NEW YEAR'S LOTTERY, 1 WILL Begin Drawing on the 18th of January, 1815. There are 12,000 Tickets, and the Scheme contains FIFTY CAPITAL PRIZES, including 2 of 920,000 2 of X2,000 6 of X500 2 10,000 1 4 1,000 1 8 400 &c. &c. &c. And the First Ticket drawn a Prize above £ 25, will receive, in addition the Sum of TEN THOUSAND POIJNDS! HAZARD, BURNE, and Co. respectfully AA inform the Public, that Tickets and Shares for the ensuing Lottery are now on Sale at their Office, No. 93, ROYAL EXCHANGE. This Lottery, consisting of only 12,000 Tickets, contains i 2 Prizes of = £ 20,000 2 Prizes of = £ 2,000 E 10,000 4 1,000 &c. &c. &c. The Drawing commences on the 18th January, when the first Prize above = £ 25 will be iilitleil, to ^10,000, and on the Second Day, (January 27), the first Prize above = £ 25 to £ 20,000. Letters (post paid) duly answered, and Orders from the Country, accompanied with Re- ITuttanee. pUllctually attended to. -Government fcnd illl other Public Securities Bought and Sold by Commission. British Fire Office. "S^OR the Insurance of Buildings, Furniture, Merchandise, Ships, Vessel*, and all other Property, against Loss or Damage by Fi RE. Insurances for short Periods, or for several Years together, may he ctTected at this Office upon the most. equitable Terms. Policies will not be charged for Sums of 300l. or upwards, nor to persons increasing their pre- sent Insurances. The whole STOCK of a FARM will be insur- ed without Specification, at the Reduced Premi- um of 2s. per Cent. R«eipt. for the Renewal of Policies expiring at Christmas-day, may be bad at the principal Offices in the Strand and Corn/till, London, and of their Agents in the Country, who will receive Proposals for new Insurances. HOBERT SKELTON, Secretary. Ync I Sth of this IIOTtth, THE STATE LOTTERY BEGINS DRAWING. Tickets and Shares are selling by BISH, 4, Cornhill, and q. Charing Cross, London; and hy the following Agents. R. Taylor, Music. TVarehvuse, Chester. W. Kitye, Bookseller, Liverpool. R. Parker, HookselU- c, Whitchurch. f. D meson, Bookseller, Stockport. J Sand ford, Bookseller, Shreiesbury. Mrs. Oukeii, Library, Swansea. if. Co.r, liookseller, dberystwWi. -"HISH's"-Offices are so well known for fheirre- I ?ebrity ia.*seilin<r Capital Prizes, that it is lIeed less saying any thing on t.1,41 head, especially as I The limits of an Advertisement will not admit of it suffice it to SHY. for several succeeding Lotre- Ites, (including the, last,) he has sold more-Cajfjji-i t;ils than any other Office-keeper, parucujfcrjjr the two last Prizes of /'30,t)00, 2 last Privi^G': = £ 20,()()()., the last £ 10,000, and the last ever drawn, &c. great part of which were tmii by the above Agents. jf fi-j= SGn E!\JE-S 'GRHr_t_- C A Jt NA HVQ NS11 j RE,—NOR TH Wtf LES. TO BE LET, AND ENTERED IIPOS IMMEDIATELY, THAT capital "tun, called the Horrcr,, or fhe UxBRJOGE ARMS, most conveniently and d-'ligh: fully situated at the or the town of Carnarvon, on the road leading from the city of Bangor-, now in the holding of Mr. NValceinati, who is about to retire from public business. It consists on the tirst floor, of a large par- I'ur, and three others, ofsuitablpanrlconvellient dimensions; a spacious kitchen, and other offices adjoining; together with a good sized bar, most judiciously piaced so as to overlook the kitchen, the enframes to the house, and to the different parlours, as well ,I the whole of the court-yard, to which a bav-window is introduced. On the firit floor is a large room, which conve- niently accommodates a dinner party of eighty, and which by Gleans of partitions and folding doors, forms two excellent drawing rooms, ear-h commanding a beautiful view of the Menai and tile Island of Anjlesea. There are, hesides, on the floor, as well as in the attic story, a suitable Lumber of exceeding good hell-rooms; and the CELLARS undei ground are extensive and commo- dious. In the rear of the house and contiguous there- to, is a spacious court yard, comprising a very large.coach house, wilh a room of equal size above several stables, cow houses, larder, dairy, laundry senants bed rnnnJ, malt. house, brew liouse, and a variety of other offices, all arranged with great judgment: and within a few yards of the house, is a large walled garden, with a smaller adjoining. The tenant may he accommodated with any quantity of land, within a convenient distance, jiot exceeding 190 acres. There being an excellent market at Carnarvon, the House may receive a constant supply of every necessary article,especially fishof the best sorts. Independent )f (lie relIlr travelling to Car- narvon, anil the several public meetings held there within the course of the year, the very general re- sort to that town in the summer Season, affords a source of considerable emolument to the Inn- keeper. And all circumstances taken into consi- deration, there can hardly be a doubt but that a person well conversant in the business, may, by becoming tenant of the Hotel at Carnarvon, serve himself and the public, with very g-reatadvantage to both, especially at this time when there hap- pens to be a good opening. The tenant may be accommodated with all the valuable household furniture, plate, linen, china, horses and carriages, and also with the crops and produce of the land, at a valuation. And further particulars may be had by apply- ing to Thomas Jones, Esq Bryntirion, near Bangor; Mr. John Williams, at Plasnewydd, Anglesea or to Messrs. Poole, Attorneys at Carnarvon; or at their office at Pencraig, in Anglcsca. CLASSICAL EDUCATION. THE Rev. JOHN EVANS, A.M. Bottwnog, JL Llyn, is desirous of undertaking the Tuition of FOUR PUPILS, as Boarders, after theChrist- mas Vacation. Terms—FORTY Guineas per annum. Cotton Hall, Dec. 30, 1814. M. I,ewis7 BOOKSELLER, STATIONER, AND PER FUMER, BEGS leave to inform (he Nobility,.Gen- try, and the Public, that she is now in Lon- don,.selecting an assortment of Goods, with the intention of immediately commencing business at liANGOR. Orders for Periodical and other Publications, (Music included) will be thankfully received, and procured twice a month, direct from London, and at the London retail prices. A choice assortment of Hanging Paper will be constantly kept, and applications for patterns from any distance will meet due attention. 44, Paternoster Rota, London. 20th Dec. 1 Si I, CARNARVONSHIRE. TO BE SOLD BY PRIVATE CONTR 4CT, (And immediate Possession given) ALL that modern-built Messuage or Dwel- ling House, with the Appurtenances there- unto belonging, situate in High-street, in the town of Carnarvon, late in the occupation of Air. Richard Williams, Solicitor. These Premises consist of two parlours, two kitchens, a large dining-room, five exceitent bed- rooms, with suitable attics two large cellars, a yard, containing a two-stall stable, and a large brewhouse, with convenient rooms over them. Also, that other modern-built Messuage or Dwelling House, adjoining the above premises, with the Appurtenances, late in the tenure of Mr. Toleman, watchmaker. These Premises comprise two parlours, alarg-e dining-room, Iivecompact bed-rooms, with con- venient garrets over them; two kitchens, two cellars, a large brewhouse and pantry, with a good room over them in the yard, belonging to these premises. Both theahove Dwelling-houses are well adapt- ed for private families or for persons in busi- ness, on account of their contiguity to the mar- ket place. For further particulars apply (if bv letter, post I)ili(t) to Mr. H. R. WILLIAMS, Solicitor, Car- narvon, who will appoint a person to shew the premises. oi) a I hooch a it ge yt ssu r a n c c, stablistiecl by Royal Charter in the Reign of King George the First.) For jf SSU RING HOUSES, BUILDINGS, GOODS, CO RN, H A Y, STOCK, Sec. and also f'or the AqS Ul?,IN('E of LIVES, and granting ANNUITIES on LIFE'S. rglHE CORPORATION of fhe ROYAL JL EXCHANGE ASSURANCE do hereby! give Notice, that, they have authorised their re- spective Agents to receive Proposals for the ASSURANCE of FARMING-STOCK at the Rate of 2s. per Cent. per annum. Persons whose Anuual Premiums fall due on the 25th Dec. are hereby informed that Receipts arc now ready to be delivered by the Company's Agents ende-r-mentioned,and the Parties assured are requested to apply for the renewal of their Policies on or before the 9th of Jan. as the usual fifteen days allowed for payment, beyond the date of each policy, will then expire. Carnarvonshire. Bangor. John Roberts. Carnarvoll. Joseph Wakemaft. Denbighshire. Ruthin Robert Williams. Wrexham. Joseph Langford. Flintshire. Holywell. William Turtor. Montgomeryshire. Montgomery, Maurice Jones, Shropshire. Oswestry. Hughes. Shrewsbury. J. Eddowes. Wellingtoll Stephen Jeunins. Monmouthshire. Monmouth Thomas Tudor. Newport Mr. Tibbins. Glamorganshire. Swansea Messrs. W. Grove & Sons Cardiff. Joseph Davies. Breconsliire. Brecon Charles Wild. Carmarthenshire. Carmarthell. William North. Herefordshire Hereford. John Allen, Bookseller. Leominster. Samuel Nicholas. Ledbury William Holbrook. This Corporation will, in cases of Fire, allow ,all reasonable charges attending the removal of gouls, and pay the sufferer's loss, whether the goods are destroyed, lost, or damaged by such removal. All payments for losses or damages by Fire, are made by this Corporation without deduction. N. B. Fire Policies will be allowed free of expence, where the Annual Premiums amount to 6s. or upwards. This Company have invariably made good Losses by Fire, occasioned by Lightning. Proposals may be had of the different Agents. 0:31 ASSURANCES on LIVES being found to be advantageous to persons having offices, employments, estates, or other incomes, deter- minable on the life or lives of themselves or others, Tables of the Rates for such Assurances, and for the granting Annuities on Lives, may be had of the said Agents. And, for the greater convenience of the Public, the Company have determined to extend, (by special agreement) the Assurance on Lives to the age of 75 years. x- SAM' FJEjr.VWQ, JUB. sec. Iv or. 26,1814, LATELY PUBLISHED, THE ROYAL ALMANACK, Price 1 s. 7d. in a sheet, or Is. 9d. neatly done up' in Marble Paper. above ALMA NACK is particularly cai- culated for North Wales and Cheshire, and besides the usual matter in other Almanacks, contains the time of sailing of the Ellesmere Canal Packet, for Liverpool, for tvery day in the year, &c. by J. BROSTE R, BOOKSELLER, STATIONER, AND BOOK- BINDER, EXCHANGE, CHESTER, Who returns his sincere and gratcfulthanh to his friends and customers, for the distinguished favors conferred, and respectfully solicits a fur- ther continuance, which he will endeavour to deserve, by always procuring the very best arti- CIC5, of the newest taste, and on the lowest, terms, and by being punctual in the execution of all orders, wholesale and retail. He has now on sale, a large and fashionable as- sortment of Ijadi.es' and Gentlemen's ANNUAL POCKET BOOKS, ATLASSES, REPOSITORIES,SOUVENIRS, TABLETS, COURT KALENDARS, ALMANACKS, &c. &c. FOR THE YEAR 1815. Bookbinding, in the first style of Elegance. Magazines, and all other Periodical Works, as iioon as published. CARNARVONSHIRE FREEHOLD ESTATE, TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, At the Crown and Anchor Inn, in the town of Pwllheli, in the county of Carnarvon, on Wed- nesday the 18th day of January next, between the hours of 3 and 5 o'clock in the afternoon of the same day, subject to conditions, unless disposed of in the mean time by private con- tract, of which due notice will be given, in the following or SUJh other lots as shall be agreed upon at the day of sale. In the parish of Nevin. LOT I- A QUILLET Piece or Parcel of A. K. i>. Land, called Llainfawr yn Caer- hyg, hounded on the east by lands of Hugh Rowlands, Esq. and on the west and north by lands of Lord Newbo- rough, now in the holding of the Rev. William Lloyd, containing 1 0 16 LOT II. A Quillet, in Caerhyg aforesaid, aii- joining the road to Porthdinllaen, and bounded by Caerhyg lands of Lord N e who rough, in the holding of the said William Lloyd, containing. 0 I 8 LOT III. A Quillet,, called Llainbigfain, ad- ,joi.lining the said road, and bounded by lands of Lord Newborough, and Francis Langford Mead, Esq. in the holding of the said William Lloyd, containing Q I I/OT IV. A'Quillet, called Lla.inpwllblew yng- morfa, bounded by TytldYIl Caerhyg, and lands-of Lord Newborough, in the holding of William Parry, containing, 0 2 26 LOT V. A Messuage and Qui I let, called Llain- ycaptan yngmorfa, bounde.) by lands of Lord Newborough, and Colonel Ed- wards, in the holding of Richard Jones 1 cOniaiuing 0 3 8 LOr Vi. Two Quillets, calledLlainia Bryn- iaduon yngmorla, bounded-by lands of Lord Newborough, and Colonel Ed- wards, in the holding of William Ro- bert Roberts,containing. 0 3 34 LOT VII. A Piece of Land, part of Mynydd Nevin allotted by the Commissioners for inclosing the said Common to Pcn- yinaes and is bounded on the north by an allotment to Mr, Stephen Jones,on the east by an allotment to Mr. Morris Davies, on the south by the road to the fuel ground, and on the west by an allotment to Colonel Edwards, and Mrs. Aune Lloyd,containing i 3 24 In the parish of Liannor. LOT VIII. Two Quillets in Ty Cornrog Lands, one adjoins the road to Tyiaawr, in the holding of Griffith Roberts, con- taining. I 33 Lot, I is situate in Caerhyg, close to the town of Nevin, and Lots 3, 4, 5, and 6, are also- si- tuate between the town of Nevin and Bwichy- bridin, and are convenient for building, being near slone and lime, and also contiguous to the Port of Nevin, and near the Port of Porthdin- llaen, where an extensive and lucrative herring fishery is carried on during the season. One part of Lot 8 adjoins the road 10 Pentreur;ha, and is convenient for building the land is all arable and in good state of cultivation. The respective tenants will shew the different Lots,and further particulars may be had by ap- plying at Mr. Ellis's OtTice, in Pwllheli, where maps of the premises may be seen. 15th Dec, 1814, =-
SINGULAR, EXCAVATIONS UNDER A CONSIDERABLE PART OF THE CITY OF PARIS AND THE ADJACENT COUNTRY. Mr. Curran's late mention, in his memora. ble letter, of caverns which run under the citv of Paris, has excited a good deal of public curi- osity. Some doubt has arisen as to the exist- ence of such subterraneous passages, as have been described by that gentleman. We are acquainted with some persons, who had resided a number of years in the capital of France, and who absolutely deny the exist- II ence of those excavations of which Mr. Curran speaks. We do not much wonder at their want of information on this sub. ject. The entrance into those subterrane- ous places has been always guarded by the government of that kingdom with pecu- liar vigilance. It requires particular interest to obtain admission into those singular cavi. ties-aridsomc even of the citizens of Paris have spent a great portion of their lives, with- out hafing kaowa that the houses in which I they had lived, and the streets which they had been in the daily habit of perambulating, ex- tended over in visible and perilous gulfs. To litit an end to all doubt, as to the existence of those subterraneous streets, we copy the fol- lowing article from the Encyclopaedia Britan- nica, which our readers, if they choose to consult that work, will find tinder the article of u Quarries." In cfJrroboratiol) of this article, we will also subjoin a passage from "I flolcrqfCs Travels, 2d voL p. 478. Many other authorities might be added on this in- teresting subject, if the narrow bounds of our paper permitted their insertion. QUARRIES, — A name commonly given to a most extraordinary cavern utider the city of Paris, the existence of which is known to few even of the inhabitants, and many of those who have heard of it consider the. whole as an idie story. Mr. Thomas White, a Member of the Royal Medical Society, of Edinburgh, &<vwho visited it in 1783, puts the matter beyond a doubt; having, with many leave (which is always very cautiously granted) to inspect it, having guides and torches with them.—He gives the follow- ing account of it iu (be second volume of the Manchester Transactions :—" At the entrance of Ihe Ol/servatoire Hoj/al, the path is narrolV for a considerable way but soon we entered large and spacious streets, ail marked with, names-, the same as in the city; different ad- vertisements and bills were found, as we pro- ceeded, pasted on the walls, so that it had every appearance of a large town swallowed up in the earth. The general height of the roof is about nine or ten feel, but in some parts not less than 30, and even 40. In many places there is li- quor continually dropping from it, which can- geals immediately, and forms a. transparent stone, but not so fine and clear as rock crys- talized. As we continued our peregrination, we t/iought ourselves in no small danger from the root, which we found but indifferently propped in some places with wood 'much de- cayed. Under the houses, and many of the slreels, however, it seemed to be tolerably se- cured by immense stones set in mortar; in other parts, where there are only fields or gar- dens above, it was totally unsupported for a considerable space, the roof being perfectly level, oi- a plain piece of rock. After travers- ing about two miles, we again descended about 20'steps, and here found some workmen in a very coid and damp place, propping up a most, dangerous part, which [hey were fearf ul would give way every moment. The path here is not more than three feet in width, and the roof so low, that we were obliged to stoop con- siderably. Oil walkingsnme little-, (Iiitatice further, we entered into a kind of saloon cut out of the rock, and said to be exactly under the Eglise de St. Jacqitcs. This was illuminated with greallasle, occasioned an agreeable surprise, and made us all ample amends for the danger and diflictiltv we had just before gone through. A,I, one end was a representation in niiniauKe o! some principal forts in the Indies, with the fortifications, draw-bridges, &c. Cannons j were plankd, wilh a couple of soldiers !o each, I j ready to lire. Senlmels were placed in diffe- relit parts of the garrison, particularly before the Governor's house and a regiment of arm- ed men was drawn up in another place, wilh their General in (he front. The whole was made up of a kinrl of clay which the pla-cc af- ion'ta, was ingeniously contrived, and the light that was thrown upon it gave a very pretlv effect. j Oil the other side (If this hail was a long table set out with cold louguos, bread, and butter, and some of the best Burgundy I ever drank. Now every thing was iiiti mirth; our fears were entirely dispelled, and ihe danger we dreaded the moment before was nu longcr thought of. In short we were all in good spit its again, and proceeded on our journey about two miles farther, when our guides judged it prudent for us to ascend, as we were tlieu got io the steps which led up to tile town. We here found ourselves safe, ai the I'al de Grace, near lhe English Benedic- tine convent, without the least accident having happened to any .of the party. We imagined we had walked aoout. two French leagues, and were ahsent from the surface of the earth be- twixt four and five hours. Asto the origin of this quarry,I could not, on tile strictest inquiry, learn any thing satis- tory and the only account I know published isihefoitowing, contained in the Tableau de Paris, nouvelle edilioti lorn premier, chapitre Sine, page I2me. "rcr the first building of Paris, it was ne- cessary to get the stone in the environs, and consumption of it was very considerable. As Paris was enlarged, (he suburbs were insensibly built on the ancient q. irries, so that all you see without is wauling in the earth for -the foundation of the city;—hence proceed the frightful cavities which are seen under the houses in several quarters. Tiiey stand upon abysses. It would not require a very violent shock to throw back the stones to fhe place from whence they haveben raised \s,ilh so much diilicully. Eight men being swallowed up in a gulf 150 feel, deep, and some other less known accidents, excited at length the vigi lance of (>u; police an*id the Government, and, in fact, the buildings of several quarters have been privately propped oil. and by this means a support given to these obscuresublerraneous places, which they before wanted. All the suburbs of St. James's, Harp-street and even Street of Tournou, stand tipoii the ancient quarries-and pillars have been erected to support the weight of the houses. What a subject for reflection, in cousidering this great city formed and supported by means absoltcly contrary !riiese towers, these steeples, the arched roofs of these temples, are so many fiijjus to tell the eye what we now see iu the air is wanting under our feet." L, Holcroft, in speaking of the quarries, has the following remarkable passage (2d vol, ». 1478);- '■ 1 i I In the rauxl)oljr- St. Gf-riiiaiii tl)ere is t very considerable quarter of Paris, which has long been said, and too often proved, to be dangerously constructed. Streets are built over the quarries, out of which the stones for building them were hewn, and these hollow foundations have sometimes failed. The quar- ries called Les Carrieres," are to (he num- ber, and nearly in the direction of the streets above." It may not be deemed superfluous nor un. interesting ifin this place we add that the gyp- sum quarries of Paris are remarkable for the fossii remains of animals. Amongst these fossils, Cuvier discovered the remains of two genei-a of quadrupeds, which he entitles Pa- heotherium aud Anoplotherium. 14e I found in these quarries the remains of ,I-i-, un- known species of dog. apparently a genus in- termediate between Canis and Viverra, (oge- Iher with a species of ichneumon double The size of that now in existence.
STATISTICAL NOTES. The number of inhabitants of a country or of a city, is almost renewed every SO years and in an age the human race is renewed three times and one third. If we allow three generations for an age, and supposing that the world was only 5700 years old, there would bf^n 1 generations since the creation of the wd to ir titne, 124 since the dehme and 57 since the Christian mra and as there is not a bouse which can prove its origin even the length ofCharlemagne, it so follows, that the most ancient families arc not able to trace their origin farther back than 30 generations there are even very few who can trace so far without diving into fiction. But what sig- nifies 1000 years of illustration to 4700 of ob- scurity ? Out of 1000 infants that are nursed by the mother, about 300 die: of the same number committed to the care of strange nur- ses, 500 perish. The mortality of infants has terribly augmented during this luxurious age. Convulsions anddeutihon carry off the greatest part of them. Among 115 deaths there may be reckoned one woman in child- bed but only one out of 400 dies in labour The smail pox, in Ihe natural way, usually can ies of} 8 out of 100,—by iunoculalion,one scarcely dies out of 300. It is observed, that more girls than boys die of the small pox itt the natllnd way. From calculation founded on tjie bills of mortality, there are only It out of 3126 who reach the a^e of 100. More people live to >i.great age in c -vated situa- tions than those which are lower. The pro- portion of the deaths of women tu (hose of men is 103 to 108 Ihs probable duration of a woman's lirc is GO years. Married women live longer than single. It has been found ihat the greatest number of deaths have been in the month of March, and next to that, the moulhs of August and September. li) Nov. December, and February, there are fewest deaths; Out of 1000 deaths, 2J9 take place in winter, 289 in spring, 225 in summer, and Ivlorctlie, therefore, in the spring ii-. other seaqoti, I)ttt iii larye cities like London or Paris, winter is file most fatal season. Why r Because more persons are in towns in winter than in summer. Tin; half of all who are borne die before they reach the age of 17, The number of old per- sons who die during cold weather are to those who die during the warm weather as 7 to 4. The first month, and e-liecially the first day after birth, are marked by the greatest num- ber of deaths. Of 2735 infants who die when very young, 1222 die on the first day, and the remainder dllrilg the first mouth. According to ihe observations of Boerhaave, the health* est children are born during the months of January, February, and March. The married wt)li)el)"Ire to all tile fe,,iiale country as 1 to 3, and the married men lo &11 (lie males as 3 lo 5. The greatest number of births are in February and March which answer lo May and June. The number of 1 wins is to lhalof the wholc 1IIImbcr of single births as i to 65. The number of marriages is lo that of lite inhabitants of a country as 175 to 1000. In country places there are on an average 4 children born of each marriage in cities it cannot be reckoned above three and a halt: The number of widows are to those of widowers as to I but those of widows who re-marry to those of widowers as 4 to 5. The number of widows is to the ulImber of the whole inhabitants 5 tool, that of widowers as 1 to 15. Upon an equal space of ground there exists. III Iceland ] man Germany 121 Norway *5 lid 152 Sweden 15 France Turkey 36 Italy 17 Polaiiil 52 Naples joe- Spain 03 Venice 19,i -Ireland 99 Holland 224- Switzerland lit Malta 1103 Great Britain 119 What a difference 1 Iceland is the pooresi part in the world as to inhabitants, and Malta I r the richest. One-fourth of the inhabitants of a country live commonly in cities, and three, fourths in villages. Of 2000 living uieu, there ought to be allowed 28 deaths. °
Rj/drophobia^-A melancholy case of this nature occurred lately at Benwell High Cross tiar Newcastle. On Saturday evening, the 3djutt. a youth uamed.Glark, about nine years of age, employed in benwell colliery, was se- verely hitln the cheek by a small dog, of the messet kind, which was afterwards killed at that place. The wouud was suffered to heaf and nothing serious occurred till Tuesday ge'i! night, when the boy shewed symptoms of Cal uiud madness, by snatching at a bowl in which water was offered to him. Medical assistance was then for the first time sent for, but, alas t too late, and the poor lad feU a victim to tl paroxysm, of thc disease oil Thursday se'n- night. On the morning of the one above re- ferred to, he bit an asstallding with a carl near (he Theatre, Newcastle, and was also seen to bite several oilier dogs.