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SPIRIT OF THE WELSH PRESS.
SPIRIT OF THE WELSH PRESS. [BY GWYLIEDTDD."] MR. GLADSTONE AND THE WELSH MEMBERS. The Baner has, perhaps, been the loudest of the "Welsh papers in threats of retribution against Mr Gladstone. This week it has a long and elaborate article on the subject, indulges in violent threats and recommends the Welsh members to persevere in their demand for disestablishment and dis- jendowment—" whatever the consequences may be." These words were written before the corre- spondence was published. In the Saturday edition, however, the editor simply reports the resolution of the Welsh members to po-tpone the matter until the third reading of the Home Rule Bill. 'T The Genedl is also unusually cautious, no opinion is given editorially, but Dafydd Dafya" is made to say that Mr Rendel has been asked to have a private interview with Mr Gladstone and get an explicit answer from him. The Werin- the Saturday edition of the Geu-edl-prints the correspondence, and makes the following official statement :—"Mi Gladstone congratulates IVales I on th(- position in which its chief question stands, -and especially on the division on the introduction of the Suspensory Bill," and admits that he does not give a distinct promise that disestablishment: shall be the first measure next session. Other' sections of the Liberal party are pressing Mr Gladstone to push on important questions in which they take interest, and say that our members must be on the alert. 'i The Goleuad is equally milk-and-watery in its treatment of the subject. The correspondence is published, and the editor makes the following remarks upon it:— There is no wonder that such a declaration should live thrown the Welsh menbers into confusion. They know that it is simply a withdrawal from what was considered a distinct promise. No wonder, therefore, that the Welsh members want some excuse to place before the Welsh people. Mr Gladstone declines making even a conditional promise, and refuses, with that mastery of the art of speech of which he is such an adept, to commit himself. What is Wales to do ? Its first duty is to hear wbat its representatives have to say. The situation is full of difficulties, and great prudence should be ob. served. A. general meeting of tr.e Welsh members and the leaders of the parzy in Wales would be of great value in the present emergency. The Tyst believes that Mr Gladstone will listen to the voico of Wales, and bring in a Disestablish- ment Bill next year. The Celt thinks that Mr Gladstone would yield to pressure if put on in the Irish fashion. 'ihe Herald considers that Mr Gladstone's plea for time is just, and that the Bishop of Bangor was wrong in stating that disestablishment is beyond the range of practical politics. The Tarian says that the Church is an iron yoke on the shoulders of Nonconformists," and that the Government must yield to the demand of the most enlightened citizens of the British Empire." Gwalia says that the New- castle programme was a sham, and that the faith of 11 Young Wales" in Mr Gladstone is ex- hausted. THE COAL STRIKE IN SOUTH WALKS. The Wels a press is unanimous in condemning the unfortunate strike now prevailing over South Wales, and especially the action of the colliers in hooting" Mabon." The Tarian, which claims to be the organ of the colliers, has a strong leader on the subject. It says that the spirit of dis- order is abroad," and ttiat it is time for religious men of sense and experience to take the lead." The Herald fears that there is something more serious than the strike affecting the colliers of South Wales." The attack on "Mabon" is described by several papers as a black blot on their character. The Tyst says that old colliers feel that they are dragged into want and misery by the young men." The introduction of the military to the district will. no doubt, be condemned, and the love of the Welsh people for law and order will be praised, but the material welfare of the people will be promoted by the prompt interposition of the higher authorities. THE PROPOSED WELSH UNIVERSITY. The Welsh papers have prac ically accepted the Shrewsbury scheme, notwithstanding their strong protest at first to confining it to the Aber- ystwith, Bangor, and Cardiff Colleges. Their converskm is due to the fact that by adoptmg the Shrewsbury scheme St. David's College, Lampeter, would be excluded, and Church influence would be checked in the conduct of higher education in Wales. The Genedl objects to Lampeter because "it is not controlled by the ratepayers." Principal Owen treats the subject in an article in theLlan this week, from which the following extract-s are made Whilst looking forward for twenty years to the futaie of Wales,, the chief object of patriotic Welsh- men, should be the co-operation of ali Welshmen— Churchmen and Nonconformists—for the general good of the community. There are difficulties in the way, and for that reason a bond of union between our educated youih would be secured by a national university. I am glad to find that the yonng Non- conformists who take the lead in connection with Cymru Fydd" entertain broad views with regard to a university for Wales. With the hope of securing a National Welsh University, an educational mother to the youth of Wales, and a central object of national interest in the midst of conflicting opinions I did all in my power to reform the narrowness of the Shrews- bury scheme and secure a university embracing all WeLh interests. THE QCARRYHEN's STRIKE AT FESTINIOG. The strike at the Llechwedd Quarry, Festiniog .-which has existed for three months-continues to interest the North Wales papers. A large meeting in support of the strikers was held at Carnarvon last week, at which a number of elo- quent speeches were made. Among the speakers were the members of Parliament for Carnarvon- shire and Merioneth. The owners were strongly condemned, and the public were appealed to for subscriptions. The Herald says that the speeches —with two excep ions, one by a reverend gentle- man," the other by an "honourable member"- were moderate. and just, and expresses a hope that the misunderstanding will be overcome. Gwalia condemns the Rev Machreth Rees, who accused the masters with wasting their money on horse races and whores," and challenges him to mention the names. And Mr Lloyd-George stated that Mr Greaves had built three grand palaces at the expense of the men. Mr Greaves objects to re- employ six of the men who left work of their own accord, but declines to give his reasons for it. IS WALES DECLINING IN CIVILISATION ? This question has been asked more than once. Instances are increasing where the law is s-t at defiance, and where persons are charged with, and punished for, breaking the peace. The Welsh papers complain constantly of the neglect of per- sons, especially the young, to attend places of worship, and of habits that are indulged in which were unknown to our forefathers. The Baner of last week states that the practice of cursing and swearing has become so common and gross in Anglesey that the county council have given instructions to the police to prosecute those found guilty of the offence. Persons travelling by train complain of the increase of bad language among the passengers. The advice of miniatelra and religious men is laughed at." It seems according to the same authority, that the evil prevails in Carnarvonshire as well, and that the county couneil are proposing to apply the same remed y
THE CHOLERA. The Cardiff steamship Ninian Stuart, from Malta, which bad been detained in quarantine has sailed for Hull. One of three men who were suffering from a disease showing chola.io in symptoms has died and was buried at sea. At Russia, in the province of Samara, there have been 198 cases of cholera and 75 deaths xazan, 75 eases ai d 28 deaths Kalisch, 97 cases and 33 deaths Minsk, 32 cases and 15 deaths Simbirsk, 31 oases and 11 deaths; and Kherson, 54 cases and 22 deaths during the past week. In the city of Moscow about 90 cases and 38 deaths occur daily. In the province of Kieff there were during the week 529 -ca es and 184 deaths; in Nijni-Novgorod, 468 cases and 19 L deaths., and in the Don Territory, 245 cases and 109 deaths. The steumsbip Southgate, from I brail, has arrived at Malta with one caae of cholera aboard. The vessel is taking in coal and provisions outside the harbour, under strict quarantine rules.
THE MOST DANGEROUS PART OF A HouSE is the scullery sink. A packet of HUDSON'S EXTRACT OF SCMP or HUPBON s DKY SOAP in a bucket of hot water, poured down the sink erBTj week, removes All a*gpmqmd QOMPggiag notal j
- BOARDS OF GUARDIANS. -
BOARDS OF GUARDIANS. NEWTOWN & LLANIDLOES,— WEDNESDAY. The fortnightly meeting of the above Board was held at the Workhouse, Caersws, when there were present. Captain W. H. Adams, chairman, Colonel; Lloyd-Verney, ex. officio Mr R. Bennett, vice.chair- mac, Messrs C. Morgan, David Davies, John Lewis, David Jones, William Alderson, William Gittins, John Thomas, M. A. Davies, Richard Evans, Wm. Francis, John Lloyd, Evan Jones, J. H. Lloyd-Verney, with Mr R. Williams, clerk, and Mr Cecil Taylor, deputy-clerk. CORRESPONDENCE. A letter was read from t'be Atcham Union, enclos- ing a resolution which the guardians were asked to pass. It stated that the guardians ba.d considered the Local Government (Eugland and Wales) Bill. While recognising in it a desire to deal in a liberal comprehensive way with the question of Local Gov- ernment, they regretted to notice the general tend- ency to subordinate boards of guardians to more re- cently created bodies- They were ot opinion that the election in rural districts should ba to the oftice of councillor and guardian. They were also strongly of opinion that it should be made requisite for a candi- date for election to the office of guardian to be at least resident in the parish which he sought to re- present. The resolution referred to the valuable ser- vices in the past of ex-olli,io guardians, and thought that provision might wiih advantage be made for a limited representation for members on boards of guardians and district coancils as aldermen, elected by the elected guardians and councillors. Mr Cornelius Morgan proposed that the petition ba acknowledged and left on the table.—Col Verney seconded, and it was carried. The Clerk stated th,t he had received a letter from the L,cil Government Board cor. firming the appoint- ment; of Mr Richard Morgan as vaccination officer for Llanidloes district. INSUBORDINATION. The Master reported that a woman named Mary Taylor, irom Newtown, an inmate of the house, was very" cheeky," and had gone so far as to stcike an inmate. He stated that she had been in the house before, and was ejected for breaking an old man's arm. Mr Cornelius Morgan said that he knew the woman well. She was a mid hand in Newtown, and none of the mills would empioy her on account of her drunken and dissipated habits. He proposed that she be given notice to quit, wnich was agreed to. MASTER'S REPORT. The Master fur ther reported that Col. Lloyd-Verney his wife had visited tha house and supplied the chil- dren with toys and tea., and tobacco tor the old men and women. The man Tucker, whose three children wore in the house, had been apprehended and brought up at Newtown on Monday, and sentenced to one month's imprisonment for neglecting to sup- port them.—Mr Cornelius Morgan proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Mrs Col. Verney and Col. Verney for their kindness in visiting the house and affording the inmates much pleasure by bringing 'toys for the children, and tea and tobacco for the men and women. He hoped that other ladies would imitate the action of Mrs Verney in visiting the house. Mr David Davies seconded, and it was carried unanimously. Col. Verney responded, and said that it always gave him and his wife much pleasure to afford any little help flhey could to the inmates of the Work- house. OUT-RELIRF. Amount exp-onded in out-relief daring the past fortnightNewtown district, per Mr R. El. Lloyd, j £ 36 14a first week, to 277 recipients; < £ 31 12s 6d second week to 275 recipients. Llanidloes district, per Mr Richard Owen, first week JS46 9s 6d to 391 receipients, second week Y,41 17s 9d to 390 receipts; Llanwnog, per Mr James Hamer, first week J320 12s 6d to 166 recipients, second week X20 12a 6d to 166 recipients. IN-DOOR RELIEF. Number of tramps in the houne, 56. number re- lieved the past fortnight—first week,. 38 against 72 in the corresponding period last year, second week, 54 against 50 during the corresponding period of last year. THE NEWTOWN NURSE. Mr David Davies, alluded to the compensation of the Murse at Newtown, and said that he found from the minutes of the last meeting that £ 5 was voted for the professional Nurse at Newtown. He thought it was hardly fair to the country guardians, as there was hardly one at the meeting when the monev was voted. He therefore gave notice torescind it at the next Board meeting. The Clerk said that the cheque -for the < £ 5 was already signed. Mr David Davies: I think it very unfair to country guardians. Mr Bdnnett said as one of the Newtown guardians he felt rather slighted by Mr Davies's remarks. He said that he did not know anything about it, until the letter was read. Mr C. Morgan said that they had received a letter from Mrs Edward Lowell, who took a very deep in- terest in the poor of Newtown, which was read. The subject was very fully discussed, and only Mr Meddins of Llanidloes spoke against it. He could aseure them that a wiser gift was naver made by the I guardians. This young nurse had been in Newtown about four m nths, and during that time she has made over 500 visits. She had saved a great number of people coming to the Workhouse, and had done a great deal of good in the town. He knew several places where they had paid a person 15s per week for doing less work than this young woman. Mr David Davies said that he simply complained that the farmers had had no chance of voting on the question. Mr Lewis said that he found there was a great deal of cmplaint8 made about the action of the guardians. Tne Clerk said that the only thing the Board could do was to cancel the cheque. It was decided to adjourn the matter until next Board meeting. VAGRANCY. A letter was read from the Local Government Board, and was as follows: Sir,—I am directed by the Local Government Board to acknowledge the re- ceipt of your letter of the 13th ult., transmitting a copy of a resolution passed by the guardians of the Newtown and Llanid,oes Board on the subject of the provision of accommodation for vagrants. I am directed to express their regret that the guardians do not at present consider it necessary to provide some -separate cells for vagrants as recommended by the Board's Inspector, Mr Bircham. The Board will raise no objection to the proposition of appropriating the boys' disused play-room for the purpose of pro- viding additional sleeping accommodation in the event of there being an increase in the number of vagrants applying for relief as a temporary measure, but they consider that the cellar wards used in times of;pressure should not be used at any time because they are improperly lighted and ventilated." ALF. D. ADRIAN, Asst. Sec.1I
THE CHARGE AGAINST A SHREWSBURY…
THE CHARGE AGAINST A SHREWS- BURY AUCTIONEER. gSSSg At the Shrewsbury Police Court on Tuesday before a full bench of magistrates, John Charles Jones, who formerly carried on business as an auctioneer at Shrewsbury, was again placed in the dock on a charge that he having been adjudged a bankrupt, did leave England with X200, in his possesion, which money ought to have been divided among his creditors. Mr W. F. Williams again prosecuted on behalf of the Treasury, and Mr Maurioe Jones, Welshpool, defended. Mr Williams explained that the case would probably occupy their worships for two days, as there were twenty three witnesses on behalf of the Crown. Under the circumstances he asked for a further remand. He proposed to call one witness who would give sufficient evidence to justify the remand asked for. Mr Maurice Jones said, he did .not suppose for one moment that he could successfully oppose the applica- tion for a further remand. But really considering the-fact that the prisoner had been in goal since the 8th inst., and was to be further remanded for another eight days it gave one the idea that justice moved slowly, and indeed it reminded one of the days when there was no such thing as A Habeas Corpus Act. Mr Williams; My friend has only to consent to a remand. Mr Jones I consent to nothing in a criminal case. John Heaney, a clerk formerly in prisoner's employ was then called, be said that he remembered Mr Jones leaving Shrewsbury on the 14th of April, and he told witness that he was going to London for about a week on business. He left by the mail train about ten o'clock in the evening. He had with him two trunks, two small boxes, a hat box, and a small crate. At his direction witness drew a cheque X120 on Jones's account, at the Birmingham and District Bank. The day previous he handed to him about £ 37 the proceeds of a two days sale, held in the Lion Rooms, On the following Monday witness re- ceived a telegram from Jones, saying he intended to return that night. However he did not return, and the following morning witness had received a letter which had been handed to Mr Carias, (the assis- tant official receiver). Mr Manrice Jones said he failed to see anything in the evidence to justify a further remand, and remind- ed their worships of the proverb that" justice delayed i justice denied." The accused WM further remanded until Tuesday.
ROBERT OWEN, THE FATHER OF ENGLISH SOCIALISM. Reprinted (by permission) from Great Thoughts. The end of the n'neteenth century is witnessing the rescue of many memories from undeserved obli- vion, and chief amongst them is that ot Robert Owen. Tardy justice is now being paid to a prophet and pioneer who. with all his mistakes, foresaw, foretold, and prepared for the better day Low dawning upon the people. Robert Own was the father ot English Socialism—we miaht also say was the first Socialist in Europe—certainly he was the tirst true socialist. Historic Socialism arose simultaneously in France and England. In 1817 Robert Owen placed betoie a Committee of the House of Commons a scheme for social reorganisa1 ion by means of socialistic com- munities, and in the very same year Saint Simon propounded his Hociaiist views in his ttttHis" L'indu trie. But though simultaneous, these actions were independent and disconnected. Saint- Simon's Socialism was somewhat sentimental and theoretic, a rosuit of the French Revolution end a deduction from the abstract principles of liberty, equality, and fia ernity. R'bert Oweii's, on the other hand, was practical, and arusefiom no abstract principles, but directly trom the heart and neat of the New Industry itself. It was true- Socialism, inasmuch as it was of industrial and not of f.o.iiical origin, the direct product of the Industrial Revolu- tion. BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. Wales gave us the first modern Socialist, for Robert Owen was born in Newtown, Montgomery, m the year 1771. He lived to the great age ot eigh y- seven, and after roaming nearly all over the world, completed the circie of his life by dying in Newtown in 1858, where, in a dingy graveyerl, ignored and,, neglected, he hes buried, his felk.w-townstnen reluki- ing permission to erect a drinking fountain or a clock-tower to his memory. Robert Owen's life may be divided into two pMbl, an induti-rial and a theo- logical, although these Were never enti eiy separated. Up to the age of titty-eight be was mÚuIY bUflY with industrial problem, and then he wore out the rest of hisnumerous d>iy*—Welshman-like —in theological combat, firt as secuarist, and finally as spiritualist. He was the son of a flddl..r and ironmoiger in poor circumstances. He had but little education, and began lite at ten as a draper's ass:s,a! t. first. in London, then at Stamford, and back in London again in a shop on old Lonoon Bridge, wlwe he icit Li. ut- self "rich and independent" on .£25 a year with board aud lodging. But he bettered himself by going to St. A< n's Square, Manchester, wheie he received £ 40 lleie ne manifested great business skill, and, seeing his opportunity, at the age of eighteen went into business for himself in the cotton- spinning trade, then taking its n"w and modern foim When but nineteen he became manager and partner in the Chorlton Twist 0<>mp my, where he had con- trol of a cotton-u>ill with five hundred hands. He soon manifested great organising ability and much enterprise. His company becawe a leading ffrm, and Owen used the first bags of Sea Isiand cotton ever imported into this country from the Southern States. In 1799, when twenty-eight, he married the daughter of David Dale, whom be had met previously in Glasgow. THE MILLS OF NEW LANARK. Thisbevan his connection with the f-mous New Lanark Mills. David Dale, in partnership with Richard ArkwrighT, the inventor, bad in 1784 founded these cotton mills near I,ne Falls ot Clyde 11 order to utilise the water-power. Owen p Staged the Chorlton Twist Company to l'urnhae tbean nulls fc X60,000, and he himself in 1800 became manager IoDd tion on the part of all the members for every purpose of social life." In 1813, the year of the new paitner- ship with Bentham and Allen, Owen published his views in the form of a collection of essays entitled A new view of Society, or essays on the formation of Human Charactor." These essays advocated a modified form of Communism and contained much wise and advanced teaching on educational and social questions, but they revealed an antagonism to religion which finally ruined Owen's prospects as a social reformer, especially as he subsequently took no pains to hide that antagonism. Never, however, was a social propaganda more vigoarously conducted. Owen had amassed a large fortuue. but he freely spent it on his schemes and in advertising them to the whole world. In 1816 Owen gave evidence before a. Committee of the House of Commons upon the con- dition of the people, and his suggestions, whici appeared in their report of 1817, revealed his social ism. He anticipated at the beginning of I he new industry all the evils evolved in its subsequent de. velopment, and saw especially that the machinery which was meant to bless man would first curse him. In his" Observations on the Effects of the Manulac- turing System (1817) he says, Since the discovery of the enormous, the incalculable power to superbedv iijanual labour, to enable the human race to create wealth by the aid of the sciences, it has b. en a gross mistake of the political economists to make humanity into slaves to science, instead of making, as Nature intends, science to be the slaves and the servauts of humanity. And this sacrificing of human beings with such exquisite physical, intellectual, mo.a], spiritual, and practical organs, faculties and powers, so wondrously contained in each individual, to pins, needles, thread, tape, etc., and to all tuch inanimate materials, exhibits ac once the most gross ignorance of the nature and true value of hum mity, and of the principles and practices required to form a prosper- ous, rational, and happy state of society, or the true existence of man upon earth." He even goes so far as to ask where the increased wealth went which his two thousand workpeople produced-wealth which it would have taken six hundred thousand men to have produced a century before. He clearly saw that his people benefited but little. Owen revolted then, against the subordination of man to machinery, whioh he saw going on around him. Nor was be satisfed with Malthus's solution. He denied that over-population was any danger, he saw that the efficiency of the means of production would increase in greater ratio, and declared that it was not by arti- ficially limiting- population that mn could escape from their woes, but by instituting rational ar- I rangements and by securing a fair distribution of wealth." OWEN AS COHHUNIST. This Owen thought could be secured by the multi- plication of communities similar to that of New Lanark—conducted on Socialistic or Commu-nstic principles. These he thought might multiply, be federated, and ultimately unite the whole world into one great happy republio. So persuaded was he that he had found a cure for all onr woes that he started forth to found his new world. In 1825 he went to America and founded, in Indiana, New Harmony, a model Commune, at vast expense to himself, while his diseiple, Abraham Combe, set up another for him at Orbiaton, near Glasgow. Both were utter failures, as were also two founded-one at Balabine. in county Claro, Ireland, in 1831, and another at Tytherly, in Hampshire, in 1839. These experiments were the financial ruin of Owen, who. with heroic self-sacrifice, pank a whole fortune ih them. In 1821 part-owner. Here Robert Owen soon proved that he had a soul above money-making. The condition of the workman was at this juncture degrad-d iu the extreme. With no political rights-without even power to combine-be was ill-housed, ill-fed, iil-paid, all of which bad very serious physical and moral results. These evilt*, evils aggravated by the rise of the factory system and the invention of machinery, were keenly ielt by Kobeit Vw,n. He found the adults at New Lanark—same 1,5-io a deplorably low, neglected, and vicious condition. He at once improved their dwellings and shortened their hours. Ttie children-some five hundred of them—had been woli-treated by Ddvid Dale; but Owen did still more for them he undertook their education. At first he was distrusted by the workpeople, who credited him only with an eye to profit. inudgei-y in his reforms 1 but when barn times came in 1806. and most, mil a W'-iv c.nseo, Roberi Owen run his at a loss, and puid ■ £ 7,000 in wages. Ttiis won for him the hearts of the operative;1. Fr. m that time Robert Owen began his wondcrfui and successtul expenmeiit3 in THE ORGANISATION OF INDUSTRY, with a view to the happiness of the labourer. These experiments became famous, and attracted the a mention ot statesmen and social reformers in every land. Owen became the hero of a decade and the t riend of royalty, g rat"tateUlell, and philanthropists. For tne adults at N' w Lanark O-veu secured shorter hours of labour, improved dwellings and sanitation, and established shops or ttoresupoii the co-operative rincij le. For the children h^ e-tabiished au infant sohoo —or ra' her, An Institution for the Formation of haracter "—the nature of which can be guessed from the tact that the tiniest iiif^nts were taught in the playground never to injure their playmates, but to do ail in their power to make them happy." In all this Owen was pioneer-a. pioneer ot the Factory Acts, of Co-apey ation, and of Infant. Schools. Hut while the public approved, lis partners did not —it did not seem to their mercenary minds "business "-so that when Owen began to build a schoolroom 90; t by 40ft, to bo called The Institu- ti m," tney objected, and stopped proceeding. With bui ding Opt rations suspen ded, ana half-reared walls, Robert OWI,n turned his attention to the question of g !tti,iL, rid of his covetous partners; and finally, with Jeremy Bertbam and William Alien, the Quaker, bought them out and formed a new company ou the express condition that he was to werk his will so long as the mills paid his partners five per Cf-nt. The N,,w Lanark Mills became more success- iuI and famous than ever. As he afterwards wrote in the Times (in 1834): .0 For. twenty-nine years we did without the necessity for magistrates or lawyers, without a single legal panithment, without any known poor's rlite, without intemperance, and with- on religiu animosities. We reduced the hours of labour, well educated all the child en from infancy, improved tl.e condition of the adults, diminished their (laily hours of labour, pai I interest on capital, and cleared upwards of X300,000 profit." It led to great results both educationaly and socially. Through Uwen, Lord Brougham, James Mill, and bir U. Grey opened in 1819, in Brower's G eon, West- minster, the fitst public infant school in England. OWEN AS SOCIALIST. He found, however, that mere philanthropy woald no so ve the economic question—that it mvcuveo ntire social reorganisation. His reflections and experiments led him to advocate Communism, or, a* he termed it, co-operation, unrestrained co-opera- he started a journal, The Economist, in which to advo- cate his cause. The spirit in "hich he entered on his enterprise may be gathered from these glowing word in the first number "I have had the boldness to take upon my shoulders the burden of examining the whole affairs and circumstances of man- kind. I summon to my aid all the friends of humanity. It my feeble voiee be at first scarcely beard amid the noisy contentions cf the world, yet if it be joined by the full chorus of the sons of truth, swelling into clarion shouts of count- less multitudes, and caught with joyous acclaim from nation to nation, the harmonising strains shall resound throughout the giobe." On the title-page of his paper it was declared to be "a periodical paper, explanatory of a new system of society and a plan of ar-sociation for improving the condition of the working classses, during their continuance at their present employment." The italics are ours THE COLLAPSE. But Owen mixed up with his Socialism ablatant and aggressive Secularism which, in a much more intolerant day than this, was fatal to his prospects of success. Friction began at New Lanark with his Quaker partner, Wm. Allen, and being now penniless he was in 1828 forced to withdraw from the mills, the scene of all his triumphs. Henceforth for thirty long wretched ye rs he was a social outcast, i-purned by the very folks who once feted him, his name becoming a synonym for theories and views proiane and immoral. Nothing daunted, Owen car- ried on a vigorous props ganda amongst the working classes, and ..0 successfully, that the IVtstmirxU- Review (1839) stated that Robert Owen's Seouiarism was the actual creed of a great portion of them. Strange to say, however, his Socialism wa^still-bcrn A few enthusiastic followers—the Owenites-oid atart labour leagues, hut the fruit they produced was political, they produced the Chartist agitation. In 1832 Owen established a Labour Exchange," where notes for work done were to supersede money. In 1835 the Owenites first gave the name Socialism t > the new movement, at meetings of "the associa- tion of all classes and of all nations." These are links with the later Soc alism, which, however, owes nothing directly to Owen. Owen's Socialism came too soon, not for the need of the workmen, but for his intelligence. It died out completely even in Owen's lifetime. Owen finally renounced Secularism for what oae calls, "the comfortless vagaries" of Spiritualism,, due probably to the influence of his well-known son, Robert Dale Own, the American Sinn tor and Spiritualist. in his declining years he retired to the obscurity of his Welsh birthplace, aud there ebbed out in extreme old age. Owen was a great man. To him we largely owe the Infant School System, the Factory Acts, Co-opera- tion, and Municipal Socialism. In all these he -was a pioneer, and a pioneer of magnificent ardour, courage and self-sacrifice. But he was too inconoclastic and over confident. He understood neither average' human nature, nor the laws of social development, and he made the mistake of attacking the aocepted ideas of both religion and marriage. Where he was wrong he was offensively wrong, RDd where he was right he was premature, and therefore his movement- was foredoomed to failure. Like some robust peren- nial plant, it died down quite out of eight, but left such vigorons roots in English soil, that after ap- parent death, under new a.id favourable conditions, Owen's ii fluencf revived ano bronght forth abundant frnit in Education, the Co-ooerative movement and modern municipal Socialism. fextrsb E. Kinu,
FATAL 1 ACCIDENT AT ABERYSTWYTH-I
FATAL 1 ACCIDENT AT ABERYSTWYTH- I THREE MEN BURIED ALIVE. On Tuesday afternoon a terrible accident occurred 0:1 the Buarth Mawr, near the Railway Statiou, Aberystwyth, resulting in the immediate deiith of three workmen and 'serious injury to two others. Some time ago, vrhen the Cambrian Railweiy Company decided to extend the platforms at Aberystwyth Station, and to put in additional sidings to meet the increased traffic, they obtained permission f; om the owners of the Ruarth Mawr, a hillock which rises to the east of the station, for the purpose of filling up the extended platforms and sidings. The Company also obtained permission from the Aberystwyth Cor- poration to Jay rails across the Plas Crug road which separates the Buarth from the railway yard and sid- ings. A gap was made in the fences aud rails having been laid from the station yird to the quarry, the debris was placed in trucks, and then run across the field and road and on to the spot where the new sid- ing was being made some hundreds of yards up the line, and not far from the ticket collecting platform. The contract for the carting of the debris was let to Mr Abraham Williams, Aoerdovey, and his gang of men consisted of 14, all of whom were steady experi- enced workmen, and the majority of them were married, and had families. As the work of carting debris had been going on for some months, a hole of considerable tize had by Tuesday been excavated in the slope of Buarth Mawr. As the excavations pro- ceeded rails were laid down, so that the trucks might be taken up to the point where the newly-displaced debris lay. The five men who met with the sad acci- dent on Tuesday afternoon were working in the inner- most end of the excavation. The scene of the acci- dent lay on the south side of Trinity Church, and facing the station. The material which the men were working was for the most part of a very friabie nature, being mainly composed of sha.:y debris from an old stone quarry adjoining. The actual site of the accident,however, was composed of soil with a stratum of bluish ciay running a few yards below the surface. There was nothing in the nature and appearance of the soil that forbode dauger. Apparently it was a sufe place in which to work. Viewing the sides ot the excavation after the accident, they were quite perpendicular and looked as if there could be no pos- sibility of a further slip. In fact, the apparent sate ness of the ground added in the minds of all who saw it much to the sadness of the catastrophe. The five unfortunate men who suffered so seriously were working after dinner on Tuesday in excavating the debris, loading it into trucks, and then wheeling it on to the siding where it, was required for ballast. Between two and three o'clock they had been making preparations for a fall cf debris, and for that pur- pose bad made two side cuts and a holier about two yards in depth. There had been heavy showers in the morning, and the water might have got iuto a crevice behind the loosened ground and led to the fatal occurrence. About three o'clock upwards of 100 tons gave way without the slightest warning and five men who were working underneath were buried deep under the debris. The men were John James, Penrhyncoch, Evan Fi ancis;, lalybont, Owen Owens, Penal, John Lloyd, Welshpool, and John Mitohell, Penrhyococh. When the other workmen heard the fall and came running up, nothing was visible of the five men whose names are given above but the arm of one of them. The others were buried more or less deep under the debris, and it was at once seen that had those underneath escaped fatal injuries, they would be suffocated before they could be dug out. Medical men were at once sent for, and Dr Abraham Thomas, medical officer of health, soon arrived, fol- lowed by Dr Bonsall, the union medical officer. In the meantime the workmen had not lost a moment in their offorts to rescue their companions- alive. John Mitohell was got out, and was found to have escaped with a double frac:ure of the left leg. He was at- tended to by Dr Thomas, and taken off at once to the Aberystwyth Infirmary. John Lloyd was also got out anve but he was more seriously injured. Though the skin was uncut, the poor fellow's right thigh had been orushed, and he complained of difficulty in breathing and other injuries. The men dug with the greatest rapidity combined with caution to reach the Oodles, and presently they came upon the blackened face of oue of their comrades, whioh showed that he had died from suffocation, and that there was co hope of saving the other two. The remains were placed under a tarpaulin brought from the station. Presently the rescuers exhumed the body of a second, and about half-an-hour alter the accident they got out the body of a third. It is unnecessary to say that all three were beyond any hope of recovery. The bodies of the poor fellows were removed from the fatal spot with that beautiful care and reverence which workmen have for their unfortunate compani- ons in fatal accidents, and were eventually deposited in the mortuary on Penglaise Hill. The news of the accident spread quickly through the town, and in less than quarter of an hour hundreds of townspeople and visitors were at the quarry, and considerable vigil- ance was necessary to keep impulsive spectators from parts of the quarry which were thought to be still unsafe. The police were present and assisted in keeping order. The men killed were John James, of Penrhyncooh, married, with five children; Owen Owens, Pennal, married, with five children; and Francis, Talybont, married, with one child John Lloyd, a single man of Welshpool, had his breast badly crushed and his knee and leg broken. John Mitchell, the other injured man, who hailed from Cwmrhoidol. Aberffrwd, is married and has four children. His leg was broken. Mr Harry Bonsall. Cwm, waited upon the Mayor of the town (Mr Wm. Thomas), and the latter opened a subscription list for tbe widows and orphans, and a liberal response was made. Lady visitors, alao, staying on tbe Ter- race, on Tuesday evening went up and down the Promenade and succeeded in obtaining a large sum. THE INQUEST. The inquest touching the deaths of the men Owen Owens, Evan Francis, and John James was held in the Board Room of the Union Workhouse on Wednesday afternoon, before John Evans, Esq., coroner. The following, with other evidence, was given :-Llewelyn Griffiths, Brwncrug, Towyn, labourer, said he han been working in the baliast pit ten weeks. There were marks of a loose cut immediately opposite the entrance which had been made for a previous fall, and there was another loose cut on the side of the fall next to the station, the remains of which were to be seen now. It would be about 2! feet backwards at the base. The faoe of the side nearer Plas Crug is the same as it was before the fall. Before the loose out was made the face on that side of the pit ran in a straight line, perhap3 bulging out a little more about the middle where the fall took place. If the cross cut on the side which now remained was four feet deep he was not prepared to say it was not on the other side before the fall took place. He was filling the tram on Tuesday afternoon. Immediately before the fall he was going to fetch his ehovel which was partly buried at a fall at another part of the pit, and in passing he met Owen Owens, John Lloyd, John James, and Evan Francis standing talking together. When he was picking up the shovel with his back towards them he heard a shout and a fall. He was thrown across the tram rail and the other side of the pit. There was no one whose only duty it was to watch the fall, but David Evans was there very often and John James and John Mitchell used to go up very often. There was no one watching at the time the accident took place. There were no wedges on the top, and no one was thinking of having a fall until Wednesday. They were filling the tram with the earth already dug out with what was there already. At the end next to the loose cut on the Plac-orag side the men had dug underneath the fall to about three feet, taking off much more at the fir end. The earth where they were digging was a good deal looser than it was at the top. David Evans gave no warning that there was any danger. He had been up about five minutes before, and there were no signs of a fall, nor on the other side.- The Rev. Llewellyn Edwards said he had seen the 2-50 tiain off and was walking homeward down Plas Cru?. Saw Mr Jenkin Thomas, and saw the man with a truck. Seeing the men run he realized that there was an accident. He asked if a man was buried and was told yes. He then said The best thing I had better do is to go for a doctor." Wit- ness went for Dr. Thomas and returned. Dr. Thomas came and was soon followed by Dr. Bonsall Noticing Dr. Beddoes there witness suggested that he miht go to see the men at the Infirmary as undoubtedly those buried in the debris were dead. Dr. Beddoes replied No, I won't, you ghastly murderous Radioals." Witness was surprised, but made no reply. Dr. Beddoes went towards the pit. So far as he could see the men were busily at work and everything was done that could possibly be done to extricate the men buried. One or two of the men had been got out.—By the Foreman Dr. Beddoes did not go to the Infirmary.—Mr Morcam: Nor did he help to get the men out?—The Rev. Llewelyn Edwards said that Dr. Thomas and Dr. Bonsall arrived thete immediately and set to work. He had no idea that Dr. Beddoes had any objection to goinfr to the Infirlnary.-The jury brought in a verdict that the Cause of death was due to a large quantity of earth accidentally falling upo* the deceaseds whilst working." The jury added a rider that greater precautions shoald be taken in future when similar work is carried on. They attach no blame to anyone.
THE MEANING OF HEREFORD BYE-ELECTION.
THE MEANING OF HEREFORD BYE- ELECTION. Before dealing with the character and lesion of Sir Joseph Pulley's detent we take leave to affirm that no mm could liare fought the battle with mor, unflag- girig z !wi and ability tban and that no ri- au could have received more loyal and energetic service from hit, party. Whilst Sir Joseph Pulley b»ers his oefeat wirJi unsurpassable dignity aud rnogna,:iirr,itv, we entirely agiee witii him that it would be invidious and ui jii^t to single out any familiar names for recognition and praise, when the truth is that the wholit py.rty have betn bonded together aud worked together like one man. As to tae defeat itself, we rnu,t bo; caietul to <;L-Ciiminate bs-tween the national and the st-ctional interests which Lave been con- c rned in the content. It we were compelled to think thac th-i contest had been determined upon the political merits of the questions and individuals in- volved, aud that the seat had been thuti lost for Liberalism, Home Ruie, smd Mr Gladstone—the grandest statesman, morally and intellectually, the world has ever seen then we should be dis- h, arteneù in no common degree; for that would be equivalent, in our estimation, to a lasting blot upon the ancient city. But we do not for a moment be- Jic, ve th"t the battle has been lost on these grounds, and therefore we are not driven to the conclusion ttiat the men of Hereford have repudiated their prin- ciples, and ceased in a short twelve months to be politically sound and generous. We are not over. whelmed with fears of this kind, because it is notorious, and it will not be denied even by our suc- cessful opponents, that other causes than Home Rule for Ireland have led to the return of Mr Radcliffo Cooke. We make io mystery about the matter, for th"re is noi e. Sir Joseph fulley has polled 1,460 votes, as against the 1,136 which he polleu in the year 1886. This me ins that we had on Tuesday last 324. more coavincdd Home Rulers in Her, ford "than we had nine years ago. It is true that we hid another 47 Home Rulers last year when Mr Grenfell's poll was 1,5U7. But now comes the question,—How were th-. se 47 voters, who would have been enough to win the eiecnon, subtracted from our side, and carried over to the side of the Conservatives? Was it be- cause th-y have lost their faith in the justice and necessity of Home ltu!e P We iio not believe it for a moment. It is because every art and device were employed by the backers of Mr Cooke to appeal to the private interests of the voters becau»e the ch-rgy of the Establishment is the supposed interest of the Church and the publi- cans in cue professed interest of their trade, did not draw the line even at intimidation and boycotting to gain their end because other men, one Liberal and loaded wii.h Liberal favours, exerted the same kind of pressure, following tradesmen in their sliors and working men in their daily occupation with the fear or being denoullced and ruined: and because at the last moment a deputation of railway men in the in- terests of the Railway Companies came into the town, confused the issues, and menaced the local men with the withdrawal of the Company's subscriptions. We merely state weil-known facts, and leave our readers to judge how far these methods were legitimate. All we are concerned to show is that the City of Herpford as a whole is not blackened by these foreign and sectional appeals to the ftars of the poorer vo era, or by the ihteats of impoverishment scattered broad- cast by a few wealthy canvassers of both sexes. Dia* credit there is but it is not the discredit of a con* stituency deliberately throwing its principles to the winds, and treacherously turning from truth to false* hood, from light to darkness. Let the 1.460 good men and true-e, eryone of whom is a convinced Home Ruler, proof against intimidation and corrup- tion—take fresh courage and consolation from these facts. There it. another battle to be fought at the General Election for Liberalism, Home Rule and Mr Gladstone and that battle we shall win, because the unscrupulous tribe of strangers and Orangemen from afar, who, with subscribed money in their' pockets, thronged our streets for days for combined.. noliday and corrupting purposes, will have to remain at home in order to bribe and corrupt their own par- ticular constituencies. It is not altogether unsatisfactory, that if there are to be constant changes in the politics ,of Hereford, Liberal following Conservative, and Conservative following Liberal, the recent bye-election should have been thrust upon us in order to give the Conserva- tives their short spell of gratification, and to prepare the way for a much more impor:ant and decisive vic- tory of Liberalism at the General Election. We have no fresh oiij-ction to take to this irrational" in-and. out" method. What we do object to, ai.dwhat we shall never cense to denounce, 1<1 the corrupt influ- ence exercistd by the rich on the poor, and by thoae in authority on the humble and dependent. When women plastered over with Union Jacks do r ot hesi- tate to tempt poor men to barter their consciences; when common foik are not ashamod to display lumps of coal decked with blue streamers, meant to recall and perpetuate tormer acts ot mean and cowardly bribery long since exposed and punished with the approval ot every patriotic man of both parties when ministers of religion enter tbops and loudly withdraw their custom from respectable tradesmen; when quondam Liberals, on the morrow of receiving marks cf public esteem from men of all parties, throw themselves into bitter party conflict with a screwing spirit characterise of the worst pre- Reform da)s-then it seems to us high time to make a, public protest; for this is neither fair nor decent fi/hting. Apart from questions of undue influence and intimidation, and from other questions of direct corruption, on which thero are more than a few rumours afloat, we have no desire to keep ihe contro- versy alive. The Liberals of Hereford must meet their tern" porary reverse with undaunted breasts, and in the conviction that the masses are sound for it is by a. spirit such as this in moments of defeat that the greatest campaigns have always been won by the people. If a tew of our followers have been tempted away by hollow threats and still more offensive bribes, we must labour to bring them back and con- firm iheir faith. The victory of the future will rest beyond all doubt with the 1,460 staunch Home Rulers, not with the 1,504 who have been strail.ed and whipped and tempted together by snch acts as we have exposed in the mildest language at our eiul- mand.-Herejord Timet. The Westminster GezeUe says None of the humour of by-elections is more absurd than the treatment of the candidates by their respective partisans as soon as the result is known. The defeated party throws all the blame on its own champion, and extols the virtues of the champion on the other. The victorious party, in order to extract the greater political capital out ot the victory, damns the wining individual with faint praise, and lauds the defeated candidate to the skies. In the case of Hereford, the losers have- abstained for once from this familiar exercise, and. have thrown all the blame upon some wicke 1 railway men instead; but on the victorious side, the good old trick of magnifying the issue by miuimising the in- dividual has been very freely played. It is neither ohivalrous nor scientific; but it is, we suppose, part of the game. At last, however, a candidate has arisen who will not submit to be denounced by his own allies as a noodle or a nobody simply because he has bad the good fortune to win a seat for them. Mr T. w- Russel will have it that he, and not the Unionists candidate, won Hereford. Sir Joseph Pulley, he gives us to understand, is an archangel from Heaven, against whom nothing except the extraordinary cogency of Mr T. W. Russell's arguments could poa- sibly have prevailed. As for Mr Radcliff Cooke, ber as the Spectator puts it, ''is a barrister and is only known on cirouit." Now this is more than Mr Cooke cm stand, and he writes to the Times on August 19th to complain. He is barrister, but he does not go cir- cuit. What he does do is to play the local man -I have resided in the county, where I was born and bred, for more than 12 years. Ten years ago I was- invited to contest the country. I was president of the Chamber of Agriculture, chairman for two' years of the Ledbury Highway Board, and am and have long been a county magistrate and deputy-lieu- tenant. The gentlemen who were good enough to, approach me some months ago on the subject of my candidature for the city at the General Election left me with the impression that one reason why they asked me to come forward was that I was well known to the electors. To magnify the popularity of the Glad* stonian candidate and depreciate that of the Union- ist may, from a tactical point of view, be good policy, but I cannot allow my position in my native country and in its capital city, to be so completely, though no doubt unintentionally, misrepresented. We must say we like this frank revolt of the natural man against the party manipulator.
NEW RADNOR. SPECIA.L SERVICES.—Oa Sunday week special services were held in the Presbyterian Methodist Chapel. The preacher was the Rev Silin Jones, formerly of Llanidloes, now of Llandrindod Wells. The afternoon and evening services were largely attended. A selection of hymns from sacred songs and solos were sang by the united choir. Mr Arthur Pritchard, of Newchurch, efficiently conducted and nresided at the harmonium. Collections were made in aid of the chapel funds. The services throughout were of a very thoughtful and impressive character.
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