be the rebel victim of the Kaiser than the will- ing slave of Lloyd George. -?,Y-hat does it matter to you to lose your sons on the battlefield, when you are slaves at home. I want to warn you. and say this solemnly, and I will say it carefully because I know that there are men in this build- ing that would like to trip me. There is going to be serious trouble in the near day in this country, and when that day does arrive, the lads that went out to save Belgium will be used to shoot you down. Whilst travelling in the train last Saturday, I bought a South Wales Echo," and in large print in the "Echo I saw Food riots in Austria." etc. I showed it to an officer travelling in the same compartment, lie only laughed. The Echo did not tell you anything about Manchester There was trouble in Manchester last week, and what happened? A company of soldiers were brought from Kin- uiel Park, ordered to fix bayonets, and shots were fired over the heads of the people, blank cartridges, of course: that is only a step to something more. It is no use shouting about food, you have to stop the war. They talk about the despicable Bolsheviks in Russia, these people have stood most magnificently to the cause. I have recently been in close touch with Litvinoff, the new Russian Ambassador in Lon- don his office is not far from mine: he com- plains bitterly of his treatment in this country. I am a patriot and love my country, and it is the best Nationalist that makes the best Inter- nationalist. Talk about the sinking of the Lusitania, the shooting of Nurse Cavell. We condemn these things as much as anyone, but the greatest atrocity of all is war itself. These people who call themselves patriots love their dividends more than they love the lives of men. I would say to them You hypocrites, who strain at a gnat and swallow a camel.' I appeal to you to come into this move- ment and help us in the cause. The world was not intended to he like this. Come and help to dest roy those things you call Kings, Royalties, and Courts. It may be, in time to come that- the Christian Church will disappear as we know tliemj and we shall not miss them if thev do not alter. GLORIFICATION OF RUSSIA. i I (. om men ting on this extract which he had read, Mr. Powell said: I do not know of any- thing, in the words of the Regulation, more "likely to cause mutiny, sedition or disaffection amongst the civil population." First of all there is a direct incitement to revolution bv the glorification of the Russian Revolutionists: fol- lowed. afterwards, by the direct reference to Kings, Royalties and Courts; of course, in this i country it could only mean His Gracious Ma- jesty the King himself. With regard to the other part of it, the other more serious part of it. the statement that soldiers were brought from Kinmel Park to shoot blank-cartridges over the heads of the people clamouring for food is, in bluni language, a lie. I have witnesses from Kinmel Park and from Manchester, whom I will call before you, and who will tell you that there is no truth in it. Mr. Llewellyn Williams: I will admit that the statement is untrue. My learned friend knows that so long ago as the 25th January my client wrote to the local papers and said he hail ascertained that the statement he had made on the authority of a. non-commissioned ofifcer was untrue, and that disclaimer appeared in the Pioneer and the" Aberdare Leader." fr. Powell said he had SLlh-pcpned the Editor of the ."Aberdare Leader," and had the original letter sent %y Mr. Dunnico. It was a half- hearted disclaimer, in which Mr. Dunnico did not express regret for everything. Moreover, even if the report had been true it still consti- tuted an offence under the terms of the section, j which were very wide. Proceeding, Mr. Powell said he had that morning received a letter which ?defendant had written to the Right Hon. Wm. Brace on February 2*2nd—after the issue of tho sumniouses. This letter, which Air. Powell read in full, told the detailed story of tiie train con- versation, and went on-- A LETTER TO BRACE. "On the following day. speaking at A bera- man, I made reference to the food shortage and pointed out that even if all the profiteering were eliminated and equal distribution introduced, there would still be a scarcity of food owing to the fact that there was, through the transfer- ence of 30,000,000 men from productive to do-, structive purposes, a real world shortage. I then went on to show that as the war continued the food problem would most likely become more, rather than less, acute: and that it was illogical on the part of the people to strike and riot I)(-- cause of food shortage, if they were of the opinion that the war must continue. I also stated that if these methods were adopted force would be met by force for instance, yesterday a non-comm issioned officer informed me that sol- diers in Manchester the previous week had stood with fixed bayonets and that a few blank shots had been fired to scare the people. This," 1 said. is indicative of what will take plaet, if this industrial unrest assumes uglv proportions.' j concluded by putting the usual case for a negotiated peace. "The following Wednesday, 1 met at the La- bour Party Conference in Nottingham, several Manchester people, including Air. Sutton. ALPt, and gathered from them that the story of the Corporal was not based so far as their knowledge was concerned, in fact. very jealous of my reputation for ac- curacy, I)c,(-atibe I have been a public speaker now for 20 years, I immediately wrote to the local press stating that the story I had given on the authority of the soldier, was unfounded, and expressed my deep regret at having given currency to it. Weeks pass, and the whole thing has been dismissed from my mind, and now I receive this summons. I think that you will see that to prosecute me under these circumstances is hardly fair, and savours a little of vindictiveness. I alli quite willing; to attend the court and express there wha;t I have previously done in the public- press—my sincere regret for having, on the im- pulse of the moment, given circulation to the story. AT MR. BRACE'S REQUEST. I Ah. Ueweliyn Williams: .My client wrote I that letter to Vi\ Ji Air, P)M/?'s??)(" J quest. P.C. Oarkson, stationed at Aberaman, told how lie had attended the meeting and taken a shorthand note. Sergt. Thomas was with him. The passage read, by Air. Powell was from his transcription of the speech and was correct. Mr. Llewellyn Williams (cross-examining) Now Oarkson, do you hold yourself out as being an expert shorthand writer?—Witness: No, sir. Can you take down a speech verbatim?—No, sir. Was Sergt. Thomas with you at the meeting— Yes, sir. Did he take any notes?—Longhand notes, sir. Did you and Sergt. Thomas consult together liefore you wrote these notes?—No, sir. Though lie took longhand notes ?— Yes. sir. Where are those notes? Air. Powell: I shall call Sergt. Thomas. Mr. Llewellyn Williams: And you never saw Sergt. Thomas' longhand notes?—N o, sir. Are you prepared to say on your oath, that every statement you have put in this report is accurrate and true?—Yes, sir. 1l'ell now, let us see. You start by saying this, Chairman, ladies and gentlemen." Don't you agree that it was Mrs. Davies who was in the chair?—Yes, sir. IAN ELECTION SLIP. I Then I suggest to you that he did not say Mr. Chairman," but Aladam, Chairman." The Stipendiary: During an election time 1 have heard learned Counsel addressing a jury as "Ladies and gentlemen." (Laughter.) Mr. Llewellyn Williams: I remember a learned Counsel who was defending a man charged with stealing three calves during an election finishing up by talking about three acres and a cow. Witness (replying to the question): I thought the speaker said "Air. Chairman. Air. Llewellvn Williams: Just turn to the last paragraph but one. You suggest that what Mr. Dunnico said wis "I am a Welshman, a descendent, on my mother's side, of the late Robert Owen, and, therefore, claim some know- ledge of Wels hnwn," do you suggest that is cor- rect ?—That is what the rev. gentleman said. Mr. Llewellyn Williams (reading): And I now fill the position that the late William Richards filled for .50 years." You say those are the words used by Mr. Dunnico?—Yes, sir. I suggest that what Air. Dunnico said was not William Richards, but Henry Richards. Have you ever heard of Henry Richards, he was a Member for these Boroughs from 1868 to 1888? —I have heard the name. Have you ever heard that for 43 years he was Secretary to the Peace Society?—No. sir. Do you know that Air. Dunnico is Secretary for the Peace Society now ?--Ko, sir. I suggest that what Air. Dunnico said was that he filled the same position as Henry Richards filled for 43 years?—No, sir. You still say Air. Dunnico said Wrilliam Richards; you take your oath upon that?—Yes, sir. THE ROYALTY PASSAGE. I To come to the portion complained of here. What do you say Air. Dunnico stated about Kings just read it, will you ? Witness (reading): Come and help us to de- stroy those things which you call Kings, Royal- ties and Courts. It may be, in time to come, that the Christian Churches will disapper as we know them, and we shall not miss them if they don't a her. The spirit ot Brotherhood is none other than the spirit of Christ, and against that the gates of hell shall not prevail." Mr. Llewellyn Williams: I suggest to you that you are quite wrong; that the words were: Not thrones and Crowns, but men. Have you ever heard of Ebenezer Elliot?—No, sir. Have you ever heard of a well-known hymn, written by Ebenezer Elliott, in which he uses these words: "Not thrones and crowns, but men ?—No, sir. I suggest to you that what Air. Dunnic-o said were the words of that hymn?—No. sir. Now, Oarkson, I suggest to you that you were so inexpert a shorthand writer than your note is absolutely inaccurate in several respects. I suggest that there is not a. single sentence from first to last in your report given as Air. Dun- nico gave it. Let me test you again. You re- menioer Air. I ) I-eakiin out a paragraph from "John Bull "?—Yes, sir. A "JOHN BULL" PASSAGE. wnere do you get ft m your i,el)oi,t., Oh, here: Am I noT right in saying hound these men into oblivion. When you have the Govern- ment to tight you have the press to fight also. Speaking generally the press of this country is an organised conspiracy for hiding the truth. I lraye here a quotation from a newspaper in which it says, The war is almost won, there is food shortage in Germany, ammunition is get- ting scarce, the people are getting uneasy, etc.' that was written by Horatio Bottomley and published in Tolin Btill in February, 1915." 1 suggest to you that Mr. Dunnico read an ex- tract from "John Hull" and that it reads in t'lii s way: We feel in our bones that the end is not far off. We say so and bid our country- men and our Allies take heart of Grace. There is enough food in Germany to last out a few months longer, but ammunition is running short; the best of the army is already killed or maim- ed; money is tight: the crews of the Fleet are restless and almost mutinous the civilian popu- lation is become-, impatient. An early end to the war is written clearly on the wall. Yes, the end is in sight." I suggest to you that was the extract which Mr. Dunnico read out from .John Bull ?—No. sir. FIFTY WORDS A MINUTE. And that you simply given in general ter-iiis what v4?(i t i louLC terms what you thought was the meaning of the quotation, without taking down actually the words used N o, I have taken it down exactly as the defendant gave it. How many words can you write a minute in shorthand?—Fifty or sixty. J am supposed to be rather a slow speaker, and I am said to speak 120 words a minute. Did the Defendant speak grammatically?—Yes, sir. Well, the report you have given is very un- glaminatieal if I may say so. Do you suggest tfnt+ Air frc^iuvl -,n edu- cated man, spoke tJiese sentences as you have glv,c,-Ii t-Item ?-Yes, Sir. Mr. Llewellyn Williams (to the Bench): I think I have intimated sufficiently the lines I intend to take. The Stipendiary I notice you have not cross- examined very much on the principal passages made by Air. Powel1.. Air. Llewellyn Williams: I thought I had done so sufficiently, because I am going to call All-. Dnnnico, who will give his version. How- ever. if yon desire it I will do so. THE REAL PASSAGE. Cross-examining on the statement that formed the base of the charge. Air. Wilialms suggested that the words used by defendant were not those read from the witness' typescript by Mr. Powell, but these "There are signs of serious trouble in this country to-day and if this war goes on the industrial unrest will become not less, but more, acute. Foi 'nstance, and let me say I want now to carefully weigh my words, for there are men in this building who would like to trip me, yesterday, whilst travelling in the train I "nought a copy of an evening paper, the South Wales Echo I think it is called, and across the front in large print I read: Food strikes in Austria. You say "Riots"?—Yes. Air. Llewellyn Williams (reading): "I showed it to an officer, a non-commissioned officer, and lie laughed." You know officers are compelled to travel first-class ?—-Yes, sir. He then told me that he had been drafted with a company of soldiers from Kinmel Park to Manchester during the week on account of food troubles in that city. Of course, the Echo did not tell you anything about the food disturb- ances in Alancliester. He told me that at one spot the soldiers had been ordered to fix bayo- nets, and that the non-commissioned officers had been ordered to fire several blank cartridges over the heads of the lwople. This is only a step, and it may be that in the near future, if trouble does arise, many of those lads who enlisted in defence of Belgium will be used against their kith and kin struggling for liberty and freedom here for, remember, a resort to force will be suppressed by force, and do not blame the sol- dier. He is a man under authority, and it is his duty to obey orders. For, bear in mind, under the most equitable distribution of food, if the war goes on, the shortage is bound to be- come more acute. It is little use shouting about shortage of food. and threatening to lay down tools, if you believe that the war must go on. There is only one remedy for all this, and that is to stop the war by demanding negotiations. I am a patriot and love my country, and -it is the best nationalist that makes the best internation- alist." ANOTHER PASSAGE. Mr. Llewellyn Williams read out a further passage, which he contended contained the real words of the speech in distinction to the con- stable's note report, and in which the defendant spoke of the crocodile tears" shed over the atrocities of war by men who" saw our mothers and our sisters, and our wives die of consump- tion because of the wretched housing conditions under which they lived. Saw men blown to pieces in coal-mines, maimed and killed upon our railways, when upon the authority of Gov- ernment inspectors, a large proportion of these accident. might be prevented if proper safe- guards were put in. But the introduction of safeguards involves expense, expense lowers divi- dends, and these men were content to allow these things to go on rather than sacrifice a quarter or a half per cent. of the dividends per annum." I suggest those were Mr. Dunnico's words, said the OounseL Witness: He did say something about coal- mines and inspectors. (Continued at foot of Column 2).