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LABOUR IN OTHER LANDS I THE AMERICAN WOOL AND SILK I INDUSTRY. According to the financial statistics for the year 1909, particulars of which has just been published, the number of workers in the Wool Industry (in which the wool is made up) has decreased from 1018 to 985, whilst the number of persons employed in these works has increased from 141,998 to 168,722; that is an increase of 26,724, or from 139 to 171 per concern. The number of female workers alone increased from 56,682 to 75,869. The wages paid in the year 1905 averaged 388 dollars per annum, or 7% dollars per week; in 1909 the numbers were 428 and 8t dollars respectively. The value of the produce rose from 2,098 dollars to 2,488 dollars per head of all employers. The same statistics show that the silk factories, during the period 1905 -1909 increased in uumber from 624 to 852, whilst the number of employees rose from 79,601 to 99,037, including 4,027 and 6,201 salaried officials and 45,000 and 62,000 women respectively. The number of children under 16 years of age rose from 7,366 to 13,000. 95.2 per cent. of all those employed in the slik industry are engaged in factories where the workitfig time amounts to more than 54 hours per week. The average wage of all those employed in these factories rose from 7,28 to 8.49 dollars per week, the value of the wares produced per head rose from 1,668 to 1,992 dollars. THE FRENCH LABOUR COUNCIL I I The lfrech Labour Council (Conseil Superieur du Travail), which is pre- sided over by the Labour Minister, has declared itself unanimously in favour of a Bill according to which girls under 16 years of age and youths of under 13, many only be employed in hotels and public houses, etc., when same are under the direct control of the father, mother or guardian of such juveniles. The proposition to raise the age under which females are protected by law, from 18 to 21 years, has been rejected by all the employers' and seven workers' votes. The Bill men- tioned provides among other things that- young female persons may not be called upon to wait upon the guests between the hours of 9 p.m. and 7 a.m. Chambermaids must in all cases be at least 18 years old. The Labour Council further dealt with the question of the "free Satur- day afternoon," during 10 sittings. A resolution was adopted, according to which efforts should be made for the legal limitation of the working day for women and juveniles to 10 hours for the first five days of the week, closjng on Saturday at noon. As regards the male workers, the "English Week" is to be demanded for all those trades defined by the Labour Council. It would be for the organisations on both sides to decide at what time the works should close on Saturday afternoon; in case of no understanding being ar- rived at between the organisations, the matter to be decided] through the Arbitration Board. It might be of interest for the workers to know how the Labour Council is made up. This Council, which plays such a great role in the preparation and execution of labour legislation in France, is composed as follows:—19 members are chosen from the Chambers of Commerce, two from the Council of Agriculture, 21 from the Workers' Trades Unions, eight from the employers and workers re- spectively—members of the National Board of Arbitration, three from the Senate, five from the Federal Council, one from the Paris Cham ber of Com- merce, one from the Co-operative Wholesale Society, one from the Management Board of the Employment Bureaus, three members of the Uni- versity appointed by the Labour j Minister and five representatives of the Ministry. THE SYNDICALISTS' INTER- .1 NATIONAL. I The Dutch Secretariat of the oyn-:l' j calistic trades unions recently pro- nounced a verdict strongly in disfavour of the collective tariff agreement. These trades unions, to which scarcely five per cent. of the organised workers of Holland belong, are of but little im j poitance. Bill Haywood, President of the North American Syndicalists (Chicago School;, recently spent two months in Europe for the purpose of studying the conditions a.nd on accqunt of his hea'Mi. i He appears to have visited France and England only, and to have very care- fully avoided Germany—whose Labour Movement may justly lay claims to a certain importance—even as he did some years ago, when his European tour resulted in his conversion to syndicalism. This explains why he found it so easy to dispose of the modern trades union movement and political action with a wave of the hand, or with a few rough words. The syndicalistic movement (I.W.W.) of which he is the head, numbers (ac- cording to their own figures) only 70,00 members, in spite of the typical American advertising campaign under- taken by him and his colleagues, and this number can hardly be vouched for-Tom Mann, the leader of the English Syndicalist, made a lecturing tour through the United States upon the invitation of the American I.W.W. discouraging and condemning political action in its phase. Upon Gompers, the President of the Federation of Labour, taking him to account in his j paper, in conection with his a-ttrick ( upon the Federation, Mann l declared, in a rambling sort of statement, that the press reports had been fanned.. He had always advised his audience to join the organisations affiliated with. the Federation of Labour and to instil syndicalistic ideas into ?-r,7r-e. The • I.W.W. cou7d ii'1in c ? <  t M a- propa g anda h>dv ?'i! ?' Fe dera- t i on. T'? ''?"'):' ny nf sugar- ■ ing the p' ?'?.. n- '•rr-rvt-r's t, 11-ifl. ?o ?. • :■' i: < • ho .si- ist secession' r.'v':cru • I CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES H The JDesDorougii tengiana) co- operative Society has purchased the whole village of Harringworth with a view to starting tli4Eii- own productive enterprises there. The valuable de- posits of iron which are thought to ex- ist there will be worked by the Society itself—The Trades' Hall Council of Melbourne (Victoria) decided upon the establishing of a Co-operative, Whole- sale, Retail and Productive Union throughout the country. According to the Regulations, members failing to purchase at least one-half of their goods from the Union may be fined 10s. per half year unless they can show good reason for purchasing elsewhere. Any member neglecting to send in his ballot paper when requested to do so is liable to a fine of 2s.6d. The Federation of the Swiss Co- operative Societies has entered into an arrangement with the greatest slaughter-house in the country, under which the Federation enters into partnership with the Slaughter-house Company, which will have the provid- ing of practically all the co-operative societies with meat, etc. Of the 2,100,000 German co-operators recorded at the beginning of the year 1913, no fewer than 1,483,811, regis- tered in 1155 societies, belonged to the Central Federation of the German Co- operative Provision Societies, which is closely bound up with the modern Lab- our movement. The societies of the Central Federation employed 22,794 persons in the year 1912. The year's turnover was 423 million, the value of the wares producer by the affiliated societies was 84 million marks. At the end of the year 1912 thore existed 2,145 co-operative societies in France, 2,980 of which societies re- ported an annual turnover of 314 mil- lion francs. 1064 of these societies supply non-members also. 34 of the societies of the railwaymen are bakery bnsinesses exclusively. The "Socialist Federation of Co-operative Societies" numbered 465 provision stores, 27 pro- duce societies and one fire insurance office, on January 1st, 1913. The total turnover of the Federation with its 146,000 members was 63 million francs. The wholesole society founded by the Federation in 1906 had a turnover of 10 million francs, and a profit of 81,000 francs. THE TRADES UNIONS AND THE LABOUR PARTY IN ENGLAND The ballots in connection with levy- ing of contributions for political pur- poses have already been taken in the case of most of the principle unions. The British Labour Party is almost entirely dependent upon the organisa- tions directly affiliated to same. The Trades Act of 1913 provides that the funds of trades unions may not be used for political purposes unless over one-half of the members agree to same by ballot; every member may claim ex- emption from the extra contribution. Ten trades unions in which the ballot has already been taken have a total membership of about 1,500,000. The aggregate result is as follows. For, 450,000; against, 310,000; not voting, 380,000. It is an extraordinary fact that ni fewer than 200,000 miners voted against, seeing that a third of the Labour Party are miners' repre- sentatives, elected by themselves, and further theat they have achieved more through legislation than any other class of worker, the legally regulated working day, the minimum wage, etc. It is to be hoped that the indifference and even hositility which is being dis- plaved in some quarters towards the Labour Party will not lead to internal friction or secession. This ballot clear- ly emphasises once more, the import- ance and necessity of thoroughly edu- cating the workers in those matters so nearly affecting them and their wel- fare, and the establishing of a soriius and powerful labour press. —————— ——————





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