THE COURT. THE Prince of Wales presided on Friday at a meeting of the Council of his Royal Highness, held at the office of the Duchy of Cornwall, Buckingham-gate, St. James's-park. There were present the Lord Portman (Lord Warden of the Stannaries;, Sir William John Alexander (Attorney General), Major General Sir Thomas Myddelton Biddulph (Receiver General), General *Sir William Thomas Knolfys (Comptroller of the Household of his Royal Highness), Herbert William Fisher, Esq. (Keeper of the Privy Sea!), and the Earl of f Leicester. Mr. Batemac, the secretary, attended ss clerk of the council. REit Majesty held a Council on Saturday afternoon, at which were present the Duke of Marlborough, Mr. Disraeli, the Earl of Mayo, and Colonel Wilson Patten. Previous to the Council, the Duka of Marlborough and Mr. Disraeli had audiences of her Majesty. The Earl of Mayo had an audience and kissed hands, on his appoint- ment as Governor-General of India. Colonel T. E. Taylor was introduced at the CounciL and sworn in as a nember of her Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, and took his seat at the board accordingly. After the Council Colonel Wilson Patten had an audience of her Majesty to deliver up the seals of the office of the Duchy of Lancaster, and kissed hands on bis appointment as Chief Secretary for Ireland. Colonel T. E. Taylor was then introduced, and sworn in Chan- aellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and received the seals of office. THEIR Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, Prince Albert Victor, Prince George, Princess Louise, and Princess Olga Mary of Wales arrived at Windsor Castle on Saturday from Marlborough-house, on i visit to the Queen. In attendance were the Countess of -Morton and Major Grey.
THE ARTS, LITERATURE, &c. &I, -A LICHEN Br.DT.—Among the curiosities of chemistry we may mention the production in Sweden of grape sugar, and from that, brandy, from lichens. Iceland iuoss, for example, which is found in Sweden in large quantities, contains a good deal of starch, which, as • veil as the cellulose, is converted into grape sugar by boiling with a dilute a:id. A specimen of Iceland moss gave as much as 72 per cent. of glucose, which, when fermented and distilled, yielded a brandy having a very agreeable flavour.—Mechanics Magazine. A MR. PARKER writes to the Mechanics Magazine, stating that he has made flying by steam on a small scale an accomplished fact." He explains, however, that the flight has to ba commenced in water, that is lasts a quarter of an hour, and covers eight feet. THE French expedition to the North Pole is at length About to start; M. Gustave Lambert has succeeded in collecting the sum he required, namely 20,000f., to de. fray its expenses. He is now at Cherbourg, superintend- ing the equipment of his vessel, significantly christened l,a Foi, and will sail early in the spring for his adven- turous voyage. CYPRIAN ARCHEOLOGY. — A peasant has just dis- covered, in the village of Idalion, in Cyprus, the cemetery .c)f a town which formerly existed. The consul of the United States caused some excavations to be. made, which have brought to light several tombs in perfect preserva- tion, from which have been extracted a large quantity of precious stones, jewels, coins, aud vessels in gold and silver. At a further depth of six or seven feet oth-er burving-places have been found bearing Phoenician in- scri otions.. THE MAGIC TREE."—At Prague there is an intention of shortly performing an almost completely unknown oeri, in one act, by Gluck, called "The Magic Tree." It was composed on the occasion of the fetes given for the marriage of the Dauphin with Marie Antoinette, and was only played at Paris a few times. The score was taken to Germany by an emigrant, from whose hands it passed to a German family, where it has been treasured op until now. The director of the theatre became acquainted with it quite accidentally- A NEW PIGMENT.—In a mine in the State of New Jersey, which has for thirty-five years past been worked tbr lead, a natural chemical combination has been dis- covered not heretofore attainable by any known artificial meats, and which is not only suitable as a paint for iron work of all kinds, but is specially adapted for the coating of ships' bottoms, as the particles of copper in tbe combination are fatal to animal life. 'j OLD TESTAMENT PLATS.—The daily papers mention tbe. opening of a new theatre in Warsaw, called the -i,,it-aelitisli Theatre, a very solid and handsome structure, splendidly decorated, and most comfortably arranged. It holds about 800 people. The pieces to he produced will consist exclusively of episodes taken from the Old Testament. The language is to be pure German. The company comprises about thirty Jewish actors, all men or Jads, the latter for the female roles. This is considered a very significant surrender on the pait of the ultra-orthodox party. The prejudice among, them against" theatres and circuses—a prejudice dating as far back as the period of utter debasement in the Grtzo-Raman stage performances—seems by degrees to be giving way. FIAE DAMP.—M. Delaunier, of Paris, has invented an ingenious mode of destroying fire damp in mines. It consists of a copper conductor, broken at intervals, but joined by very fine gold wire soldered to the copper; the gold wire being surrounded by flowers of sulphur, which ignite easily. By passing strong currents of electricity through the copper wire, the gold wire be- comes red hot, and ignites the sulphur, which burns any noxious gases which may ba present. The electric cur- rent is made to pass through the apparatus before the descent of the miners into the mine. MR. G. GUNTHER suggests that light- condensing tabes might be used for the purpose of conveying light to a distance so as to serve as signals in time of war, CAPTAIN BUlnoN has a new book of travels in the press, under the title of Explorations of the Highlands of the Brazil," with a full account of the gold and diamond mines. Also, of "Canoeing down 1,500 miles of the great river Sao Francisco, from Sahara to the Sea." FOUR PRlHATES-The late Archbishop of Canterbury (Longley) was the fourth of the Primates of all England who had previously held the Archbishopric of York. Grindol was thence translated to the higher dignity, in 157*5, Herring in 1747, Hutton in 1757, and Longley in 1862. Grindal used to send Queen Elizabeth grapes from his vineyard at Fulham (he t was then Bishop of London); and his allusions to the vanity of dress, which were supposed to be levelled at the Queen, did not impede his way to the primacy. His independence, however, when there, attended the Queen, and led to Grindal's suspension. HerriDg was a man who, with gentleness of principles, possessed indomitable bravery. He stirred up the north against the Pretender, and appeared in arms, like fight- ing bishops of older times. When unobtrusive Huttoa was succeeded by Thomas Seeker, the following epigram came of it The bench hath oft posed us and set us a s coffin', By signing Will London, John Sarum, John Rofiin But the head of the Church no expounder will wac-t, For hia grace signs Ms own proper name, Thomas Cant—Athenanm.
rpHB PRIOE OF FEMALE LABOUR IN PARTS. An official report lately published in Paris girog ?ome ntere,t3ng fct" relative to the price of female labour in that city. The number of women earning wages in Paris is 106.310. They are divided into three sections. The first consists of 17,203 women who get from 50c. to IP. 25. a day the second of 88,340. who earn from U, 50c. to 4f. a day; and the third of 767 only, earning Afom 4f. 50c. to 10f. a day. In the first section there are a great many gir's under 16 years of age, most of whom get, besides their wages lodging, food, and wash- ing free, The real representatives of th" female working -e class in Paris are therefore the 88,340 women of the second section. Of these, 24,810 earn 2f. a day, and -19,164 more than 2f. a day, and their average dailv wase is 2f. 14a.
RELIGIOUS L T P, P, P, T Y IN NOB WAY. Advices from Stockholm state that public opinion in (hat city is much preoccupied with a discussion which is about to open in the Norwegian Storthing respecting religious liberty. By the terms of the constitution the religion of the state is Evangelico-Lutberan dissenters :tre excluded from all public employment, and Jews are prohibited even from entering the kingdom. In 1845, a first modification of this fundamental law permitted, under conditions still very re- stricted, the exeroisa of Christian worship by 'is dissenters, am1 in 1351 Israelites were allowed to reside in the country. On three occasions, and particu- larly in 1865, a proposition was laid before the Storthing for the repeal of art. 92, which excludes persons not professing the state creed from public offices. The motion was supported by M. Schweigsard, professor of jaw in the university of Christiania, and who is reputed to be the greatest jurisconsult in the kingdom, out it failed before the compact opposition of tbe members representing the peasant class. This is the proposal shortly about to be renewed and discussed.
Facts and Facetiae, THE Latin word for woman is mulier. No wonder that the female sex is so obstinate. A WAG proposes to publish a new paper, to be called the Comet, with an original tale every week. C APIT AL PUNISHMENT. -Bein g senten cedunder the lex taliords for stealing a kiss from a pretty girl. A REAL estate agent informs the public that he has "a beautiful cottage for sale, containing ten rooms abd eight acres of land," A LABOURER in an ice-house down East was killed by a large lump of ice falling on his head. Verdict of the jury, Died of hard drink." MR. QUILP, who has recently been round an eating-house kitchen, whispers to us that the constituent elements of veal pies are of a character not to be re- vealed. LATIN is the language of religion, Greek of philosophy, French of conversation, Italian of music, Spanish of literature, German of science, Persian of poetry, Arabic of speculation, and English of control. OATHS are vulgar, senseless, offensive, impious, like obscene words, they leave a noisome trail upon the lips, and a stamp of odium upon the soul. They are inexcusable. They gratify no sense, while they outrage taste and dignity. AN American contemporary compliments a bishop in the following flattering terms Bishop Kip has been discoursing on The Intermediate State.' He is practically qualified to discuss any state intermediate between idiotcy and downright insanity." A GREAT DIFFICULTY.—" Tom," said a man to his friend the other day, I think it highly dangerous to keep the bills of small banks on hand now-a-days." Tim," answered the other, I find it more difficult than dangerous." BLACK Boy.-The Americans have -punned upon the new Turkish ambassador to the United States, having also reference to his swarthy complexion. His excellency's name is Biaque Bey, and the Americans persist in calling him the Turkish Black Boy. U WHAT is the use of you gentlemen going to college ?" said a farmer in conversation with one of the assistant commissioners engaged in the recent school inquiry. My son Walter can write a better hand than you." And the commissioner confesses the fact to be so. A FEW days ago a villager in Estremadura was drowned in attempting to cross the Tagus on horseback. The mayor ordered a search for the body. The edict gave as means of identification the following particulars "Dark complexion, tall, marked impediment in speech, A FRIEND of ours, who has been hesitating whether to keep a matrimonial engagement, informs us that he has at last bespoken his wedding suit. He evidently on the whole prefers a suit for the fulfilment of his promise to a suit for breach of it. SETTING HIM EIGHT.—" I stand," said a west- ern stump orator, on the broad platform of the prin- ciples of'98, and palsied be mice arm if I forsake 'em You stand in nothing of the kind," interrupted a. little shoemaker in the crowd "you stand in my boots that you never paid me for, and I want the money." WOULD you talk of religion securely—with true freedom and assurance, without any secret checks or faint-hearted misgivings ? The rule is both short and infallible—Do what you say. Practise as much of religion as you talk, and then you have a full licence to talk as much of it as you please.—If orris. HE (Dr. Johnson) was constantly earnest with his friends, when they had thoughts of marriage, to look fut for a religious wife. "A principle of honour or fear of the world," added he, "will many times keep a man in decent order when a woman loses her religion, she. in general loses the only tie that will restrain her actions." -Seward. 'Tis an error, surely, to talk of The of youth. I think no persons are more hypocritical, and have a more affected behaviour to one another than the young. They deceive themselves and each other with artifices that d Dot impose upon men of the world and so we get to understand truth better, and grow simpler as we grow older.—Thackeray's Esmond. A SPENDTHRIFT bad a fortune left him, and was advised by a friend to purchase a farm notorious for its neglected state and its sterility, "Why," said the spendthrift, "there is not a single passable road through the whole farm." "That is the very reason I wish you to buy it," said the other; "it will take you the longer to run through it." •* A GENTLEMAN at the last masked ball meeting a lady whose husband he knew to be exceedingly jealous, exclaimed, What, madam, you here ? I thought your husband kept you under lock and key," "So he does," replied the angelic creature; "but he's down with the typhus fever now,, and I take advantage of it to have a little fun." ANTEDILUVIAN STUFF.—When Sir Walter Scott was extending his garden at Abbotsford, an old servant was getting exasperated by digging some stony ground. Sir Walter saw that the old man's feelings were rather rumed.and said to him: That's grand soil you're working on the day." "Grand soH!" exclaimc-d the gardener sarcastically, I think it's the riddlings o' the cremation." A CANONICAL CHARGE.—Canon Goodall was proverbially fond of punning. About the same time that he was made Provost of Eton he also received a stall at Windsor. A young lady of his acquaintance, while congratulating him on his elevation, and request- ing him to give the young ladies of Windsor and Eton a ball during the vacation, happened to touch his wig with her fan, and caused the powder to fly about upon which the doctor exclaimed, My dear, you can get the powder out of the canon, but not the ball." AN INCIDENT IN A CHURCH.—A d uchess- a grand-duchess—who was well known in the Quartier St. Germain for her wit and size, went recently to the Church of St. Thomas d'Aquin to make her devotions. She was late, and in order to get to her place she dis- turbed some others who were engaged in prayer or medi- tation. One of the latter, whom she unintentionally elbowed, looking up, rather gruffly said "Madame, when a lady has arrived at your bulk, she ought to be in church ratlerbefore others." My good ladjr," re- plieC the duchess, pray to God that I may get thin, and allow me to pass." How TO SETTLE AN HOTEL BILL.-An hotel J keeper at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, recently learned something in this wise Two countrymen took lodgings at his place, and fared sumptuously, drinking thres bottles of wine daily. The last day, and before they bad settled their bill, a dispute arose about the speed of their horses. They at last settled upon a race, and appointed the landlord judge. When they were ready, the judge, like those of the Olympian games, gave the word—one, two, three, and "off." Away they went, and have neither been seen nor heard of since. THERE was a law in Boston against smoking in .the street. A" down-easter" strutted about the city one day, puffing at a cigar. Up walked a constable. I "Guess you're smokin' he said. "You'll pay two dollars, stranger." "I ain't smokin' was the quick response; "try the weed yourself it ain't alight." The constable took'a pull at the cigar, and out came a long puff of white smoke. Guess you'll pay me two dol- lars," said the down-easter, quietly. Wall," replied the constable, I calclate you're considerable sharp. S'pose we liquor." EPITAPHS.—On Sir L. Tanfielcl, at Burford, a judge at the end of the eighteenth century Not this small heap of stones, and straightn'd r( ome- The bench, the courte, tribunall, are all tombe But this his dust, and these his name interre, And these, indeed, now but a sepulcher; Those merits only raised him, and made good His standing there, where few so long have stccde; Pitty his memory ingaged should stand Unto a private church, and not the land." On a brass scroll coming from a man's mouth are these words: "fary Moder Mayde, ChI" have m'cy on me, Jon. Spycer." On a similar scroll from his wife's mouth. "And on me Alys his wife, Ladye, for the joyes five." An inscription round the stone gives the date of the man's death in 1437.
THE RETURNING OFFICERS' CHARGES. Some comments on returning officers' charges were made at a meeting of the committee of Mr. Newton, one of the candidates for the Tower Hamlets. A letter was read from the returning officer of the borough, estimating the expenses incident to his office at XI,162, which, assuming that all five candidates go to the poll, would make the share of each X232 8s. Mr. Newton remarked on the fact that in 1852 the returning officers' expenses for each candidate amounted to £ 150; in 1857 three candidates paid a total ef iJSOO. There are now 4,000 more electors, but the same number of polling booths, with an additional charge of £ 362. Mr. Newton added that he should be prepared to pay the sum demanded, as he had resolved to go to the poll.
AGRICULTURE. ROOT CROPS AN MODES OF STORING THEM. POTATOES.—Seldom has there been a year in which more anxiety has been felt by growers as to the ultimate success of this crop, as has everywhere been the case duiiag the present season. Notwithstanding the gravest doubts during almost the entire period of its growth as to its future well doing, it has yet in a great measure agreeably disappointed many growers whose hopes were by no means sanguine, and in nearly every part of the country the potato crap is well spoken of. Although the seed time was highly favourable, and the season all that could be wished for, say up to the time of earthing, the long-continued drought that set in immediately after this operation, retarded the formation of tubers, and pre- vented their attaining the usual size. The growth of a second crop of tubers, and even a third, after the soil be- came moistened, was supposed by most people to have an injurious effect upon the quality of the potatoes, and to unfit them for table use, their money value being cor- respondingly lessened yet after all these fears they have attained a good size, are of average quality, and the prices obtained in most districts of the country highly remunerative to the grower, whether sold by the acre, and thus relieving him of all further trouble, or dug by himself and sold direct to the retailer or consumer. From a correspondent in the west of Scotland we have infor- mation that on many farms south of the Clyde disease is quite unknown, and an immense trade has already been done in sending potatoes by rail to English manufacturing towns, so much so as to make it a matter of anxiety whether it may not have to some extent been overdone, and a sufficient supply notretaiued in the several districts for table use and for seed. Prices have had a wide range when sold to dealers by the acre, running from E20 to nearly zC40, and so well have the crops turned out in general that large sums have been cleared by those en- gaged in the business. This is highly gratifying to the farmer, and will to some extent make up for the losses sustained by the partial or total failure of the turnip crop. The increasing scarcity of labourers has compelled large growers of potatoes to look about for other methods of raising them quicker and more economically than the implements ordinarily used by hand. Of these we have latterly seen nothing so good or so generally useful for moderately-sized farms as a brander-like attachment fitted to the drill-plough after the boards have been removed taking every second drill, so as not to cover the potatoes which have been exposed until time has been given to have them picked up, every tuber is brought to the surface and shaken free of the soil, and although a little assistance is necessary with the broad-pronged fork, so as to make sure of nothing being left, it is so slight as to be scarce worth mentioning Although this invention has been known for at least 25 years, it is rather surprising that it should have been so long before coming ioto general use, its utility being so obvious. In its improved form it has come into very general use during the past four or five years, aud now any farmer may get the potato-raiser attached to his drill plough at the expense of a few shillings. A second source of anxiety in connection with this crop has been the apprehension that in consequence of the large number of growths attached to the original tubers, the keeping properties of the entire crop may have been seriously iojured, and hence a desire on the part of many to dispose of the greater portion of their produce. Although such a lengthened drought is seldom seen in this latitude as that which has been experienced in the present year, yet there have occurred from time to time dry periods of sufficient duration to cause the very same kind of growths which have been so plentiful this season. In no year does their presence appear to have affected the keeping qualities of the crop to such an extent as to make it the subject of general remark, and it is ex- tremely probable, from the general soundness, freedom from disease, and even mealiness of the offsets them- selves, that they will not only keep well, but be useful both for consumption and for reproductive purposes when the season again comes round. In storing for the winter, when the quantity is large, there is no available plan open to the ordinary farmer so good as the pit. It is capable of extension to any amount; the width can be so managed as to completely obviate all tendency to heating, and the covering regulated in such a way more or less, according to situa- tion and exposure, as to completely exclude frost and the losses that are the certain results of its pene- trating to the contents of the pit. Potatoes keep well in a roomy house in which there is good ventilation, a continuous circulation of fresh air being highly essential to their remaining fresh and juicy to the end of the sea- son. To preserve the reprod uctive principle much care if required in storing the potato, as of late years it is extremely susceptible of injury, and much of the loss srom blanks in the drills is clearly owing to the c reles, way in which the crop is put out of hands when lifted. A very slight degree ef heat evolved in the heap destroys the germ, and therefore renders useless for seed the whole of the tubers which come under its influence. Asprinkling of the earth in which they grew, laid on so as to thoroughly mix with each layer as they are brought in, is a great assistance to their keeping well and in a great measure lessening the danger of heating it prevents the pota- toes from lying too closely together, preserving to some extent a circulation of air through the heap, and if a few should become rotten they are prevented by the intervening particles of earth from contami- nating the sound ones, and the moisture of those which become decayed is in a great measure dried up. Using potatoes for seed which have been iajured by indifferent storing is both a loss and dis- appointment to the party so doing, and the unpleasant- ness becomes even more acute when a portion has been sold to neighbours to be used as seed and fails to come up. In this case there is some danger of litigation, with ail the annoyance and expense inseparable therefrom. Even should this contingency be avoided through the forbearance of the sufferer, it is galling to any man to know that a transaction by which he has profited has proved a loss to the purchaser, who probably is his nearest neighbour. MANGOLD WUBZEL.—This crop will on many farms be the principal dependence for the coming winter and spring, having in most districts, where extensively grown, suffered less from the dry weather than the turnip. Almost under any circumstances it should not be used in the early part of the season, as it is then anything but wholesome food. The acrid juice, of which this root contains a large quantity, has an extremely irritant effect on the stomach and intestines, inducing such a state of looseness in the latter, as to prove highly prejudicial to the animals feeding on it. February is the earliest month for beginning on the mangold heap, as it cannot be done earlier, and have the full benefit to be derived from the crop. By that time the juices are in a great measure dried up, and the roots are excellent food, relished and thriven on by all the domestic animals, not excluding the horse a small quantity, pulped and mixed with chaffed hay, being a good supper for the farm-horse. The leaves of the mangold being bulky add considerably to the stock of food, and are highly prized by many farmers. Others neglect them, considering that they are more valuable ploughed in as manure, and ultimately make more money by assisting the wheat-crop than they could ever have done had they been used as food. On farms heavily stocked, and with the turnip-crop either a total or partial failure, the mangold tops are likely to beutilised, as, indeed, we decidedly think they should be, as the leaves of ten acres would give a large stock of morning and evening feed for several weeks, a consideration few can afford to overlook just at present. This plant being so susceptible of injury by frost, it is scarcely safe to delay lifting the crop much later than the first week in November, sharp frosts of several nights' continuance oc- curring so frequently in the course of the month. When it happens to run rather late before it is found convenient to get them out, it is better to let the tops remain on, even at the risk of losing them for food, as they are a great protection in the event of frost. The necessity f)r having the ground cleared for wheat is another strong in- ducement to begin early, and with two such powerful reasons for the seasonable storing of this crop, no effort should be spared in getting it placed out of danger. The keeping qualities of this root are all that could be desired when lifted in good order, and they must be very carelessly built up indeed, if they do not keep for seven or eight months as sound as the day they were taken out of the ground. It is not at all requisite that the roots should be cleaned in any way when taken up, as a certain portion of earth adhering is rather an assistance than otherwise, when they happen to be kept for an extended period. Mangolds may be stored in a house, and do very well when the bulk is not too great but there is not the slightest necessity for providing house accommodation expressly for them, as they keep admirably when ricked in the open air. Seven feet is a fair breadth for the ricks, and, by sloping them gradually until about the same height a great weight of crop can be safely stored in comparatively little space. Some men cover in whole or in part with earth; but a fair covering of thatch secured with ropes in the usual way is quite effectual in preserving the con- tents of the ricks from injury. CARROTS.—When the soil is suitable for this crop, it is questionable whether there is any other known to modern agriculturists which will make as much money. The price is always high; and, consequently, even a mid- ding crop will make a great deal of money but when the conditions under which the crop has been grown have proved favourable, it becomes remunerative almost be- yond belief. To the farmer it is chiefly valuable for horse-food, effecting a considerable saving in the con- sumption of oats and even hay, while the animal is kept in excellent health and condition. The carrot, although not liable to injury from ordinary frosts, is generally taken up at the same time as the mangel crop, so as to get the land cleared. From the length of the root, it becomes necessary to take more care in lifting than is required for the other root-crops; otherwise, many will be broken over, and left in the ground. Before attempting to pull them, they should be loosened with the spade or digging-fork, which materially lessens the labour of pulling, and completely prevents waste. There is no diffi- culty in storing the carrot-crop, the same mode of build- ing up being followed as described for the mangels, the breadth, however, not exceeding five feet, and the thatch- ing and roping in all respects the same. Horses eat carrots gieedily, in whatever state they may be placed before them but there is probably no way they can be given with so much advantage as by pulping the roots and mixing with a portion of chaffed hay. In feeding with roots of any kind, this system is excellent, as the horse fills himself quickly, and can then lie down and rest-a matter of much moment to a hard-worked animal. TURNIPS.—Unfortunately, on many farms and even districts of country, this season's crop will not be diffi- cult to dispose of; yet, as its scarcity makes it all the more valuable, extra care should be taken in care- fully storing it, so that its nutritive properties shall be preserved until the spring is well advanced. Ireland is much better off for turnips than either Eng- land or Scotland, the drought having not set in quite so early in the season there. In many counties they are an excellent crop, and in most a fair average. Although the turnip stands a good deal of severe weather-without suffering much apparent in- jury, it is better to have the crop lifted and stored before the end of the year at furthest. A succession of freezings and thawings cannot but be injurious to the nutritive properties of the bulb and although the amount of in- jury done may not be very noticeable at the time, it is pretty certain to show itself in the long run, by quantities of them becoming rotten and unfit for use at the very season they are most in demand, and can but very badly be done without. When safely stored, without having been exposed to severe frost, the nutritive properties are preserved, and their keeping qualities remain unimpaired. In storing turnips more care is required than is necessary with either the mangold or carrot, as they are extremely liable to heat if put together -in too great quantity, and when heated, if they do not decay at once, become so light as to be comparatively valueless. Whatever way they may be made up, it is absolutely imperative that they have a free circulation of air. Turnips should never be built against a wall, unless the quantity is very small indeed, as, when stored in this way, there is not thorough ventilation, and much loss from rotting is almost certain to be the result. When stoied in the fields where they grew, to be used for sheep, the bulbs can be built up very handily in narrow heaps, and covered over with as much earth as will keep out frost. This mode is very conve- nient, as the crop is not only secured from the weather, but placed in the very position most suitable for the pur- pose for which it is wanted, now that it is so much the practice to cut up the turnips in the field for sheep-feeding. The machine can be brought to the end of each heap, and the turnips filled in with com- paratively little trouble. When removed to the yards, building in narrow ricks, not wider than 5 feet at the base, and thatching carefully, is a plan which gives great satisfaction, as, from the smallness of the bulk, there can be no heating, and the bulbs remain fresh and sound at the end of the season. From the high value of all feeding substances, and the probability of the spring seeing them still higher, it is well worth while to give the storing of the home-grown crops increased attention. Losses from letting them remain too long in the fields, and so getting injured by frost; or from careless manage- ment when brought in, will be doubly annoying, with the knowledge that, with the exercise of a little fore- sight, and the engaging of a few extra hands for a short time, the whole could easily have been preveiatecl.- J. S., in the Mark-lane Exp-ress.
GARDENING. THE OUTDOOR WINTER GARDEN.—Much has been said and written en the subject of embellishing flower-beds and borders during winter, but very little has been done. There are two distinct but closely-related methods of embellishing the winter-garden, namely. the" plunging- system and the transferring system." The plunging system requires a constant succession of plants in pots grown expressly for the purpose, and of sorts adapted to make effective groups at different seasons of the year. For winter decoration, coniferous trees and mixed ever, green shrubs-especially such aq have variegated leaves, or that produce showy berries—are desirable. For spring, bulbous plants, such as crocuses, hyacintlis, tulips, &c. For early summer, hardy herbaceous plants, such as alyssum, arabis, iberis, polyanthus, &c. For summer, zonale geraniums, calceolarias, lobelias, and other showy subjects of the same class. For autumn, tritomas, gladioli, sedum spectabili-s, chrysanthemums, &c. The perfection of the system consists as much in constant change as in effective combinations of suitable plants. The transferring (or transplanting) system is ap- plicable to gardens where it is desired to embellish a given space of beds and borders during winter as well as in summer without employing pot plants. It is accomplished by simply planting trees and shrubs of suitable sorts, allowing them to remain until March or April, and then taking them up and planting them ) again in the reserve garden, or wherever they may be required to embellish walks and lawns during the summer. The two principal points to be attended to in carrying this system into effect are, the proper selection of plants for the purpose, and the careful handling of them so that they are not injured by being twice lifted every year. As to the first point, any kinds of evergreen shrubs that can be lifted with good compact balls of roots are suitable; generally speaking, coniferous trees should not be employed for this purpose, though we have found Yews of all kinds, and Lawson's Cypress and a few others, answer very well. The best for the purpose are, however, such things as hollies, aucubas,rhododendrons, phillyreas, bays, euonymus, berberis, box, wallflowers, candytufts, and alyssums. The pluDging system allows of far wider choice, and accomplishes far grander effects. The leading groups of plants for a good winter garden on the plunging system are Conifers and Ivies. Bat the fact is, every kind of hardy evergreen tree and shrub is at our service, and we may select amongst them ad lib. We subjoin a list of classified plants, which we recommend as the most desirable for growing in pots for the embellishment of flower-beds and | borders in winter. Conifere Abies canadensis, Abies Douglasi, Abies morinda, Abies orientalisCedrus deodara, Cedrus deodara viridis, Cephalotaxus Fortunei, —Cryptomeria elegaus,—CupressusLawsoniana;—J.uni- perus chinensis, Juniperus communis, J uniperus pyra- midalis stricta, Juniperus virginiana ;-Pieea pinsapo, —Pinus cembra, Pinus insignis, Pinus monticola, Pinus ponderosa j-Retinospora ericoides, Retinospora obtusa, Retinospora pisifera (the Retinosporas are peculiar and effective, but rarely thrive after being more than a year in pots);—Taxus baccata fastigiata, Taxus baccata nigra, Taxus baccata Dovastoni,-Thajopsis dolabrata, Thu- jopsis borealis ;-Thiija orientalis aurea, Thuja chiliensis. N. B. The variegated-leaved varieties of coniferous trees are, as a rule, no more valuable than the green-leaved species, though more delicate in constitution and costing more. For example, Taxus baccata. elegantissima is a splendid tree in summer and autumn, but in winter it is as green as a common yew, though, as a rule, costing four times as much. The only variegated-leaved coni- ferous tree we consider desirable for plunging is the Thuja orientalis aurea, and that not because of any special character it has in winter, but because in the event of its being needful to employ evergreen shrubs in spring. Miscellaneous Evergreen Shrubs Rhododen- drons suitable for this purpose may be bought at a pound per dozen, or less, and if potted in good peat, they would be worth the money all winter for their green leaves, and worth their money again in the month of May for their flowers, at the very time when flowers are wanted, and it is too early for geraniums, &c. Andromeda flori- bunda, must be potted in peat j-Aucuba japonica vera, a neat green-leaved shrub, and a good companion to the cheaper and better known common Aucuba japonica of gardens,—Berberis Darwini, Berberis fascicularis, Ber- beris aquifolia,-Buxus arborescens (all the varieties of tree box are good, but Handsworthianus particularly so), Buxus rotundifolius, Buxus balearicus Chamsebatia foliosa (expensive, but most beautiful) ;—Cotoneaster retundifolia, Cotoneaster microphylla ;-Cratwgus pyra- cantha;—Eurya latifolia variegata ;-Elmagnus ja- ponicus variegatus;—Euonymus gracilis roseus varie- gatus, Euonymus japonicus, Euonymus japonicus aureus variegatus, Euonymus radicans variegatus (as in the case of Buxus, all the species and varieties of Euonymus are suitable and desirable) ;-Grislinia littoralis, exquisitely beautiful, but rather tender (the Stoke Newington stock of this plant has been three times destroyed in ten years) ;Ilex aquifolium, and the following varieties flava, myrtifolia, angustifolia, Shepherdi, bronze-leaf, gold-edged, silver-edged ;-Phillyrea buxifolia, Phillyrea ilicifolia, Quercus ilex (an awkward thing to manage be cautious about buying quantity); Skimmia japonica, Skimmia oblata ;-Vinea major variegata; -Yucca recurva, Yucca filamentosa ;-Hedera. al- geriensis, Hedera canariensis, Hedera canariensis aurea maculata (sometimes catalogued as variegata), Hedera poetica (superb bronzy leaves), Hedera helix, Hedera helix argenteus rubra, Hedera helix taurica, Hedera variegata argentea, Hedera Rxyneriana.-A few Odd Subjects. Arundo donax severe frost does not spoil the fresh green of this fine grass. Gynerium argen- teum the Pampas grass is good until severe frosts spoils its looks take care the roots are not injured during hard weather, as the pampas is scarcely quite hardy. Aspidistra lurida variegata has been several times bedded out in quantity at Stoke Newington, and has had a grand appearance as a front row plant a-li the winter. We have never yet seen it injured by frost, but we do not remember to have had it out during particu- larly hard winters. Carex japonica fol. var., fine lively green grassy tufts. Festuca glauca is good as a fine- leaved grass, but the glaucous colour disappears when frost occurs, and it becomes a clear deep green until spring returns again. Sedum acre fol. var.; this is the golden-tipped stonecrop," which makes a beautiful edging plant for winter work, whether in pots or by transplanting. The golden tinge begins to appear in October, and continues to deepen as the season advances, so that soon after the turn of the year it is almost as gay as common stonecrop when smothered with flowers in the month of June. During the summer the golden- tipped stonecrop is as green as the common kind; it is in winter and spring it is especially valuable. Semper- vivum tectorum and sempervivum californicum. Many other odd plants may be turned to account in fact, whatever is quite hardy and has a cheerful appearance may be incorporated into the plunging system. KITCHEN GARDEN.-Asparagus and Seakale may be forced by the roughest of methods where there are plenty of leaves and large deep pits. Any one can make up a forcing-bed on a plot of spare ground, by means of a few boards to form the boundary of the pit, or turf walls where turf is plentiful. Five or six feet of leaves, without dung, will do very well, and when the roots are planted, rough boards put aslope to carry off rain and snow may be used to cover in lieu of glass frames. During hard weather any amount of dry litter may be heaped over, and a supply of either of these delicious vegetables be had for the mere cost ot the roots in the first instance. Seakale will pay the poor man best to force by impromptu methods, and this should be completely blanched; but asparagus should have air and light when the shoots appear, as it is valueless unless the tops have two inches or so of green growth. Mildew is very prevalent in damp seasons, and is encouraged by a foul state of the ground there. fore keep all clean, and remove dead leaves from among sprouts, kale, &c. Paths should be turned, and pro- tective materials got ready, and kept under cover for use wherever wanted. Peas and beans, for the first crop next season, may be sown on well-drained ground but where snails abound, they are likely to be entirely eaten up before the new year. To sow now is altogether a speculation. FRUIT GARDEN.—Planting and pruning should be commenced at once. Old apple-trees infested with vermin should be well scrubbed with a hard brush dipped in warm brine, and all the holes stopped up with a paste made of clay, sulphur, soot, and cow-dung. Plant at once all bush and tree fruits. Stake newly-planted trees. Put in cuttings of gooseberry and currant trees. PI nne vines and wall-fruit trees. FLOWER GARDEN.—Continue to plant hardy bulbs a sound loam moderately manured will grow any of the kinds ordinarily used in beds and borders. Large bulbs place with their crowns four inches from the surface, small ones two inches. Take up dahlia and marvel of Peru roots, dry carefully, and store safe from frost. Air hardy plants in pits well, and look out for mildew and vermin. Make all speed to complete improvements and alterations. C RBENHORSE AF3B STOVr.-K-eep the house as cool as po.-sible to be safe from frost. Give plenty of room, or the plants will get spindled and mildewed. Plants to be forced should remain in the greenhouse a fortnight be- fore going to the stove. Roses, Siberian lilacs, deutzias, camellias, azaleas, double-flowering peaches, &c., should be brought on in batches to keep up a succession. Keep vines well syringed where they have broken -well; let the heat be moderate.-Gardeners' Magazine.
SHOCKING ACCIDENT ON THE SOUTH WALES RAILWAY. The South Wales Railway, near a station lmown as Bullo Pill, 14 miles south of Chepstow, and 11 miles north of Gloucester, has been the scene of a disaster, and the trains coming into collision were the ordinary up mail, leaving Miiford Haven at 5 p.m., and a special cattle train conveying stock from Carmarthen cattle fair to Glouces- ter. The cattle train was formed of 20 trucks, conveying 279 beasts. They were all Welsh cattle, coming south to the Gloucestershire pastures. The cattle train left Newport at 5 p.m. and was due at Gloucester at 10 p.m.-five hours being allowed to run a dis- tance of less than fifty miles. The train was prop' led by the Tantalus, bread gauge engine driven by Robert Syse, an old servant of the company. A guard named Probert, also an ex- perienced officer, was in charge of the train, and, as is the practice on the South Wales line, he rode with a number of farmers and drovers in a third-class carriage at the tail of the train, his carriage having a break in one of its compartments, and acting as a break-van to the train. The train being heavy, and the rails getting wet and slippery from a fog which came on as the evening advanced, Syse had considerable difficulty in keeping up his speed, and when he started from Lydney, he is stated to have told the policemen on duty at that station that he should shunt for the mail to pass him at Bullo Pill, which is about eight miles nearer Gloucester. This was no doubt his intention, but it seems after leaving Lydney his difficulties from slippery rails and heavy load increased, but, as he unfortunately seems to have thought, not to such an extent as to render it necessary to send back his guard, Probert, with fog signals in accordance with the fixed rules of the company in cases of this kind, and he was toiling at a moderate speed up a slightly adverse gradient, having just rounded a sharp curve on the line, when at a distance of only one and a quarter mile from Bullo Pill station and sidings, the mail, travelling at a speed of between thirty and forty miles an hsur, rushed upon the tail of his train, and created a terrible wreck, in which human beings, cattle, and broken trucks were crushed together in one indiscriminate mass. Betty, the guard, with the passengers' assistance, and a few country people who were attracted by the noise of the collision to the spot, immediately set about en- deavouring to rescue the sufferers, whose agonising cries were heard even above the lowing of the wounded and dying cattle. All the sufferers were Welshmen. The guard, Probert, was found dead, and David Thomas, owner of a large number of the cattle, died almost directly after he was got out. Evan Morgan, a drover, was found huddled up among the 4kattle in one of the trucks, with a portion of the wooden framework resting upon his head. This man lived only a few minutes after his removal into a car- riage. The bodies of the deceased men were taken in charge by the local constabulary, and conveyed to an adjacent farm-house. The injured drovers were placed in the first-class carriage of the mail train under medical charge, and conveyed to Gloucester. The passengers in the mail train came on at the same time, arriving at Gloucester shortly after 2 a.m., instead of at 10 '47 p.m. None of the carriages of the mail train were thrown off the rails by the force of the collision, and only the lead- ing carriage was at all injured. Eight of the cattle trucks suffered much from the collision. The inquest on the bodies of David Thomas and .Evan Morgan was held on Monday. The jury found that the deaths were due to accident, and recommended that a communication should in future be made between the driver and the guards of goods trains.
♦ A BRAVE ACTION. — The Chicago Tribune prints a despatch from Van Wert, recording the saving of a child's life by the heroic action of an engine driver. As the mail train, bound east on the 26th October, approached the Van Wert station, the engineer, Israel Adams, noticed a small child on the track. To stop in time to save it he saw was impossible. Running out on tbe cow-catcher and reaching out, he caught the child and. lifted it on the engine without injuring a hair of its head, although he 11 .9 was in great danger of losing his own life. SEA- WEED.-M. Moride Inakes known the following method of preparing sea-weed, such as Irish moss, for medicinal purposes :_The plats, gathered on the rocks on which they grovvt are slightly rinsed in fresh water, in order to rid them of the salt water adhering to them then dried and exposed to the sun, whereby they lose their smell and taste of wrack after which they are pounded in a mortar, and macerated in strongly-alcoholised water, at a somewhat high tem- perature. The iodised tincture thus obtained may be used to prepare a medical wine, or else a syrup, which will be found useful in all affections for which iodine is prescribed.
Our Miscellany. A NEW LANGUAGE.—The learning of a new language is like the acquisition of a new sense. This is true, if only because a new language affords a new set of means for the expression of our ideas. The capacity of the human mind is greater than is the power of ex- pression possessed by any vocabulary. That greater capacity finds a new channel, and a new outlet, in a new language. Besides, language is a medium for conveying ideas to a recipient, as weil as an instrument for the expression of ideas already entertained. With words, then, you gain ideas. The increase of a man's vocabu- lary is the augmentation of his mental treasares.- CasselVs New Popular Educator, NEGRO FAITHLESSNESS.—During the fall of 1866 probably a thousand freed-people left my two dis- tricts of Pickens and Greenville to settle in Florida, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Only a few had the enterprise or capital to go by themselves the great majority were carried off by planters and emigration agents. Those who went to Florida contracted for twelve dollars a month, a cabin, a garden-patch, fuel, and weekly rations, consisting of one peck of meal, two pounds of bacon, and one pint of molasses but on reaching their destination, and seeing the richness of the land, they sometimes flew from their bargains and secured a new one, giving them one-third of the crop ir place of wages, and increasing the quantity and quality of their rations. The emigrants to Louisiana and Arkansas went on the basis of fifteen dollars a month, lodgings, patch, fuel, and food and then kept their contracts if they pleased, or violated them under the temptation of thirty, forty, and even fifty dollars a month. The negroes having never been taught the value of honesty by experience, or much of its beauty by precept, are frequently slippery. The planters, pressingly in need of labour, were generally obliged to accede to their demands.— The Atlantic Monthly. FHUIT TREES IN HEDGEROWS.—It has been suggested that all available walls should be utilised for the production of fruit; but why should not fruit trees be grown everywhere, in hedgerows, in fields, by the roadside? It will be answered that the fruit would be stolen and this is true, if a single tree were planted in an unguarded place. But in those districts where it is customary, as in Worcestershire and Herefordshire, to expose great quantities of fruit, and in France, Italy, Germany, and other foreign countries, there are no com- plaints of theft. Near Malvern, apples and pears grow in profusion in places open to all the world not only in the orchards and fields, but in the hedgerows which bound turnpike roads, and on the strips of waste which border them. Is this fruit never stolen ?" was a ques- tion put to a native of the place. Oh no, sir," he answered, "it is very plentiful." Make it plentiful," accustom the people to see it exposed, encourage them to expose their own fruit in a similar way, give them- that is, give to individuals of them-if necessary, a charge over a certain quantity of trees, and a share in the profits which accrue from them, or some of them, and you need have no fear that your fruit will be plun- dered. On the contrary, you will foster habits of honesty in your neighbours, you will strengthen their respect for property, and accustom them to resist temp- tation.-Mamnillan's Magaz ine. THE GOVERN MKNT OF SPA-ix.-There is a story, which the Spaniards themselves are fond of telliug, that when Ferdinand III., after his death at Seville, which he had conquered from the Moors, was brought into eommunion with St. Jago, the patron saint of Spain, he proceeded to ask boons for her. Fine climate." Granted. "Fertile soil, corn, wine, oil," &c. Granted. "Brave sons and beautiful daughters." Granted. Good government." No, no, no! three times, nine times, No!" exclaimed the saint, losing all patience (as saints are apt to do) at the monstrosity of the demand: Give Spain good government, and every one of the angels would leave heaven to live in it! The curious aud depressing circumstance is that the Spaniards should dwell complacently upon this feature of their national character, as if good government was not the best, the sole security for every other good. It remains to be seen whether this vis inertias can be over- come by any amount of pressure or stimulant that the leaders of the present movement can bring to bear. They are working well together so far. Their personal ambition has been kept under. Their intentions seem good and it will be their misfortune, not their fault, should the State machine run back into the old groove despite of them.—Fr%ser's Magazine. A FAR WESTERN CHURCH COLLECTION.—A preacher in an American frontier settlement had been collecting money for some church object. There were still some twenty dollars wanting, and after vain efforts to make up the deficiency, he plainly intimated, as he locked the church door one day after service, that he in- tended to have that said twenty dollars before any of them left the house. At the same time he set the example by tossing five dollars on the table. Another put down a dollar, another a quarter of a dollar, a fourth half a dollar, and so on. The parson read out every now and then the state of the funds. "There's seven and a half,my friends." Thar's nine and a quarter." Ten and six bits are all that are in the hat, friends and Christian brethren." Slowly it mounted up. "Twelve and a half." "Four- teen." "Fifteen." "Sixteen and three bits," and so on, until it stuck at nineteen dollars and a half. It only wants fifty cents, friends, to make up the amount. Will nobody make it up ?" Everybody had subscribed, and not a cent more was forthcoming. Silence reigned, and how long it might have lasted it is difficult to say, had not a half dollar been tossed through the open window, and a rough explanatory voice shouted, Here, parson, there's yer money; let out my gal. I'm about tired of waitin' on her!" -Dickens's" AU the Year Round." ROCKWORK IN SHADY POSITIONS UNDER TREES, &c.-It is a common and a very bad practice to place rockwork under the drip and in the shade of trees. Rockwork is, as a rule, made for the display of moun- tain plants, or those which by their dwarfness fall into the class commonly known as alpines. Some cover rock- work with climbing shrubs and dwarf bushes, but in every case, unless where a rock is introduced for its own effect in the landscape, the object is to grow plants. Now, as very few of the subjects above alluded to like shade, or even tolerate it, it follows that this is an ignorant and bad practice. Many persons who arrange such things doubtless fear the sun burning up their plants but the sun that beats down on the Alps and Pyrenees is fiercer than that which shines on the British garden. But, while the Alpine sun cheers the flowers into beauty, it also melts the snows above, and water and frost grind down the rocks into earth; and thus, enjoying both, the roots form perfectly healthy plants. The plants on the British rockwork often starve for want of water and of earth, many persons placing the necks of the plants in such positions that the first dry wind or day injures them, not bearing in mind that the true rock plant sends its roots deep into the unfrozen chinks of the warm rock; then of course the shade helps to retard their death in some degree. Therefore it cannot be too widely known that full exposure to the sun is the first condition ef perfect rock-plant culture—indispensable also being abundance of free soil under the root, and such a disposition of the soil and rocks that the rain may permeate through, and not fall off the rocks. We are led to make these remarks in consequence of observ- ing a wide spread of rockwork in course of construction in dense shade in one of our public Ficlcl. THE TRANSIT OF MERCURY. The transit of Mercury, which will take place on November 5, will be carefully watched by all our best observers. A large number of amateurs will also take part, no doubt, in observing the interesting phenomenon. The construc- tion of cheap telescopes, which yet are capable of doing useful work, has largely increased the number of those who will be able to watch the transit. And, in par- ticular, the recent invention of silvered glass mirrors by the German optician Steinheil, and the construc- tion in England of a form of reflecting telescope, which is far more convenient to use than the ordi- nary telescope, has made amateur observation at once more effective and more pleasing than of old. It used to require that a person should really have his heart in the subject of astronomy, to enable him unflinch- ingly to fix himself to all the various and awkward posi- tions which ordinary telescopic observation requires. Very few could endure with comfort the attitudinising 6f the observing-room when elevated objects had to be looked at. But now that an observer can obtain an in- strument which is not only cheaper than the old-fashioned refractors, but enables him to observe all objects what- ever with his eyes directed horizontally, many, who would otherwise have been deterred from astronomy, are found to take a daily increasing interest in the observation of celestial objects. We trust that no un- favourable circumstance of weather, or the like, will prevent the approaching transit from being well seen by the numerous observers who will be on the watch for the pheuomenon.-Cornhill Magazine.
I THE SALES of English wheat noted last week were 65,565 qrs. at 52s. lid,, against 68,640 qrs. at t 69s. lid. in 1867. The London averages wets 55s. 2d. eD 3.1 SO qrs.