Action a Law of Nature. The opening morn, resplendent noon, With heaven's bright glory graced, Meek vesper, and night's silent moon Tell nought remains at rest. The comet, wandering far on high, 'Midst countless planets placed, Roll ceaseless through the boundless sky- For nought remains at rest. The tide returns, and ebbs again The river hies with haste, With rills and springs into the main- For nought remains at rest. The various seasons as they rise,— Mild spring with flowery vest, Bright summer, autumn, winter s skies. Tell nought remains at rest, Thus day, and night, and star and flood, j And seasons-all attest That, through the wondrous works of God, There's nought remains at rest. .If action then be nature's law, Be this great truth impressed; That life in deeds of love should flgw- All blessing and all rest. DAVID GHANT.
Nature. To sit on rocks to muse o'er flood and fell; To slowly trace the forest's shady scene, Where things that own no man's dominion dwell, And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been To climb the trackless mountain all unseen, With the wild flock that never needs a fold Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean; t This is not solitude; 'tis but to hold Converse with Nature's charms, and view her stores unrolled. BYRON.
NATURE NOTES. INTRODUCTORY. To the solid ground of nature Trusts the mind that builds for aye. —WORDSWORTH. There is no joy in life equal to the joy of reading the great book of Nature-page after page and chapter after chapter; and unless we can read a little in this great book we cannot take true delight in nature, and in all that is around us, and in life :itself. To be able to read one page in the great book of Nature is a thing to be truly proud of; and nothing can give such an added charm to life and such a wealth of interest in all that concerns us as to be able to turn over leaf after leaf in the pursuit of learning in this most wonderful and fascinating JWork. To Peter Bell, the simple minded boy, A primrose by theiriver's brim A yellow primrose was to him, And it was nothing more," although he wandered about the country at all times of the year and saw Nature in all her varying moods. Peter Bell had no understanding, and because he had no understanding he could not take any delight or interest in anything he saw. A thing of beauty brought no joy to him, and his life was a blank. If we have a little understanding. just enough to take interest and delight in what we see around us, we can all sing with Howitt, and say:— When forth I go upon my way, A thousand joys are mine, The cluster of dark tiolets, The wreaths of the wild vine Mv .jswels are the primrs" pale, The bindweed, and the rose And show me any courtly gem, More beautiful those." The chapter in the great book of Nature which we shall try and read, and to get others to take interest in, is that on wild flowers. Wild birds and other Objects of interest will also be noticed; but we shall have to dwell mostly upon wild plants, for these are common everywhere and within the reach of all. John Ruskin says that flowers seem Intended for the solace of ordinary humanity: children love them; tender, contented, ordinary people love them. They are the cottager's treasure: and in the crowded town mark, as with a little fragment of rainbow, the windows of the workers in whose heart rests the covenant of peace." At this time of year, however, flowers are scarce, but there need be no lack of interest in Nature on that account; for in the words of the same author, The leaves of the herbage at our feet take all kinds of strange shapes, as if to invite us to examine, them. Star- shaped, heart-shaped, spear-shaped, arrow-shaped, fretted, fringed, cleft, furrowed, serrated, sinuated, in whorls, in tufts, in spires, in wreaths, endlessly expressive, deceptive, fantastic, never the same from footstalk to blossom, they seem perpetually to tempt our watchfulness and take delight in out- stripping our wonder." Now, in the first place Observe the forms and the sizes of the common every-day leaves of our woods and fields. Mark what a marvellous variety you find among them, and how they differ in habit and texture as well as in form and size. Again there are several kinds of leaves on the same plant, and each kind you will and has its special work to do in the life of the plant. There are the seed-leaves, which are usually very short-lived. They shrivel up and die at an early stage, and are, as a rule, different in form to the leaves that come after. Then there are the scale leaves-the first leaves of branches—which are very small in size and often hard and leathery in texture. Their work is to protect the more tender leaves while as yet in the bud. Leaves vary in their duration. Some last but one season, others remain on the stem for a few or many years. The full leaf can be generally divided into two parts- the blade and the stalk. It is a most interesting study to watch, during the early days of spring, how the blades of different kinds of leaves are folded up within the bud-this is spoken of as the vernation of the leaf. The venation of leaves, that is," the way in which their veins run, is another interesting study, and one of great importance to those who study the plant life of the past as re- corded in the rocks. You will notice that in some leaves, as those of grasses and lilies, the veins run straight, while in others they form a network .and here we would wish to point out the great importance and value of observation. The botanist who concerns himself with the study of fossil plants is able to tell us from the venation of leaves alone what kind of plants flourished upon the earth millions of years before man made his first appear- ance. Although the tree, the stem, and even the leaf, have perished and disappeared long ages ago, and nothing now remains impressed upon the ancient rocks, but the vein-streaks of plants that are no more, yet, through the power of observation, and the application of knowledge gained by obser- Yation, we are able to make out what kind ot teat it was that fluttered in the breeze and what manner of tree it was that bore it in those primeval days. The object of our Nature Notos is not only to put on record events of interest in natural history, but also to cultivate the habit of observation; and, with the view of encouraging these objects.we invite contributions, especially from schools—elementary and secondary. January 4th 1902.—Daisy in flower. „ ). Groundsel do. „ Gorze do.
Reviews. SHORTHAND,—Iu the year 1902 occurs the Ter- I centenary of Alphabetic Shorthand in England. The earliest shorthand system with an alphabetical basis was that of John Willis, published in 1602, and Pitman's Phonetic Journal" for 4th January devotes special attention to the first edition of Willis's book, of which the only known copies are i in the British Museum and the Bodleian Library. The progress of modern shorthand receives notice in the same issue of the periodical, which the late Sir Isaac Pitman edited for fifty-two years. This Weekly, has, moreover, been permanently enlarged, with new features of interest added.
THE MOST NUTRITIOUS. THE MOST NUTRITIOUS. EPPS'S GRATEFUL-COMFORTING. COCOA BREAKFAST—SUPPER Printing quickly and neatly done at the Welsh Gazette Printeries, Bridge Street, Abervstwyth. (
ON TRAMP AGAIN. I CARDIGAN AT LAST. BY I- PHILIP SIDNEY." The tramp, so far as its present record goes, ends to-day in the chancel of Cardigan Parish Church. Here is assembled a little company of three interested persons, the Vicar of the town, the Vicar of Mount and Verwig, and another, who notes, with pleasure, the many hopes and aspirations which the Vicar of Cardigan cherishes of making the church of which he is custodian, one worthy alike of the county and the town. Before him and his co parishioners there lies the sadly needed piece of work, that of reverently repairing the noble chancel, and if money were fortbcoming-and why should it not ?—the replacing of the present debased and vulgar cave, with one which should keep in good good Company the chancel,—that fair gem of glorious architecture which glints so brightly in the silver diadem of Teify banks. A strong pull and pull all together will do all upon which the Vicar's heart is set, and surely residents whose pride and delight it is to be numbered amongst those known to all the world as side will not long allow the means to be lacking, so soon as they are properly asked 7 In 1711, an appeal was made for funds for Cardi. gan Church. This as was then customary, was done by means of Briefs to all parishes, and to all places of worship alike, therein, both Con- formist and Nonconformist. I have reference to this appeal on behalf of Cardigan Church away at Kendal in Westmorland, where, in the account book of the old Presbyterian Chapel in Market place, founded in 1687, there is preserved a list, extending from 1709 to 1787, of Briefs received, read, collected upon, and returned to the omcial receiver. These are the entries :— Collected upon ye Brief for Cardigan Church at meeting, 5th August, 1711. Samuel Alldland, Minister. Aug. 8. 1711 Then received the Brief for Cardi- gan Church by me, John Donell. What the amount collected was I leave my Cardigan friends to find from their books. Suffice it for one to note this charitable action on the part of distant Nonconformists to their Conforming brethren some hundreds of miles from them. It is of this old Kendal Congregation,'by the way, now and for long holding views commonly called Unitarian, that Canon Rawnsley, in his recently published memoir of William Pearson, of Border- side—Wordsworth's friend—says :—" It is certain that during this year William Pearson's chief study was study of the Hebrew scriptures, and Church Doctrine, and the end of it was that he reasoned and read himself out of Episcopalianism into Unitarianism, as his father had in the past done before him. He found rest to his young soul in the thought of the great Fatherhood of God, and worshipped in the old Presbyterian Meeting House, where sometimes, in after years, Wordsworth also worshipped, and near by which lie the ashes of the James Patrick of Kendal, who was the original of the Wanderer in The Prelude.' It may be fancy, but I like to think that it was in that Chapel that the young lad first saw the man whose writings did more for him all through life than any other-I mean William Wordsworth." To return however to Cardigan Church, Meyrick tells us much about it, and at the same time leaves very much unsaid. Let me then supplement our old historians's remarks by saying in the first place that the Registers are fairly perfect from the year 1653, the first book-written on both sides of 62 skins of vellum—mersures 15 inches tall by 10 inches broad, and still has the remains of its brass clasps attached to the parchment binding. Its entries are mixed, and extend to the year 1808. Without doubt this really fine register should with- out delay be put in the hands of a skilful restorer, and be securely bound and so given a lease of fresh life for another three hundred years. Its entries are concise, well written, and important, e.g. 1729 Burials May 5th. The Rev Mr Richards A.M. died and ivas interred May 7th. If the church, as it certainly does, needs the touch of a reverent restorer's hand, so too does this glorious register, one of its most priceless treasures. How Meyrick can have possibly overlooked giving posterity any account of the massive silver gift service of communion plate belonging to Cardigan Church passes my uaderstanding. I am not aware that any:printeil description of it has come under my notice if there be any extant I should like to have my attention drawn to such. The set, which still lives in its original oaken chest consists of one flagon, two cups, two patens, and one oval dish. The history of this plate is recorded in a lengthy inscription placed on the lower half of the shaft of the flagon, which stands 14in. tall, is 8iin. in dia- meter at base, and has lid and handle, but no spout. Anything more like a large coffee pot it would be difficult to imagine. The inscription tells us that:- Laetitia Cornwallis, by her Will, dated 13th Day of November, 1731, devised to Thos. Pryse, of Gogerthan, in the County of Cardigan, Esq., or his Heirs at Law, the sum of One Hundred Pounds, to be by him or his Heirs laid out in Buying a set of Silver Gilt Plate [for the Communion Service in the Chief Church of the said Town of Cardigan, as he or his Heir should see fit. The Trust devolving, as Heir at Law of the said Thos. Pryse. to Margaret, the wife of Edward Loveden Loveden, of Goger- than aforesaid, and of Buscot Park. in the county of Berks, Esq., was by them executed in the year 1783, and the Interest which had accumulated ex- pended in.Othe Purchase of an Altar Piece, & Laetitia Cornwallis ] E. L. Loveden, Esq, J- 1783 Margaret Loveden I This legend then tells of an action honourable to all named in it, Laetitia Cornwallis lies buried in Cardigan Church Yard. Thomas Pryse, of Gogerthan, her heir, was, with Richard Morgan, of Henllis, gentleman; George Evans, gentleman; and others, presented Burgess of Aberystwyth, at the Court Leet, Easter, 1737, of which Town and Liberty he was elected Mayor at the Michaelmas Leet, 1738. "Edward Loveden* Loveden, of Buscott, Berkshire, Esq. was presented and sworn a burgess of Aberystwyth before Peter Lloyd. Esq., of Gogerthan, Mayor, at the Easter Court Leet, 1778. Lloyd was then in his second year of the Mayoralty, and at the same Leet there were also admitted burgesses with Loveden, Lewis Pryse, Esq., of Woodstock, in Oxfordshire." Evan Edward, junr., of Lovesgrove," Hugh Ed- ward, of the same place," Jno Eastham. jr.. of Aberystwith, Miller," and Richard Foy, Inn- keeper [Lion]. The cups are about as inconvenient vessels as can possibly be devised for the due and orderly observ- ance of the sacred rite, They stand lOin. tall, and are 4in. in diameter at the mouth of the bell. There are no handles, only stem. knop, and foot. The patens are 7in. in diameter, quite plain, save for a neat beaded rim. The oval dish, 14in. long by lOin. broad at the widest part, has also a similar beaded rim. All the cubicles bear I.H.S. in a glory. the three names—" Laetitia Cornwallis, E. L. Loveden, Esq., and Margaret Loveden," and the date 1783." They are all marked with the Lon- don assay letter of that year, and for ugliness, in- convenience, and lack of ecclesiastical design and gracefulness, are an admirable example of that year which saw the coalition ministry of Fbx and North, and was about the most artistically dead period of the Georgian era. (To be continued).
TREGARON AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATION.—A movement is on foot among the farmers of this district to start a co-operative society on the lines advocated by Mr Augustus Brigstocke, of Blaenpant. Several of the leading farmers have already expressed their willingness to join, and to give the movement every support and encouragement. A small committee has already met, and it has been arranged to call a large and representative meeting of farmers for Tuesday next to register the society and make all other arrangements, in order, if possible, to make the necessary purchases for next spring at reduced prices, which, it is confidently hoped, can be done by co-operation on the part of the farmers them- selves. The area which it is expected to be covered by the Society will include Tregaron, Strata Florida, Llanddewi-brefi.Pont Llanio, and Llangeitho, and consignments will be delivered at either of the three railway stations mentioned above. The headquarters of the Society will be at Tregaron,which is conveniently situated in thecentre of the district. The officers, presirtent, and secretary will be appointed at the meeting next Tuesday. The movement was first mooted at a lecture given recently at this place by Prof. D. D. twilliams, of U.C.W., who, in replying to a vote of thanks, urged those present—mostly farmers, to avail themselves of the advantages of co-operation. Mr Williams pointed outthat the district was admirably situated for such a purpose, on account of the enterprise and intelligence of the farmers of the neighbour- hood, to whom, he felt sure, the matter need only be mentioned in order to be taken up and carried to a successful issua.
NOTICE.—This column is devoted to better thoughts for quiet moments. Can the wiles of Art, the grasp of Power, Snatch the rich relics of a well-spent hour These, when the trembling spirit wings her flight Pour round her path a stream of living light. ROGERS.
Cymru Fu. Short, original, and signed communications on antiquarian topographical and kindred subjects pertaining to Cardiganshire will be treated on their merits. Communications to be marked Cymru Fu," NO. V. H._«- CANWYLL GORFF (CORPSE CANDLE) AT LLANG VVYRYFON, Although the darkness of superstition, which once spread itself over the whole of Wales, is fast becoming dispelled by the bright rays of education and enlightenment, yet there remain among the hills of Cardiganshire, many old characters who retain a believe in the superstitious omens of a bygone age. I have heard several tales which go to prove this, and the following is one which was told to me one night by an old lady, who had witnessed more than three score years and ten glide into a memory of the past. She was a member of the C.M. Chapel of Llangwyryfon, and in her time used to attend all the services with great regular- ity, One dark night in winter, while returning home by herself from the society, past a narrow lane leading to an adjacent farm she chanced to look over the hedge in the direction of the house, and lo she saw a feeble, yet a clear light coming along the lane at a slow regular pace. Knowing instinctively as she did, that this must be a -1 Can- wyll Gorff (corpse candle) she hastened on with all the speed at her command in order to pass the entrance first, because then she would not in any case be forced to come in contact with it. As she walked on she became timid and could not dream of looking along the lane; for the Canwyll Gorff must be by this time very near the main road. At last however when she was safe and had left the lane well behind her, she summoned up courage to look back, and to her delight and.relief saw the fatal Canwyll Gorff grow dim in the distance. She watched its route carefully and patiently now, to its destination the churchyard, and finally saw it disappear behind the crest of the hill which she had but recently traversed. After tha light was gone she felt a queer sensation of fear and wonder creeping over her, and a feeling of loneliness among departed spirits coming on. She still gazed for some time over the brow of the hill which bad bid from her view the mysterious light and then retraced her weary steps homeward. What troubled her most when she realised the situation was the fact that the husband of the farm- house, from which the Canwyll Gorff had come had been for some considerable time dangerously ill, Eventually she came to the sad conclusion that it would be no great wonder in view of her remarkable vision to see him soon leaving the land of the living. For a time however the old man got better but alas there was no cure for him, because his -1 Canwyll Gorff" had undoubtedly left him, and in a year or so, he too left behind him this land of sorrows and mysteries for other realms beyond the human ken. That is the tale of the Canwyll Gorff as I heard it many years ago. DEWI WYRE. 12.-NANTSEIRI. Gan wybod fod y newyddiadur hwn yn cylch- redeg yn helaeth yn Neheubarth Ceredigion, a fydd rhai o'i ddarllenwyr cvstal a rhoi gwybod i mi, trwy ei gyfrwng, os oes unrhyw le neu wrth- rych yn dwyn yr enw ucbod yn eu hardal. LLEX (JHWIL. No. 13. CURIOUS FUNERAL CUSTOMS AT TREGARON PARISH. The following curious entry appears in the Tre- garon Church Register on the subject of lees :— "There is due to Ye Vicar one shilling for every burying provided he metes Ye Corpfe before Ye bier is layd at Ye Gate or entrance of Ye churchyard, but otherwise there is due but sixpence." Again to his clerk for digging of every grave where there is a coffin to be layd there is due two shillings and sixpence, and when is no coffin there is due but twopence. At ye death of every marryed man and woman there is due to ye clerk of ye man's wearing apparel, his best hatt and his best shoes and stockings, and from every woman her head flannen or hood her best shoes and stockings besides what is due for ye digging of ye graves." U.C.W., T. H. DAVIES, Aberystwyth.
To All Whom It Concerns, AND It Concerns All. ADVICE ON THE PREVENTION OF CONSUMPTION. (From the Lancet.) Consumption is not inherited; but, like many other well-known diseases, it is caught. It is properly called a preventable ailment, and yet it is one of the most fatal diseases, causing one death in every ten in England. It is almost always caught either from a person who is suffering from the disease or through infected air, milk, and possibly meat. Some children are born with a constitution which strongly favours their catching consumption, al- though it is not born with them. Such persons ought to be very careful to avoid exposure to the disease. Intemperance, overcrowding, bad air, darkness, dampness, colds, sore throats, and many other diseases make people liable to take consumption by weakening their constitutions, Good health is the best protection against the disease. Consumption is caused by a germ, which may also cause disease of other parts of the body besides the chest, such as the bowels, especially in children, who are often attacked if infected milk is used. All milk should therefore be boiled, by which the germs are killed. Every person suffering from consumption is likely to give the disease to other persons, chiefly by means of the spit, which contains the germs. As long as the spit is moist it will not do much harm. It is very dangerous when it has dried, as the dust, with its germs, can get into the air breathed. Consumptive persons should never spit upon the floor, nor into a handkerchief, which has to be put into theypocketor under the pillow. They should take care that no spit is smeared over the bedclothes or nightdresses, or on their beards or moustaches. A case of consumption may be made almost harm- less to other people by preventing the spit from drying and becoming dust. The greatest care is necessary when indoors. A consumptive person should use a spit cup containing a little water or water and carbolic acid, or should spit into a rag or piece of paper, which can be burned at once. When out-of-doors there is not so much danger, as the germs are killed by sunlight and fresh air. A special spit bottle, to be carried in the pocket, can be bought for a small sum failing this, a con- sumptive person should spit over a street gulley or into the horse road-never on the footpath, nor on a tramcar, omnibus, cab or railway carriage. It is better to spit on the ground than into a hand- kerchief. If a handkerchief or any article of clothing has been soiled with spit, it should be kept wet till it can be boiled and washed. The contents of the spit cup or spit bottle should be emptied down a watercloset or drain, or on to a fire, and the bottle or cup should be cleaned with boiling water, with or without a disinfectant. No spoon, cup, or other article which has touched the mouth of a consumptive person should be used by anyone else until it has been carefully washed. Food which has been left by a consumptive should not be eaten by a healty person. No one who is consumptive ought to kiss or be kissed except on the cheek or forehead. No mother who is consumptive should suckle a baby. All persons who are consumptive ought to have beds to themselves. Sunlight and fresh air are the very best disin- fectants they should be used very freely. In cleaning rooms damp dusters should be used, and wet tea leaves or sawdust should be put down before sweeping, so that the dust will be removed without being spread through the air.
PONTRHYDFENDIGAID. DRos GLAWDD OFFA.—With his usual thought- fulness and regard for Bont children, the Rev John Mcurig Jones, Epping, Essex, sent orders for a quantity of sweets to be distributed by Mr J. Rees amongst the Board School children at Christmas. Mr Jones is greatly attached to his native soil, and the children in return wished him Nadolig Llawen, a Blwyddyn Newydd Dda." BENEVOLENCE.—Mr David Morgan, N. & S. Bank, Liverpool, has this year again borne in mind the poor and aged of Bont, and to alleviate their suffer- ings he kindly sent £3 to his sister, Mrs Bowen, to distribute amongst the most needy. One recipient felt so glad over the gift, that the Muse of Ceridwen flashed through her soul, and she sang :— Hir oes i Mr Morgan yn y tir, A gwraig cyn hir ddymunaf; Boneddiges o'r iawn ryw, A'r oreu i fyw, a'r lanaf. SYMPATHY.—There is great and sincere sympathy felt in Bont, and throughout the district in general with the family of Cefngaerjduring Mr Jones' severe indisposition. Mr Richard Jones, a scion of late Maeselwad family, has always figured prominently in all Bont matters, and has served the district faithfully for many years in various capacities. The coveted chairmanship of the Tregaron District Council has more than once fallen to his lot, and as chairman of the School Board he has shown much zeal in promoting the educational interests of the rising generation for many years. His many friends with one accord wish him a "Blwyddyn Newydd Dda" and a speedy recovery to health to again serve them in the future as in the past. DARLITH.—The Baptists of Bont decided to dis- pense with their annual competitive meeting on New Year's Eve, and the Rev W. Trevor Jones, Llanelly, was engaged to deliver a lecture on Hiraethog, Revs Owen Thomas and Roberts, Llwynhendy." Dr Morgan was announced to pre- side, but as his professional duties prevented him arriving in time, the Rev T. R. Morgan proposed that Mr J. Rees, C.M., should take the chair, Mr Rees complied, but the respected doctor's appear- ance soon afterwards caused the temporary chair- man to retire. Mr Jones dealt with his subject in a lucid and interesting manner, and the discourse was listened to with rapt attention, and occasionally elicited applause. At the close of the lecture Dr Morgan proposed a hearty vote of thanks to the lecturer, which was seconded by Mr J. Rees, and suitably acknowledged by the Rev Mr Jones. The Rev T. R. Morgan in his felicitous mood thanked all for their presence and good attention. The Bont Baptists at present hold their meetings at the Board School owing to the renovation of Carmel," their place of worship. It is gratifying to find so much earnestness amongst the religious bodies at Bont in improving and beautifying theii sacred edifices.- Dr Morgan at the close of the meeting distributed Dr Isambard Owen's address on tuberculosis, and forcibly urged all to read and study its contents, in order to check the ravages made by consumption on generation after generation.
ITEMS OF INTEREST. ARWY officers in Germany pay no dog tax. THE Nile Hoods 54,000 miles of irrigation Canais. ONB in every 50 persona over 80 years of age is blind. THE average life of a ship is about 26 yeara. THE population of the earth doubles itself in 260 years. WHITES are not so well gifted in hearing as the coloured races. C CAMELS are imported into Australia for use in the goldflelds. BELFAST is the great tea-drinking city of the United Kingdom. GERMANY is now the best educated nation one the Continent. As a rule a man's hair turns grey five years sooner than a woman's. A" CATERPILLAR can eat 600 times its own weight of food in IL month. ENGLAND has 28 cows cows for every 100 in- habitants; Australia has 270. THE value of an able-bodied emigrant to Australia is estimated to be £260, ONB pound of washed wool produces on an average a yard of cloth 36 inches wide. THE first tunnel in England a mile in length was the Horncastle cut in 1827. t) IRELAND'S stock of horses decreased in a year from 610,415 to 597,641, a fall of 12,774. THE Indian railways have been a dead loss to the Government of 578,114,870 rupees. IN 1839 930,000 was granted for education. Nine million pounds was the grand for 1900. MOST spiders are possessed of poison fangs, but, very few are dangerous to human beings. Jisws are not permitted to buy land in Russia. IN 25 years Germany has increased her manu- facturing capacity tenfold. A POINT in Swedish criminal law is that con- fession is necessary before capital punishment can be carried out. COLOURED globes in the windows of chemists1 shops were first displayed by the Moorish druggists of Arabia and Spain. LONDON'S twenty-five theatres will seat 28,600 people, representing a nightly earning of £ 6,000. SPAIN produces 10 million of tons of coul a year, Canada 17 millions, and Australia 30 millions. GREAT BRITAIN has 1,600 steamers of over 3,000 tons, Germany 127, the United States 120, mid France only 60. NORWAY, Servia, Greece, and Bulgaria, are the only European nations which have but one House of Parliament. EVERY public school in Paris has a restaur- ant where meals are supplied to children who are unable to pay for them. THE total daily circulation of newspapers in the United Kingdom was only 60,000 in 1801; 700,000 in 1851; and is now 8,750,000. GREAT BRITAIN spends £ 3,300,000 a year an imported vegetables. Nearly half of this is spent on pototoes, and 9780,(M on onions. IT requires more than 100 gallons of oil a year to keep the largest locomotives in ruuning order. THE difference between the tallest and shortest races in the world is 1ft. 41,in., and the average height is 5ft. 5jin. IN a week, the average Englishman eats 91b. of bread, 50oz. of meat, lOoz. of butter, 36oz. of sugar, and 91b. of potatoes. PAPER to the value of E2,000,000 ja annually produced in the United States. One- third of it is used by the publishers of papers and books. As many as 111,000,000 bottles of cham. pagne are stored in the vaults of French producers. They represent a cost price of £ 10,000,000. FINDING undigested food in the stomach of a Siberian mammoth that had been dead 50,000 years, establishes a record for chronic dyspepsia! THE marigold is a little weather prophet. If the day is going to be fine the flower opens early in the morning; but if wet weather is in store the marigold does not open at all. IT is a remarUable fact that the chame- leon, when blindfolded, loses the power to change its hues, and the entire body remains of a uniform tint. DURING the last century over 400 human lives and 200 ships were lost in unsuccessful efforts to reach the North Pole. The cost of the various expeditions amounted to about £ 25,000,000. PORTUGAL is the most illiterate country in Europe—67 per cent, of its population cannot write. In Italv the proportion of illiterates is 53 per cont., in Russia 36, in Spain, nine, in Great Britain, three and a half. THE idea that the toad is poisonous has a foundation in fact. The skin secretes an acrid fluid, and just behind the head are two sacs, which, when pressed, eject a fluid that burns and stings the skin. EVERY year a layer of the entire sea, 14ft. thick, is taken up into the clouds; the winds bear their burden into the land, and the water comes down in rain upon the fields, to flow back through rivers. A BIT of pumice-stone, smoothed and vigor- ously used on the llnger-tip, will effectually cleanse them from any stain, without the danger involved by the employment of chemical preparations. BEES are known to be excellent WEATHER prophets. Thero is a common country saying that a bee was NEVER caught in A shower. When rain is coming, bees do not go far afield, but buzz about close to their hives. THE making of post-holes is an easy matter in Alaska. A mass of powder blasts out the hole in an instant, a telegraph pole is inserted, water is poured in, AND the intense cold holds the pole secure in an encasement of ice. THE famous shot, fired from a 22-ton gun in the Jubilee year, to ascertain now far a shot could be carried remained in the air 69! seconds, and the highest point reached in its flight of 12 miles was 17,000 feet. THE highest speed at sea attained ten years AGO was 29 knots, recorded for a British-built Brazilian torpedo-boat; now the record is held by a steam turbine-propelled destroyer of the British Navy, which has attained a maximum of 37-113 knots. A CURIOUS plant is the "life tree," 01 Jamaica. It continues to grow for years after it has been dug up and its roots exposed to the sun. Leaves severed from the limbs Will remain grpen for weeks. The tree can only be destroyed by fire. A METHOD of keeping in mind the seven colours of the rainbow or spectrum is to memor- ise roygbiv," a word not unlike rainbow and consisting of the initials of the seven tints in order—red orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. IT is reckoned that the average Church and Chapel goers in England and Wales number something like 11,000,000. The number of ser- mons preached every Sunday averages 80,000; there is one minister for every 700 persons, and one place of worship Bo every 500. BOTTLE-WAX, insoluble in spirit, is made by substituting, for the usual colophy, resinates of the heavy metals or of the alkaline earths, to which can be added paraffins or salts of the fatty acids, and any colouring matters, also in- soluble in alcohol.
YSBYTTY YSTWYTH. CYNGHERDD CYSTADLEUOL—Nos Iau, Rhag 26ain, cynaliwyd cyngherdd cystadleuol, ac amrywiol yn Neuadd Lenyddol y lie ncbod, pJyd y cafwyd gwasanaeth Miss M J Jones, Llanbedr, yr hon a brofodd ei hun yn gantores o radd uchel. Llywydd- wyd yn ei ddull debeuig gan Dr Morgan, Pont- rhydygroes, a chlorianwyd v gerdd gan Mr J Lumley Davies. G &; L.T.S.C., a'r adroddiadau gan y Parch Charles Evans, Ysbytty Cynfyn. Enill- wyd y medal arian i fechgyn (rboddedig gan Mr T Pugh), gan Mr U Barker, Pontrbydfendigaid a medal arian i ferched (rhoddedig gan Mr Will- iams, Frongoch Mines), gan Mrs Anne Jenkins, Podtrhydygroes. Enilh-dd y wobr i rai dan 15eg oed am ganu oedd Miss Jane Williams, Pontrhydy- groes, a rhanwyd y wobr am yr adroddiad i rai dan 16oed rbwng Edward Ishmael, Tangro, a Joseph Jenkins. Hefyd. rhoddwyd cydganau gan barti or lie dan arweiniad Mr J Ishmael, a chanwyd unawdau gan Miss Jones, Llan- bedr, a Miss Hepburn, a digrif gan Mr T Pugh, Trodd y cyfarfod tallan vn llwydrliant; a barn pawb oedd iddynt lwyr fwyn- haw eu hunain ynddo. Cyfeiliwyd gan Miss Jones, (organist yr eglwvs), a Mr Charlie Pugh ac ar- wisgwyd y neuadd yn ddestlus ar gyfer yr ach- lysur gan Miss Hepburn, Miners Arms Hotel, yn cael ei chynorthwyo gan Miss Howells, Star Inn, Miss Lewis, Church-terrace; Miss Morgans,Maeselas
SCIENCE UP-TO-DATE. DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. Plants are distributed over the earth in a great variety of ways, some of the more curious having been lately noticed. Those growing on icebergs are landed and take root when the ice reaches its jonrney's end a cocoanut of Java was transported to South Africa on pumice thrown out by the volenti ic eruption of Kra- Uutoa, and even lire spreads certain seeds, the winged seeds of the cliaparro being scattered far by the hot currents from prairie lires. and subsequently growing. Shipwreck has been known to leave seeds and bulbs in new places favourable to growth. Military operations piny AN important part in changing the flora of countries, and in 1872 no less than 163 species were found in the depart- ment of Loir-et-Cher that. had been brought with the German forage. Even the mud dredged I'roiir river beds may contain seeds that will give strange plants to the section of the banks where it is deposited. IS THERE A PLANET BEYOND NEPTUNE? This question was revived before the ROJfl.( Society of Edinburgh lately by Professor George Forbes, who called attention to the fact that there are seven comets whose aphe- lion points, according to their calculated orbits, correspond with the position of a planet re- volving around the sun at a distance one hundred times greater than that of the earth from the sun, and having a period of about 1,000 years. He suggested that the at. traction of this supposed planet had altered the elements of thp orh.it of ttifi great comet seen in 1254 and 1556 so that it did not come back when expected in 1848. This comet, he thought, might be identified with the third comet of 1844, or the second comet of 1843, its return having heeu hastened by the perturbation of the planet. FISHY SEA-SERPENTS. Somewhere at the bottom of the deep blue sea, at an unknown depth below the surface, dwell some weird fishlike animals. One of these is serpent-shaped, about 24ft. long, and undoubtedly furnishes the foundation for many wonderful sea serpent stories. Speci- mens of this deep sea monster have been stranded on the shores of Norway, Denmark, India, and New Zealand during the past 150 years, indicating its world-wide distribution. In spite of persistent effort, no ship has yet been able to catch a specimen, old or young. But more wonderful still than the sea-serpent is the nameless filih with telescope eyes, capable of extending 18ins or more, and protruding out- wards and straight upwards from his queer knife-like head. NEW LIGHT ON DROWNING. The idea that drowning persons take much water into the lungs has seemed to be unques- tioned. But it has been long opposed by Pro- fessor W. K. Whitford, who in 40 years has successfully treated many patients apparently dead from drowning, and who now asserts, as the result of many examinations, that practically no water enters the lungs. The mistakeu view has caused the waste of much valuable time. He has found heat-energetically and persistently itppliea-to be the most important agent in resuscitation, and with this, aided by artificial respiration and stimulation, lie has restored patients that have been submerged au hour. CHEMICAL EXECUTION. Of late there has been a good deal of dis- cussion on the subject of capital punishment and the best means of carrying it out. Electro- cution, though certainly an up-to-date method of removing obnoxious persons, is not altogether received with favour. M. Berthelot has ex- pressed the opinion that carbon monoxide, as used by the police for the destruction of 6tray dogs, is by far the best means of carrying out capital punishment. This, of course, will be putting to a legal use in a scientific way the agent which is reponsible for a peculiarly French method of suicide—the charcoal stove. BETEL NUT. The areca nut, or betel nut, is the fruit of an East Indian palm. It is chewed in great quantities by the Asiatics, who regard it as an aid to digestion, and in pharmacy it is used as a vermicide. The present scarcity of the nuts seems to be due to a mysterious plague that has swept the plantations of Lower Bengal. Dense groves of thousands of trees have become vege- table cemeteries in a few months, and no para- sites or other adequate cause can be discovered. The only explanation offered by Dr. George Watt, after investigation, is degeneration of tissue," to be remedied by care in cultivation. THE AGE OF EGGS. The following method of determining the age of eggs is practised in the markets of Paris:— About six ounces of common cooking-salt is put into a large glass, which is then filled with water. When the salt is in solution, an egg is dropped into the glass. If the egg is only one day old, it immediately sinks to the bottom if any older, it does not reach the bottom of the glass. If three days old, it sinks only just below the Htirface. From five days upward, it floats the older it is, the more it protrudes out of the water. JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE. There are no tall buildings in Japan. Earth- quakes would not permit them. The Flowery Kingdom" is blessed with some two or three earthquakes a week in the senson-often of great violence. Therefore the problems in building construction are extremely difficult. No matter what the material used, the tops of Japanese buildings must be extremely light so that they will not shake down. And the walls and girders must aU be locked together or they would soon fall apart. This is one rea- son why Japanese buildinga are small. COMPARISON OF APPETITES. Persons who are very dainty are sometimes said to have only the appetite of a canary. An experiment HAS recently been made in the direction of finding out just what the appetite of a canary is. A canary was weighed, and it waa found to turn the scale at 2-17 grains, or something over half an ounce. The food also was weighed and it was found that the bird eats 32 times its weight every month, or actu- ally more than his weight every day, thus show. ing that the proverbial pig is a light eater com- pared with the canary. BOILER SCALE. While petroleum may he recommended as a disincrustant for internally-lired boilers, Marcel Guedras point6 out that its use is dangerous in boilers fired externally. The oil added to the feed water tonus an emulsion that prevents the particles of lime from adhering, and aided oy the heat, penetrates and de aches the scale already foriiiel. But in externally-fired boilers a carbonaceous deposit tends to form on the plates where they are hottest, giving rise to overheating. THE PHOTOGRAPHIC FLASHLIGHT. The advantage of a photographic flashlight that can be timed is churned for a new cart- ridge made at Off/nhllch, Germany, and consist- ing of a celluloid capsule filled with combustible powder and provided with a tuae. The fl&sh varies with the size of the cartridge. Analysis shows that the powder, which bttrns quietly and with liltl" smoke, contains 12 per cent. of aluminium, 135 of magnesium, It of red phosphorus, and 73 of strontium nitrate. She (threatening BREACH of promise suit): "Do you intend to dny t.at you proposed to me? III H*: No: 1 inteud to plead insauity.
Business Notices. JAMES'S LOSDON AND PROVINCIAL Tea, Wine, Spirit and Provision STORES, TERRACE ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. No connection with any other" :Shopi in the district. SOLE AGENTS in the District for BASS & OX'S Celebrated Burton Ales and Stout, Supplied in 9 and 18 Gallon Casks in Im- perial Pint and Half-pint Bottles. AGENTS FOR W & A. GILBEY'S Wines and Spirits. GLEN-SPEY GLENLIVET SCOTCH. WHISKY, JOHN JAMESON & SON'S AND DUNYILLE'S IRISH WHISKY, In Bottle and on Draught. HENNESSEY'S BRANDY. CROFTS FINE OLD PORT. "KIMMOND'S SCHWEPPE'S & STRETTON HILLS MINERAL WATERS. II' CROSSE & BLACKWELI/S GOODS IN GREAT VARIETY. LAZENBY &lSONS. PICKLES- HUNTLEY & PALMER'S AND PEEK FREAN'S BISCUITS AND CAKES. MACKENZIE & MACKENZIE'S AND JACOB'S BISCUITS. HARRIS'S WILTSHIRE BACON, DEVONSHIRE BUTTER AND CREAM. Cheddar, Stilton,' Gorgon- zola, and American Cheese. ♦ » I 3.3.« Co.'s Ctas Are well known for their QUALITY AND FLAVOUR. PRICES- 1 6dn 2s. 2s. 6d, 2& 8dj and 3s. per lb. Business Notices. A WORD IX SEASON. /1. TRY MORGANS Pectoral Linseed Balsam Certain Cure for Coughs, Colds, Influenza, and all affections of the Chest, Throat, and Lungs. HAS CUBED OTHERS. "ILL CURB YOU. Prepared only by R. MORGAN, PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMIST, ABERYSTWYTH. Sold in Is. & 2s. kotUes WONDERIFUL RESULTS. WORTH A GUINEA A BO EfiAltIs FOR ALL JilLIOUST. æ NERVOUS DISORDERS SICK HEADACHE, CONSTIPATION, WEAK STOMACH, WIND, IMPAIRED DIGESTION, DISORDERED LIVER, and FEMALE AILMENTS. JANNUAL ALE SIX MILLION BOXES. In Boxes, Is lid, and 2s 9d each, with full directions. The Is lid box contains 56 Pills. Prepared only by the Proprietor— THOMAS BEECHAM. I ST HELENS, LANCASHIRE ROCK FOUNDRY, MACHYNLLETH. [ESTABLISHED 1869]. A DECIDED IMPROVEMENT ON ALL OTHER WATER WHEELS In efficiency, simplicity, compactness, and cheap ness. I solicit an opportunity to confer with parties in want of Turbines or Water Wheels. Special design for Churning, &c. TESTIMONIAL. "The Iron Water Wheels turned out from the Rock Foundry are well-known throughout the Principality and many counties beyond. They are but on the most modern designs, the construction being at the same time light and durable, and giving a larger percentage of power than can be claimed for most Water Wheels."—" The Railway Supplies Journal." Address all communications to B. M. DAVIES, Engineer and Ironfounder, MACHYNLLETH. NOTICE OF REMOVAL ARTIFICIAL TEETH MR. JAMES REES Seventeen years with Messrs. Murphy and Itowley: 3 O A LEX,&-NDPA Ift OAID, (Late Railway Terrace), A BERYSTWYTH. MR. REES visits TREGARON first and last Tuesday in each Month at Mrs. Williams, Stanley House. Visits Machynlleth the Second and Fourth Wednes- days in each Month at Mrs. R. Jones, Pentre- rhydin Street (opposite Lion Hotel Corns on the 1st and 3rd Saturday in each month at Mr W. Evans, Grocer, Liverpool House, (opposite Slaters Arms. Visits Lampeter the First and Third Fridays in eacfc Month, at R. Evans, milliner, 18, Harford Square. CHABGBS MODERATE. SPLENDID BARGAINS J REES JONES EMPORIGM, rjpREGARON Now offers for Sale at Low Clearance Prices a fine lot of MEN'S, YOUTH'S, AND BOYS' OVERCOATS. R. DOUGHTON, JRONMOXGER, CHIKA DEALER AND c YCLEA GENT, (OPPOSITE THE TOWN CLOCK). CYCLES FOR SALE AND HIRE. USE THE CRYSTAL PERISCOPIC SPECTACLES TO BE HAD AT ABOVE ADDRES8. Furniture. Furnitnre. EDWARD ELLIS & SON. Little Darkgate-street, ABERYSTWYTH. Horses, Dogs, Birds, Cattle. 100,000 Owners of Animals Have Mcured a copy ei tile ELLIMAR FIRST AID BOOK ACCIDENTS AND AILMENTS. Owners of Animals can have a Cloth- bound Copy, 176 pages, the complete book, sent post free upon receipt of One Shilling and a legible address, or the label affixed for the purpose to the outside of the back of the wrapper of of a 2s., 2L ód., or 3s. 6d. bottle of ELIJAH'S ROYAL EMBROCATION would secure a copy post free. Owners of Dogs or Birds can bave Parts II. and IIL, 54 pages, apart trom complete Boek, FREE. PHUIIM by muimw. Smh A CO* Moup. Bof*