BRECON BOROUGH LEET DINNER. On Monday evening the usual dinner given by the outgoing Mayor took place at theAVeHington Hotel. A very excellent repast was placed upon the table, to which a large party, numbering about 100 persons, sat down. P, Bright, Esq., ex-Mayor, presided, and there were also present Howel Gwyn, Esq., M.P., H. P. Price, Esq., W. de Winton, Esq., Mayor; Major Prevost, Captain Molyneux, and Ensign Stone, 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers; Aldermen Thomas, Williams, and Lucas Councillors J. Davies, A. A. Walton, G. Cansick, J. Prothero, Thomas Trew, and H. C. Rich; George Overton, Mordecai Jones, Henry Ximenes, J. A. F. Snead, E. Gwynne, James Williams, S. B. Evans (vice-chair), Gabriel Powell, Lewis Hughes, David Thomas, John Evans, D. W. J: Thomas, Wm. Games, and E. Thomas, Esqrs.; Revs. J. D. Williams, R. Price, D. Price, Henry Griffiths, Professors Morris and Roberts, D. W, Davies, R. S. Williams, and W. S. Bestall; Dr. Tal- fourd Jon's; Messrs, R. Webb, E. Webb, P. Edwards, Watkin Williams, W. H. Edwards, Thomas Davies (Forge), B. Price, Thomas (Castle Farm), D. Evans, D, F. Evans (draper), J. E. Nott, John Morgan (draper), W. H. and L. Jones (Siddons), James Hall, Thomas Powell (Bank), John Morgan (Bank), James Williams (clerk), Henry Jones (Bank), Thomas Powell (Bank), Thomas Edwards, Bennett, D. Prothero, E. A. Wright, Tudor, Gibson, T. Arm- strong, T. H. Williams, John Williams (County House), John Kirk, D. Jones (draper), T. B. Jones, John Handley, W. J. Roberts, Henry Davies, Charlfs Boniface, Williams (Prince of Wales), Aneurin George, Morris, &c. On tne removal of the cloth the Chairman gave the health of the Queen, followed by that of the Prince and Princess of Wales, which met with the usual warm reception. The Chairman next gave the Bishop and Clergy of the diocese, and the ministers of all denominations," coupling with the toast the names of the Rev. R. Price and the Rev. H. Griffiths. (Cheers.) The Rev. R. Price, in responding, said he felt very happy that it fell to his lot to respond to the toast of the Bishop and clergy and the ministers of other denominations, with all of whom he was on terms of intimacy and friendship. (Applause.) There were many occasions on which they had the privilege of meeting together to promote the objects of their common Christianity. He was never happier than when they were able to meet together on a common platform, where they could, without sacri- ficing their own peculiar opinions, merge their differences, and. unite together for the promotion of good and glorious objects. (Cheers.) The Rev. Henry Griffiths did not think it necessary to add anything to what had been said by his respected friend. He had answered for them all. They, however, cordially reciprocated the sentiments he had advanced, and they felt great pleasure at being present on that festive occasion, and to have had the opportunity of cn-operating on such an occasion as that. (Cheers.) The Chairman then gave the Army, Navy, Militia, and Volunteers, referring particularly to the pleasure it gave all of them to see some of the red- coats present-a privilege of which they had been deprived for many years. (Hear, hear.) Major Prevost thanked the company for the very hearty reception given to the toast. They had never met with a more hearty reception than they had in Brecon they had found many friends there, and he hoped it would be long before they left. (Applause.) Mr. J. A. F. Snead briefly acknowledged the com- pliment on behalf of the Militia. Di. Talfourd Jones returned thanks for the Volun- teers. He thought the Brecon corps were a fine lot of men (laughter), and when called to fight the enemy they would do their duty. The Chairman next gave the Lord Lieutenant of the county a very worthy gentleman, who was beloved by all. (Ap'plause.) Alderman Thomas replied, and expressed the pleasure his lordship always felt when he was able to be at Brecon. The Chairman said the next toast was of a more personal character. He begged to propose the health of the High-Sheriff of Breconshire. (Applause.) That gentleman was a Brecon boy, he was the architect of his own fortune and he had risen to the high position he occupied' by his own persever- ance, industry, and talent—and all honour to him for it. (Cheers.) The Chairman said he was sure they would drink the next toast in a bumper it was that of the chief magistrate of the borough of Brecon. (Applause.) He was not the first of the name of de Winton who had occupied that high and honourable office. (Hear hear.) Connected with that town by birth, and bi business, and by all his associations, Mr. William de Winton, the Mayor of that town, must be extremely popular with them all. The father of Mr. de Win- ton had been popular in the extreme he was ready and anxious to do his best for the town and neigh- bourhood and he had a worthy successor in the present Mayor. He had brought to the Council Board an aptitude for business, and a perseverance which few excelled, and he had been a most able coadjutor to the members of the council, especially in matters of finance. He thought their choice of Mayor a very good and popular one. (Applause.) The Mayor said in acknowledging the handsome and cordial way' in which they had drunk his health, he must express his regret that, although their chief magistrate he was not a resident in the borough of Brecon. Had he been consulted in the matter he should certainly have recommended a gentleman who would have resided within the precincts of the borough. There were so many duties to be performed, and so many calls on his time and attention, that a man to do his duty pro- perly and thoroughly should reside on the spot. That morning Alderman Lucas, in his usual eloquent manner, had alluded to a matter of great importance, which he was happy to say had been carried thoroughly into effect since he had had the honour of a seat at the Council board. He alluded to the first-rate supply of water. That borough had suffered for many years from the want of that useful article, without which there was neither health, comfort, nor convenience. It was perfectly true that that supply had cost them a large sum of money; but now it was accomplished he was satisfied that no ratepayer would regret the large amount of money they had spent. There was another question of equal importance to which the attention of the Board had been called, and although it had been commenced, he mizbt sayeheartily, what was needed in all towns, whether corporate or otherwise, was a comprehensive system of drainage. To accomplish that purpose it would be necessary to lay out a con- siderable sum of money. But with a proper com- prehensive plan, with the valuable assistance of their surveyor, and the practical experience of so many members of their Board, they would be able to carry out the works without burning very much the pockets of the ratepayers. This would be one of the things which would tend to make the town what it ought to be, and render it attractive as it should be, not only to its residents, but to strangers who came there and were struck with the beauty of the neighbourhood. He believed that in many respects it could compete with almost any town in the United Kingdom. Among the other things which should make it attractive were its establishments for educa- tion, in which he believed the most fastidious would be perfectly satisfied that he would get an education of a sound practical character. He would not detain them further, but again return them thanks for the manner in which they had received his health and the remarks he had made. (Applause.) The Chairman then gave the health of the mem- bers for the county and borough (applause), and said he trusted that there would be no exhibition of partizanship that evening. He had great pleasure in bringing the toast before them. The hon. member for the county was well known as a good sportsman and a daring soldier, and he had perhaps served them as well as anyone else in the county. In reference to the member for the borough, that gentleman would not expect him to say anything fulsome. The way in which he had discharged the duties of the office he held, although not acceptable to some, was very much so to others. At all events they could give him his meed of praise, and believe that he had acted conscientiously in what he had done. (Hear, hear.) On the eve of what might prove a fierce contest, it would be well to sink their differences and give him a thoroughly hearty reception as the mem- ber for the borough. (Applause.) Mr. Howel Gwyn said he ventured in the first place to return his most sincere thanks to the chair- man for the kind and flattering manner in which he had been pleased to propose the toast, and to the company for the cordial way in which they bad received it. As the Mayor said, they did not always agree on public questions, and it was not to be expected. But this he could say, that since he had been the member for the borough he had done every- thing he could to promote the public and the private good of the country at large and his constituency. (Applause.) It gave him great pleasure to attend there, for two reasons—in the first place to support the worthy and excellent gentleman who had so ably filled the chair, and also to meet all the gentlemen connected with the borough of Brecon and its neighbourhood. They met there on neutral ground, and therefore he would not say anything to disturb the harmony of that meeting. He thought it was but right he should return thanks to them for drinking the health of his gallant friend, the member for the county, who regretted not being present himself to do so. (Cheers.) Alderman Lucas proposed the health of their excellent chairman, the late Mayor of that borough. (Applause.) On that occasion it was very usual to deal a great deal in flattery towards those who were made the objects of the toast. He did not know that he could very well exceed proper limits in expressing his sense of the way in which the late Mayor had discharged the duties of his office. Very little idea could be formed of the amount of labour and industry, patience and perseverance, required from the chief magistrate of the town. The attention of the Mayor was continually called to the various questions connected with his magisterial functions, and upon him in great measure rested the proper supervision of the many accounts which had to pass under his inspection. He had been delighted to find the energy, the clearness, and the precision with which he went through those accounts without allowing anything to pass by without notice. He thought they were under deep obligation to the late Mayor for his attention to these matters. It had been a matter of regret with them, however, that all had not been done in the way of presenting to the ratepayers of the town a more full statement of their expenditure, but he did hope that in the coming year something might be done. (Hear, hear.) The Chairman, in responding, said there were such things as extra-Parliamentary speeches. It would devolve upon him at that time, he presumed, in returning thanks for the toast they had been so kind as to receive so cordially, as briefly as he could to give them an account of his stewardship. He took it that one of the great advantages of Leet dinners was that of affording the Mayor and other members of the Corporation an opportunity of giving the burgesses, when assembled at the convivial board, some account of what had been done in the past, and their pro- spects in the future. He would first of all premise that, by way of lightening the business usually taking place on the 9th November, and which meeting was generally adjourned for a fortnight or three weeks- the Finance Committee anticipated the meeting of that day by presenting a statement of accounts to the Council on Thursday. He doubted not that most of those present had seen that statement in the BRECON COUNTY TIMES of last Saturday. The state- ment inserted in the paper last Saturday week as an advertisement brought down the accounts of the Corporation to the 30th August last, and the Board of Health accounts to the 30th December. The statement at their meeting of Thursday last was intended as a supplement to the other, and to bring down the general balance-sheet to the present time, except the Water Works. He congratulated the town upon the state of things as they then appeared before them. They had been in the habit of think- ing that they were involved in a complete Slough of Despond from which nothing but Herculean efforts could extricate them. He was happy to say, by the perseverance and energy of the Council, they had extricated the accounts from the state of con- fusion into a state of plain sailing. He would not enlarge in the way of mentioning any figures, but he would just remark that the rates imposed had been the smallest, with the exception of one, in any year since the establishment of the Board. The district rate for the borough of Brecon had only been Is. 4d. in the pound, and that was the only rate demanded from the burgesses for that purpose three or four years ago it had been ovily 15d.; but within the last nine years it had been 2s. 3d. in the pound. He mentioned this to show that the members of the Board of Health had been particularly anxious and careful of the disbursements of the money of the local district rate. The only other rate was the borough rate, which was never made in a direct form on the burgesses, but in the form of a precept on the poors' rate. For the exigences of the borough, in a corporate capacity, no rate had been made since last Feb. twelve months, and the total burdens on the burgesses had only amounted to Is. 7d. in the pound on their rateable value. That was a state of things which would challenge that of any other town of its size in Great Britain, and it was owing, in a great extent, to the way in which every member of the Board had attended to the business of the town. Another matter was the taking of Camden road by the Board, when the sum of £ 263 10s. was paid by the Railway Company to the Board to do so. There were three other sub- jects of great importance to the town, one ot which had been touched upon by the Mayor. These sub- jects were the supply of light, drainage, and the water. Although they had been unfortunate in some matters connected with the Water Works, he believed the result would be such as not to completely astound the ratepayers; and he might mention that 460 houses were supplied with the water from the water-works. The Chairman then referred to what had been done in reference to light- ing the town more thoroughly, and said he thought the arrangement would occasion but a small increase of expenditure to e,leh ineiviSual. The drainage was also alluded to, and the Chairman said he had been opposed to the reduction of the rate, as he wanted the Board to have X200 in hand so as to be ab!e to do the drainage of the town piece- meal. But the Board determined to set about it at once, and he thought the cost of the work would be made up by the increased rental and by a district rate very little in excess of what they had this year paid. If they could accomplish this, he hoped the town would approve of what they were doing. There had been a discussion for some time past in reference to the abstraction of water from the canal, and he wished to assure the ratepayers that it was not the intention of the Town Council in any action that might, be taken to expend one penny of the money of the ratepayers. (Applause.) But if the Corpora- tion could strengthen the hands of those who wished to remedy the present state of things, that they might do. Some time ago a building society had been established in their midst, and he most, sincerely hoped that the efforts of those who desired to make the town as attractive as possible would be success- ful. During the last year, also, two educational establishments had been erected for the middle and lower classes-the National Schools and the Dr. Coke Memorial Schools. Among the other educa- tional institutes he could bear testimony—from the fact of his having been one of the governors during the past year-to the very great energy and per- severance with which the duties devolving upon the masters of Christ's College were performed. One of the most pleasant acts he bad had to perform in connection with the office of mayor was that of dis- tributing the prizes to the boys at that college. The Eisteddfod for 1869 was also a matter which be must refer to. If they had a meeting at Brecon it must be, a successful one, or they would wish it had not come there. He attended the meeting at Ruthin, and if they had all been present and enjoyed it as he had, there would be still more warmth and interest felt in making the meeting in 1869 a success. It was one of the finest sights he had ever seen. The success of the Eisteddfod at Brecon must depend on the liberality of the people. It was intended by the local committee to have the entire control of the subscriptions raised, and they would be applied for the purpose of making it successful. He merely mentioned that to provoke the good wishes and good actions of those present. The subscriptions already amounted to Y,230, but to make the affair thoroughly successful they must not stop short of £ 500. He believed he had now gone through the whole of the subjects he had jotted down in reference to the past. For the support every one bad given him in the town, and the kindness he had met with, and for the numbers in which they had attended that dinner, he begged to return his most sincere thanks. He would now propose the health of the Masters of Christ's College. The Rev. J. D. Williams said he thanked the ex- Mayor very cordially for the kind reference to Christ College. The duties of president on the occasion referred to could not have been better discharged. He had to acknowledge also the kind liberality the ex-Mayor had shown to the boys of the school in himself contributing towards the prizes. In all things in which the ex-Mayor as governor and him- self as master had had to deal with one another, there was no year in regard to which he could better express his satisfaction. It was also gratifying to find the Mayor was one of his old pupils. For himself and his brother masters he thanked them cordially. He had been attracted to Brecon by motives public and private. He was almost a Brecon man and he had no greater pleasure there than in endeavouring to make Christ College an ornament to the town and the Principality and he saw no reason why it should not be (Applause.) The college was perhaps not all it might be, but it had existed in its present form only four or five years. During those years there had been some improve- ment, and he hoped it would go on progressing, and that they might have reason to be proud of Christ College. (Applause.) The Chairman next proposed "The Aldermen and Town Councillors." (Cheers.) Alderman Thomas said he had the honour of being elected an alderman very many years ago. He had taken very little part in carrying out the business of the Corporation, and he had trusted his judgment to others. When present, however, he was anxious to give the town the benefit of the thoughts that occurred to him. They had struggled through difficulties for many years, but they saw better things in store for them. Reference had been made to the Building Society, and he would say that he should be glad to lease any ground he had for the purpose. He was much obliged for the cordiality with which they had received the health of the Corporation. They had had the will to do more than they had done, but they had not always the ability. Other corporations had funds for carrying out improve- ments, but they had none. The speaker concluded by expressing his regret that no advantage had been taken of the offers of land for building made by a large landowner in the neighbourhood. The Chairman gave the health of the borough justices, who had supported him to the utmost in the discharge of his duties as chief magistrate. He would connect the toast with the name of Mr. James Williams. Mr. Williams not being present, Alderman John Williams was called upon, and in responding he said they were a young race of justices, but during the time they had been such their duties had been to them of some responsibility. It was considered that justices never did right. It was impossible to please all parties but they had endeavoured to do justice to all. (Hear, hear.) He was sure his brother magistrates would agree with him as to the admirable manner in which the Chairman bad performed his duties during his mayoralty, and he thought they might congratulate themselves that magistrates were a race of men who sometimes could do their duty. The Chairman next gave the foreman and jury of the leet, connecting the toast with the name of Alderman Williams, as High-Constable of Brecon. The office was now become absolete, though in days gone by important duties had to be performed by that officer. Alderman Williams briefly responded. The Chairman proposed the visitors, thanking them for their presence. Mr. H. P. Price, whose name was connected with the toast, said he felt considerable embarrassment as to how in any adequate manner, he should thank them for the compliment bestowed upon him. The toast had been proposed by the chairman with that felicity of expression which bad characterised his proposal of all the toasts that evening. He said embarrassed, because he came amongst them as an outcast and a stranger he could not hold in his hand any schedule ot topics upon which to speak, and if disposed to enter upon politics)18 was very properly reminded that they were banished for that evening. He could, therefore, only address a few words upon the only tangible subject that presented itself. A guest was an expressive term—a tender term and he was the guest that evening of the gentleman who occupied the chair, and for his attention and kindness he returned his btst thanks. Politics were forbidden but be might perhaps be allowed to observe, looking at the peculiar position he was placed in, being actively engaged in a con- test in this town which might stimulate bad feelings —he hoped they would all do what was in their power to eliminate from that contest all personal matters and feelings, and reduce it as much as pos- sible to a contest of principles. (Applause.) He trusted so far as it had gone he had not in any way transgressed this rule. (Hear, bear.) The Chairman proposed the health of their worthy Town Clerk. (Applause.) The Town Clerk, in replying, said all the topics of the locality had been exhausted, and upon them he had nothing to say. As allusion had been made to the coming contest, which inevitably must stir up some heat, he hoped all were convinced of the necessity of approaching it in a manly, fair and reasonable, and calm spirit, and that the contest would pass off in a manner which would be a credit to the borough. (Hear, hear.) The Chairman proposed the town and trade of Brecon, connecting with the toast the name of Mr. J. Davies. Mr. Davies responded at some little length, refer- ing to the fact that he had been a tradesman in the town for more than a quarter of a century, and had received great kindness during that time. He also referred to the water and drainage works. The Chairman then gave the Press, connecting with it the representative of the BRECON COUNTY TIMES, who acknowledged the compliment. The proceedings then concluded.
BRECONSHIRE CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE. On Saturday afternoon the first meeting of the season of the above Chamber was held at the Wel- lington Hotel. Major Conway Lloyd presided, and there was a large attendance of members. NEW MEMBERS. The following were proposed as new members :— The Hon. Major Morgan, Howel Gwyn. Esq M.P., H. Allen, E-q. (Oakfield), Penry Williams, Esq. (Penpont), Henry Ximenes, Esq. (Bol;roed), Captain Braddon, Messrs. Thomas Downes (Cefn Brynich), Thomas (Castle Farm), Davies, sen. (Pannay farm), Charles Bendall (Abercynrig), and Snell (Ross). ELECTION OF TREASURER. Mr, David Downes said that they had lost a good officer in their late treasurer. He proposed that Mr. J. A. F. Snead be their treasurer. Mr. Penry Lloyd seconded the motion, which was unanimously agreed to. THE GROWTH OF ROOT CROPS. Professor Church, of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, then proceeded to deliver his lecture on The growth of root crops, and the best manures for them." He said he had been asked to say a few words upon the subject of the chemistry of root crops, for such he presumed was really the subject which bad been allotted to him. He could only throw out some hints on the connection between chemistry and farming practice as applied to swedes, turnips, and mangolds. It must not be supposed that agricultural chemists like himself never try experiments upon farms. They did try experiments of all kinds, and although he was bound to say that constantly they found results different from what they expected, on the other hand they constantly found very important corroborations of their theory. The cultivation of roots had altogether altered the system of farming in that country within the last 100 years, and was still altering it to a very considerable extent. The root crops had an enormous influence upon the other crops, and a much greater yield of corn was obtainable-in many cases doubling it; airS this was the case especially in Germany. Those present knew better than he did the soils in which roots were best grown. At the same time, thy could not choose their soils, no more than they could their climate. They could, however, improve their soil, but they could not improve their climate. The enormous advantages which bad grown from steam cultivation had arisen from the fact that land which would not grow root crops before, when properly cultivated, was rendered capable of growing root crops. There were several points upon which he could touch in relation to the turnip, the swede, and the mangold. He might subdivide it in this way First, the plant itself and its nature then the proper kinds of soil for its growth and thirdly, the best manures for it. It seemed to him, however, that as chemistry was more concerned with the manures and the composition of the crop, he had better devote more attention to those than to the other. The area under cultivation with root crops was of course acknowledged to be very large. It had been calculated that three-fourths of the tillage soils of Scotland were, during some portion of their rota- tion, capable of being used as the proper ground for an admirable root crop. What was true of Scotland was true, though not to the same extent, of England and Wales. They found also that these tillage soils were increasing every year. They might ask him what was the result of the experiments with the different varieties of the common turnip-ivhat crops were best suited to particular soils, yielded the best returns, and were best suited- for the feeding of animals by their composition. He thought it might be said that the common white turnip, although grown in many soils, and in many places the favourite, was not the richest of all <•-mips. It contained a large per centage of water, ,uii although they got large roots of the white turnips they did not always get more feeding stuff in them. Many of them, contained one or two per cent. more of water than the smaller ones. This was true, not only of the white turnip, but also of swedes, and to some extent of mangolds, although it referred much less to the latter, and the largest mangolds were often the best. Those roots, of the white turnips, which were the largest, were a little poorer in food value than those of moderate size. This fact pointed towards the conclusion to which many practical farmers had arrived, that turnips could be sown too widely, and have too much space for the leaf, which diminished the amount of bulk. During the last few years they had been trying experiments in Cirencester on a plan which promised good results. They had planted a large number of turnips in radiating lines, the object of which they would easily see. Instead of having them all the same space from each other they allowed them to be 1 foot 6 inches apart at one end, and 1 foot at the other. They took those plants which were farthest apart, and compared them—the tops and the bulbs- in every case, and they found that they could easily plant them too wide apart, and too near together. When they were planted too near together the leaves were drawn up to a great height, aud there was an enormous quantity of top but when they were planted a moderate distance apart they had a very fair bulb, and an enormous quantity to the acre. When they were far apart they had large bulbs, but nearly all of them were hollow while scarcely any of the others were. The tops were also of considerable size; but in the widely planted ones they were of small value, because they con- tained 2t parts more water than others. That was an experiment in which chemistry came in to deter- mine the value of their practical results. The mere size and weight of the roots was therefore not every- thing. They followed up these experiments, and tried the different kinds in the feeding of animals but he could not enter into those. The results he had mentioned were not applicable except to their particular district, and their thin soils. They had not more than five Or seven inches depth of soil. They had, neither, no means of increasing the soil on account of the nature of their subsoil. The other day he took up a wheat plant and a turnip in order to see the different feeding ground of the two. The turnip got its nourishment from a deeper part of the ground than did the wheat, and therefore it impoverished the ground, or the surface soil, much less the wheat plant stretched out laterally, and took more of the richness of the soil. The speaker directed attention to some drawings he had prepared of the turnip and wheat in question, in order to prove the truth of his observations. He then referred to the wonderful effects produced by the top-dressing of wheat, as instanced in numerous experiments made by them in Cirencester and next spoke of the advantage arising from the application of manure some time before the crop itself was sown. If this were not done there was little or no benefit to that crop, while when applied at the time it interfered with the proper development of the pulp, and caused the roots to spread out, the top root was divided, and its value greatly lessened. They had proved this by practical experiments, having applied well rotted manure in the autumn, and also in the spring, when the mangolds were planted, and the difference was enormous. They mou had also tried manures spread broadcast, as com- pared with it in the drill; and the effect after broad- cast they found to be almost nothing. These were facts true of their soil whatever might be the case in other parts. It had been said that some of the different varieties of turnip were more productive than the others, but he doubted this. It had been found that the common Aberdeen dark bulb turnip produced 20t tons per acre, while the common white globe turnip had produced 2it tons per acre but then the latter contained three per cent. more water, and were, therefore, of less value. Then it had been found that the stone glob a very hard bulb, yielded on the same soil thirty tons per acre. This last was no doubt a valuable bulb, on account of its being hardier and it kept very well indeed, standing the first few frosts without serious detriment. But when taken up it required to be eaten more rapidly, as it was liable to become woolly, and decreased in value. The pointed and oblong sorts yielded about the same quantity-about twenty-one tons in the same soil in which the stone globe yielded thirty tons. The objection to them was that they were exposed a great deal to the frosts, from the enormous quantity of root above ground. '.rhig was a drawback, as one frost would do a considerable amount of damage. The lecturer next remarked upon the composition of turnips, and said that in the white sorts they bad more water and less nutriment. The swedes had less water, and mangolds were best of all—that was so far as their feeding properties were concerned. It required lOOlbs. say of the white turnips to give as much food as 82lbs. of the long red, and 721bs. of the yellow globe. Of mangolds it would require 7olbs. to give as much food as lOOlbs. of white turnips. But they must remember that white rurnips, although admirable at first, did not keep long, whilst the mangold improved by keeping several months. Practical experiments did not always bear out the results which were got by analysing, but the fact remained the same that the substances to which chemists attributed feeding pro- perties were not in so large proportion in wnite as in other kinds of turnips. It had been discovered that to each 100 tons of white turnips there was 92 tons of water, and only 8 tons of real dry feeding material. In swedes there was not so great a quan- tity of water-only 89 tons. Then the mangolds of the Continent contained 13 per cent. of sugar to commence with, leaving only 87 per cent. of water but it often contained no more than 82 per cent. of water. They knew, however, there were drawbacks in the mangolds. In the fresh mangold there was found to be a substance which did not agree with cattle, and in the leaves was a quantity of poisonous matter. He knew an instance in which a number of pigs were killed by eating of mash in which were the leaves of the mangold. He thought they had been poisoned, and indeed he did find poison in them he found oxalide of potash. To every lOOlbs. of mangold leaves they found from a quarter to half a pound of this oxalide of potash. If, however, some chalk or milk of lime were mixed with the mash the effect was entirely destroyed. Before speaking of the nature of manures he would just say a word or two as to what root crops took away from the soil. It was not necessary to tell them of all the materials removed; but he would just say that the largest quantity of substance taken from the soil was potash. Although this was the case, however, it did not do to put manures containing potash with root crops. Most soils contained enough of it, and did not want more. If they cultivated beet root, every year there was more potash and less soda. Many soils which had been reclaimed from the sea were barren, not because it did not contain everything the plant wanted, but because it contained what the plant did not want. It was said that one plant required different food to another. That was true to a great extent, but not to the extent that many persons believed. Every plant contained in it the same mineral matters, but not in the same proportion. In reference to farmyard and artificial manures- Peruvian guano was much used, and to a large extent in Scotland. He, however, anticipated the day when it would go out of use altogether-for one reason because they would be able to get no more of it, as the islands whence it came were being exhausted, and every year the Peruvian guano was worse and worse. He meant to say that they did not simply find it had been adulterated more and more, but he meant to say that it contained 1 per cent. less ammonia, and yet they had to pay £1 per ton more for it. The proper quantity of ammonia per cent. was 17-that was the quantity when it first came in 1843. From 1855 the quantity of ammonia had gradually decreased, and it was now 15 per cent.; though he was glad when he could get even 12 or 13 per cent. There was now more sand and less ammonia, as the labourers employed in dil-ging the guano were not so particular, now that the supplies were diminishing, in putting in what used to be rejected. They could not get it now without sand- not English sand, but Peruvian though it was none the better for being Peruvian sand. The lecturer then referred to the superphosphates, and said that some of the stuff sold as such was no more super- phosphate than that table was. (Laughter.) It was chemical manure, and he advised them not to buy it. He had put some on some turnips when they were out of the ground, and it killed all of them. (Laughter.) He had analysed some, and found it to contain 35 per cent. of green vitriol. Then there was a question in reference to bone manure. He had a description of the manufacture of superphos- phate fr > a a manufacturer, in which he said that the bones when dissolved altogether disappeared, and farmers did not believe it was dissolved bones, and they therefore put in a few pounds of quarter- inch or half-inch bones to make it look like what it really was. (Laughter.) The lecturer then spoke of Continental growers having abandoned the practice of drilling the seed, and adopted the old-fashioned plan of dibbling in plants from a seed bed. After all fear of frost was over the plants were planted out, and had a very good time of it. From experiments it had been found that plants put in from the seed beds had 17 or 18 concentric rings in the root every fortnight a ring was added to the circumference of the mangold. If they did not plant them from the seed bed they did not get more than 12 rings. He thought the only way in which they could grow as large crops as in Germany by this plan was by a more plentiful use of manure, or by greater care being taken in the earlier stages of their plants. There were other substances remain- ing as manures. Salt had frequently been applied to the mangold crops with good results, but in the majority of instances it was not safe to employ it except in moderate quantities. He thought sufficient attention was not paid to the proper place for the rotation of crops, and mangolds would flourish twice as well, or certainly a good deal better, if they had not been preceded by the same sort of crop; let wheat be followed by swedes, then by oats, and then beans; and then in the next crop in the place of swedes have mangolds. With reference to the treatment of the roots after they had been got out, he was strongly of opinion that the less the roots were tampered with the better. The less they were bruised the longer and better they would keep. It was important also that the temperature of the place where they were kept should be tolerably uniform, and that there should be means of ventilating it. If they were bruised or injured the decay would spread to the others, and it was important that those in this state should be excluded. There were many other matters in refer- ence to these crops which he ought to mention. The mangold leaves it was known altered the richness of the milk of cows, and the butter most materially diminished owing to the acidity of that kind of food. It was scarcely necessary for him to say that the soil ought to be deep, so that the roots might expand. There should be no stagnant moisture in the soil while it ought to be retentive of moisture. That was only to be obtained by having a large quantity of clay in the soil; and it was often more important than manure. In concluding his remarks the lec- turer said it must be borne in mind that he had not said all he could have said about the chemistry of the subject, but simply here and there as he had thought of a subject. (Applause.) In reply to Mr. Thomas, The Lecturer said that the practice of dibbling was carried out in some of the sugar producing dis- tricts of Northern Germany. As much as 109 tons of mangolds per acre was thus obtained. If only 80 or 90 tons were obtained that was not considered a good crop. Mr. Overton asked if labour were expensive there. He was told that it was only Is. per day, and they paid 3s. Professor Church Wages are] rising there very much. i Mr. Cornish You recommended a small quantity of salt per acre. How much would that bef Professor Church I should limit it to 2 cwt. per acre, and apply it at the time of sowing, mixed with the superphosphate. I should not use it alone; and the more minutely divided the better. Mr. Wood referred to the making of sugar from the beet root in the south of France, and said it was true the root there was taken care of. It was raised in seed beds, and planted out, and the land was not manured at the time the crop was put in, but a long time anterior. The speaker then spoke of the growing time in this country being short in conse- quence of the early winter and late spring, and said it necessitated the laud being in a good condition at the time of sowing, and also the following out of the practice brought under their notice by the lecturer. He also alluded to the wastefulness or carelessness of farmers generally with reference to the farmyard manure, as compared with the careful husbanding of it in Switzerland and other places, and concluded with a high eulogium upon the lecture. Mr. Howel Gwyn proposed a vote of thanks to the lecturer for his very important and interesting lecture, and expressed the hope that at some future time they might have an opportunity of listening to a similar one. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Overton seconded the vote of thanks, which was carried with acclamation. The proceedings then concluded.
and it contributed in no slight degree to the pre- servation of the health of the town. They had had only one filtering bed for the supply, but it sufficed for their wants, and they need be under no misappre- hension for the future. He wished very much that they could have got some statement of the accounts with regard to their Water Works, and he thought the public ought to have some detailed statement, because they had now laid out a large sum of money, and with the exception of their banking books they did not know how the money had been applied. He hoped the new Mayor would be more successful in getting these accounts than the late Mayor. He did not reflect at all upon the energy of the late Mayor but he had not succeeded in getting them. During his mayoralty another good work, which was an expensive system of sewerage, had been commenced. That would be a great boon to the town, and he hoped it would be followed by a system of drainage coming along the Struet that would cut off the sewer from the Honddu, which was in a dis- graceful state, and ought to be remedied as soon a, possible. In the lower part of it there was no water, because it was turned off to the mill. Those two matters were great events occurring in the year of the Mayor. It was pleasant to think they had been carried so far forward, and it was an earnest of what he hoped would be done in the year to come. He moved a cordial vote of thanks to the ex-Mayor for the very admirable manner in which he bad dis- charged his duties during his year of office. Mr. Cansiek said it gave him very great pleasure to second the vote of thanks so ably proposed by Dr. Lucas. Alderman Thomas supported the motion, which was cordially adopted. The ex-Mayor said no one was more sincere than he was in congratulating Mr. de Winton on his election as Mayor. That the duties would be pro- perly discharged he had no doubt. He thanked all present for the kind way in which they had received the proposal of Dr. Lucas. They had been kind enough to pay him a compliment for the way in which he bad discharged his duties, but he would emphatically declare that for the measure of success which had attended his efforts he was greatly indebted to the kind assistance given to him by the members. He had had two or three hobbies, like other men, but that he had followed out these to the prejudice of the town he emphatically denied. With their assistance he had succeeded in accomplishing two or three matters which were of considerable importance to the town. The question of water he could not take any credit for. Providence had sent them a very dry summer, and the value of that which they had laboured to give to the town was felt. He was only glad to think that the test they had to pass through turned out so well, and that the water supply did not fail. It would have been appalling to think what would have been the conse- quences if they had not had the new Water-works previous to 1868. With regard to the drainage, he should be proud to remember that during his year of office the very important work of drainage for the town had been commenced. It was a subject to which he had looked forward with some anxiety for some years, and it was an illustration of how some- times, by a mere loophole, they set about things which it had taken years to discuss. In looking back on the minutes of the meetings of that Board, he had been struck with the fact that on the 15th March, 1861, seven years ago, it was moved by Alderman Williams, seconded by Mr. Cansiek, that for the purpose of general drainage the sum of 11,000 be borrowed from an Insurance Company or other source, on the security of the rates, to be repaid in thirty years, with payment of 5 per cent. interest, and that in the meantime the drainage of Glamorgan- strept be proceeded with. He did not know that it reflected much credit on the Board that they took seven years to do anything but he was proud to think that although this matter had remained in abeyance all these years, it had been commenced BOW in right earnest; and he trusted they would not give up until they had thoroughly efficient drainage for the town of Brecon. The only other arrange- ment he would speak of would be the lighting. He was in hopes that he should have seen the town, before his year had expired, lighted up in something like modern style. The Board had, however, made arrangements, which had not been carried out, not on account of any laxity on their part, but because the Gas Company had not been ready with the materials for the work. On the following day, however, (Tuesday,) a new quarter would, be com- menced, and the lamps would be lighted from one hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise for ten months in succession, irrespective of the moon's rising. The committee had also recommended 20 additional lights in the town, and that would accom- plish all that could be desired, and there would be room for no more. The whole of the suburbs, as well as the slums, cf the town, would be lighted, which he thought would tend towards a diminution of the duties of the Mayor; for having a town well lighted was equal to an increase in the police forca. He would emphatically and sincerely thank the members of the Board for their kind and generous support, and for their punctual and regular attendance. He thanked the ex-Mayor (Mr. Davies) especially for having assisted him in the discharge of his duties as chief magistrate. The speaker concluded by stating that be had sat on the bench on 93 occasions during the year, 409 cases had come before him, the fines in which amounted to £ 40 in 105 cases fines had been inflicted, dismissed and excused 107, withdrawn 2, left the town 2, dismissed on payment of costs, 6. He begged now to hand in the list of fines during his year of office, and thought it would be gratifying to the Board to find that it was possible to get a list of the fines in the borough. ELECTION OF ALDERMEN. The Town Clerk stated that the next subject in order was the election of Aldermen. The outgoing Aldermen were Alderman Thomas and Alderman Williams. Mr. Cansiek proposed, and Mr. H. C. Rich seconded the re-election of the retiring Aldermen, and the resolution was carried without a dis- sentient. Alderman Thomas expressed his gratification at being unanimously re-elected. He bad not been so attentive to his duties as he might have been, as he had been a good deal away. When present he had always endeavoured to make suggestions which occurred to him. Alderman Williams thanked those present for the confidence reposed in him in re-electing him. His attendance during the past year had not been numerous; circumstances had deprived him of the honour, and if fhese continued for any length of time he should feel it necessary to retire. (No, no.) He hoped, however, he should be in a position to attend to his duties, or to make himself useful on committees. (Hear, hear.) Alderman Lucas thought Alderman Williams spoke with too much modesty of his services. Whenever they had required him he had come to them, and given them the benefit of his counsel. (Hear, hear.) RESIGNATION OF A COUNCILLOR. The Town Clerk read a letter from Mr. John Morris tendering his resignation as a member of the Board, from which he had voluntarily absented him- self during the past twelve months. The Mayor I think the Board mil feel we are losing a valuable member. u> Mr. Davies Has he disqualified himself by non- attendance ? The Town Clerk No. Mr. Davies Then I move that, his resignation be not accepted, and I deeply regret that he should have written that letter. The Town Clerk We must all feel that Mr. Morris has been a most useful councillor, and hope he will come again. (Hear, hear.) The motion of Mr. Davies having been seconded, was unanimously carried. APPOINTMENT OF COMMITTEES, ETC. The Watch Committee was appointed to consist of all the members of the Board. The Finance Committee-The Mayor, Alderman Williams, Alderman Lucas, Councillors Morris, Prothero, Bright, Davies, Trew, and Walton. The Town Clerk and other officers were re-elected; and the quarterly meetings fixed for the first Thurs- days in February, May, and August. THE GAS EXTENSION. Mr. Davies brought forward this subject, and expressed his belief that it would be for the good of the town: In an action of this kind, however, he thought the responsibility of the matter should be taken by the whole Board. He could testify to the anxiety of the ex-Mayor, Dr. Lucas, and others of the committee on the matter, and they had gone minutely into the subject. He asked the Board as a whole, and as representing the ratepayers, to sanction the proposed arrangement. Alderman Thomas quite agreed with Mr. Davies that the arrangement would be for the good of the town, and a comfort to the poor. For the benefit of the town he thought they could not do better than take the matter of gas into their own hands. It was not a healthy system for the town that such a thing as the supply of gas should be in the hands of a private company. He wished to give the gas proprietors the full value; but if they took it into their own hands their object then would be to see how cheaply they could supply gas, and not how large a sum they could fairly charge. Through the 'facilities of railways they had coal supplied them at a much less rate than formerly, and if tliey could supply gas at 6s. 8d. a thousand before they could supply it now at a much less rate. He seconded Mr. Davies's proposition for the adoption of the proposed arrangement. The ex-Mayor said the increased cost of the addi- tional lights would be zC250 per annum, and, by way of assuring them that they would not be utterly ruined, he begged to state that during the year 1868 the local distict rate had only been Is 4d. and Is 2d. in the pound, being the lowest sum ever charged during the last nine years, excepting once. The increase in the rateable value would go a Ions: way towards paying for the enlarged outlay and the cost of the drainage, and not materially add to the rates. It would be in the recollection of some of them that he undertook to bring before them a subject of verv considerable importance—he meant the abstraction of water from the river. He would, however, defer any remarks he had to make till another meeting. AN OLD LOCAL BOARD DEBT. Mr. Trew referred to the debt of 1800 which had been standing for 35 years, and for which they had already paid Y,1,300, without being any nearer pay- ing it off. He moved that the Y,200 received yearly from the Markets Company should go to pay off that debt. The ex-Mayor was anxious that the debt should be paid off, but did not see the way to it at present. The money they had received from the Markets Company had gone to meet the liabilities of the Corporation up to the present time. He suggested that after Christmas they make a poor rate for the requirements of the Board, and to provide X200 for the reduction of the old debt. He should have been delighted if something could have been done during the past year, but he did not see how it could have been. This bill had been incurred by the old Cor- poration for dinners (laughter), and they had thus to pay for the eating and drinking of their fore- fathers. Mr. J. Davies expressed the opinion that it would be better to devote only 1100 to the purpose at a time. It would then only take eight years to pay off the debt. Alderman Thomas asked Mr. Trew to adjourn his motion. This was consented to, and the Board adjourned to Thursday fortnight, the 26th instant.