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THE ORIGIN OF TITHES.

AFTER 2,000 YEARS. -

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AFTER 2,000 YEARS. A Ramble Among Soman Remains. Powysland Pilgrims at Caersws. (Continued from last week). One of the most wonderful discoveries was next shown to the visitors. It is at the back of the new farm, and is an old Roman cellar, the floor of which is flagged, and in a splendid state of preservation. Here the excavations had been extended for a con- siderable depth. The cellar-only half of which has up to the present been dug out- would appear to be in the shape of a rhombus. It is a place which is usually to be found at the rear of the Prastormm, and in it the regiment kept their standards, and set up altars in honour of the Emperor and guardian spirits and these Roman soldiers actually worshipped their own col- ours. The standard-bearer took charge of the standards, and a sentry was placed in charge of the room. He was also made treasurer in charge of the valuables, and particularly of the men's deferred pay. The accountants' rooms were also under- ground. The Professor explained to the company that not long ago in Egypt certain papyri were found giving in detail the accounts of certain privates with stoppages in pay when they received new boots and leggings, etc. If at this point excavations were car- ried further, they would find an open court, which these offices faced, and also a further courtyard. They had not discovered much in the cellar, only a few roofing tiles, some of which have been reconstructed in the museum, and a few flue pipes, which also have been reconstructed. There were also three fragments of carved stone. It is hoped that there may be some more valua- ble finds in the other half of the cellar still unearthed. SOME SPEECHIFYING. The party, which by this time had as- sumed considerable dimensions, were now leaning over the rails which guarded the ancient Roman cellar, when the Colonel was observed to stealthily approach Mr Richard Jones (Pendinas) and Mr Hugh Lewis (Glanhafren) with a "Look here, you fellows on the County Council, are you go- ing to keep this ground sacred now ? There was a note of warning in the Colonel's interrogation, and both signified their assent-" because," added the Colonel drily, If you won't, I'll get the Arch- deacon to consecrate it on the spot now! The Colonel's reference to the Archdeacon inspired Dr Rees to remark that perhaps the Archdeacon might tell them a little bit about what had been done on that spot in 1901. i i Archdeacon Thomas said that archaeologi- cally speaking they owed a debt of gratitude to a former curate of Caersws—Mr Davies- who was on the spot when the railway was constructed, and, fortunately, he had an eye for antiquities, and in the 'Archaeologia Cambrensis' he had written an account of what he had found—mostly on the site of the railway station. At a later period, when the Cambrian Archaeological Society met at Newtown, under the presidency of Colonel Prvce-Jones, it had been decided by the club to determine the type of sta- tion. It was a small venture, but they were anxious to know to what type the camp belonged, and the late Mr Richard Williams and himself were put in charge They did not attempt much, and succeeded less, but they were satisfied that the ram- parts were not made of stone. Then Mr Williams died, and he (the Archdeacon) could not spare the time. Dr Rees, who was on the spot however, had a very keen eye to what was going on, and collected a private museum of his own, and which it was a pleasure to see, though kept in a bit of a muddle (laughter). It was the foundation, too, of a very considerable mu- seum. Now that it had been taken up seriously and scientifically by the Liverpool Association, they (the Powyslanders) were very glad to co-operate with them. They were very glad it had been submitted to the care of Professor Bosanquet, to whom they were much indebted. He hoped they would be able to enlist the support of the surrounding gentry. The whole place was covered with remains, if they could only get at them. He hoped the County Coun- cil would bear in mind that they were taking in their charge A TREASURE, and he hoped that the manner in which they took care of it would reflect to their credit. The Powysland Club, he hoped, would do something in this matter, and he thought they ought to appeal to their neigh- bours. He had the greatest pleasure in proposing a vote of thanks to Professor Bosanquet. The Colonel seconded in a bright, breezy speech. He would also like to include in the vote of thanks the Archdeacon himself, Mr Simpson Jones, Dr Rees, and Mr G. Eyre Evans. If it had not been for those gentlemen they would hardly know what valuables they had in the neighbourhood. He thought it would be nothing less than a crime if Montgomeryshire were to lose the opportunity of going into these excava- tions further. He thought the Powysland Club would communicate with the allied clubs, and take some steps in the matter. He thought if people would realize what a valuable nucleus there was of showing how people lived in this part of Wales 2,000 years ago, there would be sufficient people generous enough to subscribe to carry it out. He saw Mr Hugh Lewis there, and other friends whom he felt sure in their private capacity would all be glad to sub- 1 scribe with the Montgomeryshire societies in doing every justice to this gem. He had great pleasure in seconding that vote of thanks. WHAT COUNTY COUNCILLORS PROMISED. The Colonel's magnetic influence drew a speech from Mr Hugh Lewis, who wished to express his gratitude to Professor Bosan- quet for showing them such fine scenes. As vice-chairman, he fet sure that as a County Council they would be glad to keep those interesting remains in a state of preservation (hear, hear). He hoped that the appeal which the Archdeacon had made would be thoroughly carried out. He would suggest that the Powysland Club should make the first move and approach the County Council in the matter. It was the Colonel's nod which inspired Mr Richard Jones to tell the company that as a member of the County Council he could assure that large assembly that he was prepared to do his part to offer every c?1 y *° Prosecute these excavations, and oner every opportunity for having them preserved. He was a great believer in small holdings, and when Mr David Davies offered this piece of land to the County Council on very reasonable terms, he wel- comed the offer very warmly. He did not think at the time that they were to re- ceive such a treasure. Now he thought it was of more importance—much as he be- lieved in small holdings—to see that this place was duly opened up in the interests of archasology than to convert it into small holdings (hear, hear). They were in a neighbourhood where they could easily ob- tain land for small holdings, but rarely ,.f."lr1 .1" f ,.c \CVLHU uicv L-uiijc ctCIU;" ct all,, ui o great an interest to archaeology as Pendre. As a resident in the city, he had done his utmost to keep Caersws to the front, both educationally and otherwise,—(laughter)— and he promised to do his best now. The Rev D. Grimaldi Davis, D.D., con- sidered that they had been exceptionally fortunate that day in having the services of Professor Bosanquet, and he himself hoped that the work would be persevered with. He was glad to see that there were signs of a revival of art in Wales they had a glorious past to go back upon, and lie hoped that as this work went on it would make them more and more proud of their country. He, too, felt sure that the County Council would do all they could to support this. > A ROYAL COMMISSIONER'S OBSERVA- TIONS. The Colonel: With your permission, ladies and gentlemen, I should like to in- clude in our vote of thanks the name of our distinguished friend, Mr Edward Owen, secretary of the Royal Commission for the preservation of ancient monuments in Wales. The vote was then carried without musi- cal honours, but with the loud tapping of sticks upon the pailings. The last named recipient of the vote- Mr Edward Owen—spoke for the rest, though he did not think he would be in- cluded in the omnibus resolution of Colonel Pryce-Jones (laughter). It would be his duty and his pleasure to bring the gentle- men of the Royal Commission to the site which had been so admirably uncovered bv one of the Royal Commissioners. They would come there, and though it was not for him to adumbrate the opinions of that august body, yet he felt sure that they could not but feel pleased with the work which had been done, and they would not rest until it had been carried to a conclu-' sion. As to the preservation of the work, concerning which the members of the asso- ciation felt exceedingly keen, they would be greatly pleased to hear what leading men on the County Council of Montgomeryshire had said. While in one sense it was possi- ble for monuments of this kind to be handed over to the tender mercies of his Majesty's Government, yet it had been found that State preservation did not al- ways result in their being kept in the best way, and it would be more satisfactory for the local societies to establish a scheme. The commission would be very much more satisfied to see the work conducted to a suc- cessful termination by such authorities in conjunction with the Liverpool Club rather than being taken in hand by any Govern- ment department. Afterwards the visitors inspected the museum of excavated antiquities in the Village Hall, and in addition to the arti- cles enumerated previously, there were also to be found iron and bronze implements. fragments of glass, Samian and Upchurch ware, and a considerable amount of local pottery.

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