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-.....--------To the Editor…

To the Editor of the North…

For the North Wales Gazette.

To the Editor of the North…

On forming Plantations of…


On forming Plantations of OAK, £ >e. in con- junction scilh FIOMjY GRASS. J/oy, Ireland, Jp ril 5, ISIS. Your readiness to insert Communications, induces me to transmit some observations, on a suhject of milch importance, upon which I have touchcd more than once-in different pub- lications they contain a plan for facilitating the supply of our Navy with Oak Timber, by calling in the aid of Fiorin Grass. I atll induced to take up (his subject by the perusal of a most valuable Pii)er,iii II)c Quar- terly Review for September last, in which, the topic is discussed with much ability, and at great length. It is there said, That the scarcity of Oak Timber, for ship building, is nol imaginary, but a real evil of alarming ex-' tent; that it lias been ascertained beyond a possibility of doubt, that the wood lands, in general, of Great Britain, but plantations of Oak in particular, have diminished in propor- tion us the population and prosperity of the country have increased." There can lie no doubt but the increased no- pulation of the country has induced the neces- sity of extending if* cultivation, and encroach- ing upon its wood lands; thai the plough has advanced upon its forests, and that many tracts, well wooded formerly, now yield Corn instead of Timber. It will be )1. serious misfortune should the means of sustaining our population be found to clash with the means of defending our country, and that plenty must he followed by insecurity. And it will he a fortunate circum- stance if these two favourite objects, in place of interfering with each other, as rivals, can be made to co-operate together, and advance hand in hand and if we can shew that the same field may be cultivated so as to afford a copious supply of food to mail (indireclly in- deed,) and at the same litiie to licar crol) of Oak Timber, under the most favourable cir- cumstances we shall be still more fortunate, should we be able to obiain this double crop, from grounds hitherto unapplied to any use. I shall now shew thallbere is nothing ex- travagant m these speculations nor even lead- ingto weighty expence;, that I am merely | availing myself of the known habit of parti cular vegetables, in order to dmw from them the greatest possible benefits. I have repeatedly shewn that Fiorin Grass bears shade (that is, a partial privation of air and light) better than any other vegdahle np- plicable to the use of mill ? that Ihe dactylia, hovers on the hedges of our plantations, ad- vancing somewhat tllrther than other grasses, but that Fiorin penetrates into the interior, and that, until the umbrella closes so thick over head as to sloi) all vegetation, the last i«jmuant of verdure is formed by Ibis Grass, which continues to exist IIIHler IhcJe uufa vourable circumstances, long aftcr it has oc- casion to luxuriate, and that it perseveres in producing a good fleece, when all other t, grasses ceases to exist. To avail ourselves of this properly, let us suppose a field to be laid down with FlORIN GRASS, and at the smme lime- planted very thinly with Oak, or sown with Acorns, at great distances, or managed in such other manner us those most skilful in the culture of the Oak shall recommend ;-let us see the result. This meadow if laid down in the Spring, will produce a Rreat crop of Hay the same year, and every successive year, until the Oak attains such a size as to iuterfere somewhat by their projecting branches but little injury to the crop of Hay will be done for 40 or 50 years. This Oak plantation will thus be found a more productive field than any other in the farm will require little attention, merely slight weeding iu the Spring, to preserve the Fiorin in exclusive possession while such oc- casiuual top dressing* II would make a com. mon meadow continue to produce two loads of Hay per English acre, will preserve a Fio- rin meadow in a succession of crops of 7 loads, and of far better quality. A little circle, 4 or 5 feet Radius, may be left round each tree by often lightly digging, or scuffling patch, the young Oak wil not be choaked either by weeds or grass. 1 shall be told that Oaks, thinly dispersed through a field, will fait for want of shelter, such as is now afforded in all plantations, by thick planting at first, then occasionally thin- ning when requisite. Perhaps so. (for I be- lieve the experiment was never t-ried,) but so serious an advantage as valuable crops, during the whole period the young trees are advanc- ing, is not to be given up ou theory and spe- culations. Besides, the very sensible Paper before me states- That hedgerow Oak, or trees growing singly; are less subject to decay, than trees growing in the middle of a forest. The more exposed trees are to the wind and sun, the more compact and durable will the Timber be; while that from dense forests, into which the sun never penetrates, is more porous, more abundant in sap, and more prone to the dry rot." Can we then carry this new speculation into grounds hitherto uncultivated, (as no doubt we cau,) the acquisition still becomes more serious. The English moors open an immense field At a most trifling expellee they can be rapidly thrown into Fiorin meadows, and they are then also ready for Oak plantations. I may be told, Oak would not thrive on nioors-I doubt the fact and I know both Larch and Alder thrive admirably on these useless tracts, when properly prepared, that is, lightly scarified by frequent surface drains, to prevent the water from stagnating, and be- coming acrid about the roots of the plants, whether Grass or Trees, whether Grass or Trees. The Paper before mentioned dwells on the excellence of Larch Timber, saying, the Larch is very little inferior to Oak, and in some instances preferable; it arrives at per- fection in 50 or 60 years." It is recently discovered that Larch Bark tans admirably last April, at a great public meeting in Scotland, 1 saw specimens of Leather produced, some tanned with Oak Bark, and others with Larch there was ob- viously a difference, but we could not decide where the superiority lay. Alder Timber is known to be excellent for most Agricultural purposes, and this tree is of very rapid growth. Surely then, when our Moors, are 90 very extensive, so easily prepared for, and so well adapted to, this double stile of crop, Fiorin meadow, iininteruptedly productive and va- luable, Larch and Alder advancing rapidly towards perfection, we may scatter a few Oaks among them, was it only for experi- ment, and even should these fail, we are se- cure of forests affording better Pine Timber than any now imported from Foreigncountries. Public money is not the instrument I wish to see employed for carrying on or stimulat- ing improvement; too much of it flies off when in motion. We had lately a good les- son on the subject in my own country; three successive granls, amounting to iiE22,000, were appropriated by Ilarlittijeiit totliedraiii. age of the Irish bogs, of which sum, every shilling has passed into the pockets of indi- viduals, before a spade has been put into the ground; so soon as the money was gone, it was discovered that drainage was perfectly un- necessary 1 I remember hearing the acquisition of a large fortune accounted for; the Gentleman, I it was said, counted the King's money on a gridiron, and all that fell through was his own." 1 hare repeatedly stated, that the agent I wish alwuys to see employed on extensive im- provement, is the mass of the people it is in such mighty hands the work will advance in all directions at once: nor was there ever a case better fitted for such powerful exertions than the present. Can we tempt the common proprietor of the arable moor, contiguous with each other, to pass the line, and to encroach upon the waste, even on a very small scale, suppose only an acre or two what a change is made instantaneously on the face of the country I The circumference of every dreary moor, con- verted into a girdle, beautifully dotted with meadow and rising forest, which upon encou- ragement by success, may be increased ad li- r,i I bitum, by spreading on the periphery, and ad- r, vancing on the interior. To return to Ihe speculation on the improv- ment of the Peripheries of our numerous and extensive Moors, by aid of the mass of the People surrounding them, x How shall we contrive to put this vast ma- chine 111 motion ?—Who is to set the example, which is to be followed by so many ?—Who is to prove it is their interest to tread In his steps ? The answer is made by the Author of the able memoir which hasgiveu rise to these spe- b culations. It is to the Crown Lands we must look with any confidence for a future supply of Timber. In the last Session, Bills were pas- sed for the planting and enclosing 1,600 acres in the forest of Alice Holt, and 2,000 acres in that of Wolmar." do not look forward to tracts of such for- midable magnitude; I call upon Government merelvlo shew the practicabilities of measures, for the encouragement of others, and which afterwards may be followed still further if themselves should think fit. 1 shall state a very simple plan let parks of 20 acres, or such other dimensions as shall seem convenient, be inclosed in different un- cultivated parts of Crown Lands, laid down with Fiorin Grass, planted with Oak, and, where moor, Larch and Alder also. Though this be a public measure, it opens little source of fraud, or peculation inclosure I always consider as a distinct word, which may be contracted for by advertisement; and if a given number of men be steadily employed oil the interior area, expenee will be ascertain- ed with precision, and those who wish to learn a lesson, will soon discover if it be their inte- rest to follow the same plan. I need not recapitulate the statements of the alarming scarcity of Navy Timber—but we are also alarmed by the prospect of ano- ther scarcity, perhaps more formidable; want of food for our inhabitants; 42 millions of | money having been sent abroad in the last ten years to purchase Corn. The measures I recommend most necessarily prove an effectual remedy against both evils they will indeed operate slowly in the former case, as the trees must attain their futt growth; but in the latter case, rapidly. nay almost in stantaiieouslv, for every Fiorin meadow, form- ed on ground hitherto uncultivated, adds to our quantity of Hay, with which we must soon be overstocked, unless we throw some of our present rich meadows into tillage increasing thereby our Agricultural field, exactly in the proportion we increase our meadow ground, by advancing on lJur Wastes and what Waste in England could not beconverted into Fiorin meadow ? and through how manv of these might not Oak be planted successfully ? W. RICHARDSON, D. D.

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