BARMOUTII. SALES.-As will be seen in our advertising columns, Messrs Daniel, Son, and Meredith, the well-known auctioneers, are advertising several important sales. ° 'PHILIP SIDNEY' this week deals in his usual column, with the noble letter written by Miss 1 ranees Power Cobbe, and read at the opening of the Library last week—Readers will do wisely to ponder on it. J SPECIAL PETTY SESSI0NA_On Tuesday, April 8th, before Mr Lewis Lewis and Mr John Evans, Robert Evans a grocers assistant, from Dolgelley, was charged by Sergeant Breeze with being drunk and disorderly, and with assaulting the mlice in High-street on the previous evening De endant pleaded guilty to both charges, and was fined 2s 6d in each case, including 15s costs, or in default 14 days imprisonment. EASTER MONDAY EISTEDDFOD.—A corresnon- dent ;writes :-From the reports of the proceedings of this meeting and the few that were r™r. an l tne comparatively small number that com- peted one might infer that this institution is fast losing ground and on its last This shnnId arouse the Committee to bestir themselves so °s o reconstruct the whole bodv -mri TI 7, infuse new blood into its \cins. The Committees should be increased in their numbers and all sectarian ba1'l'ie:'s ,h0111(1 be removed. SklKIMI llaJlwur0'ri,P"UST'11" quarterly meeting of the Harbour 11 ustees was held on Monday, the 15th Se lfweS* r°0m^ St Anne's S<i«are, when rl-,irW pref;em; f German Lewis Lewis (in the S i'r 'n'r T, vail!i, Mr John Shards. Vvm 7Mi ) ') A6*'1"' ?Van Griffith' William Lvan Richards, Owen Jones (secretary), and Pees Jon-'s (treasurer).—The minutes of ail meetings were read and confirmed, and all matters arising therefrom had been attended to-The new bye-Jaws are now waiting confirmation, all b.rmal- mes pertaining thereto having been complied with. the secretary was instructed to write to certain paitiet who had been trespassing on Ynys-v-brawd pigeon shooting, cautioning them not to'repeat the u' WOU'.d V° Prosecutf'd without turther nouce. It was further resolved to place a sign- board on the island to warn people not to make UK' of the harocur property for any such purpose, or they would be open to prosecution.—Notice of motion had been given at the previous meeting by Capt Lyan Griffith to rescind a resolution which now gives boat-owners the privilege of beino- allowed to leave their pleasure boats n the harbour property during the winter months free of charge. This rescissionjwas unanimously carried and it was innner agreed to that for the 1u; ure no boats be allowed to remain on the harbour property from the last day of October till the first day of Mav in each year except on payment of the nominal charge of Is for each boat.—'ihe Works Committee was requested to see if any repairs were m-cessary to the harbour property, and to report thereon at'the adjourned meeting to be held in a fortnio-ht. It was further resolved to write to the Chief Constable asking him to give Sergeant Breeze instructions to remove the children who committed a nuisance on the green plot in front of the Last Tavern. -The Clerk was instructed to write to the Board of trade Harbour Department calling their attention to the,alleged obstructions on the Mawddach. SCHOOL BOARD ELECTION.—The polling for a School Board took place on Wednesday at Bar- mouth and Lontddu. The booths were opened at mid-day. This election was the quietest experi- enced for years it may be. to the many we have had of late. The Ratepayers'Union a few days previous to the polling issued a maijifestf, urging the ratepayers to support the Union candidates, as the onus of forcing a contest with its inevitable expense did not rest with the Union candidates. TheBontddu ballot boxes were brought down to Barmouth about nine o'clock p.m. and the counting was soon commenced with. The result was made known at 10-20 and was Ten different to what was anticipated during the ay. The figures were as follows:—Mr Ellis Pugbe Jones Llwyndu (I) farmer, 815; Dr D Arthur H olies (C) 358; Rev CynfaJ Jones (I) 330; Mr E R Jones, postmaster (M) 267; Mr T. M. Williams, grocer (M) 254; Mr J. Morris, draper (W) 234; ,r ;iroD-,Pswald Davies (I) 221; Miss Atkinson (C) 152. The first seven were declared duly elected. The new Board is thus made up of one churchman, three CongTcgationalists, one Wvslcvan. NNo Cal- Ninistic Metnooists, the Church party having lost one seat and the Congregationa-ists winning one, Although the Independents are the weakest denom- ination in the parish, still 1,367 votes were e :orded for their three members. the tw,, C'alvinistie- Methodist candidates receiving only 521 votes, although representing the strongest denomination. LASD SUP -On Wednesday evening, a few minutes before the conveyance brought the billot boxes from Bontddu to Ha; mouth, a land slip occurred about mid-way on Abernmffra Hill, when over sixty tons, mostly stones, fell from the hill into the main road, blocking the traffic for some time and deJaying- the del very of the boxes. Early in the morning a number of workmen were put to remove the debris. If the fall had taken place a quarter of an hour later a serious accident to the conveyance and its freight might have occurred. URBAN DISTRICT COUNCIL. The annual meeting of the above Council was held on laesdav, April 16th, when there were present E. Richards (chairrnam pro tem); J. Richards, H. Wynne Williams, D. E. Davies, William Owen, Edward Williams, Robert Williams, B. J. Allsop, and Tom Abraham, with Messrs Win. George (clerk), Owen Jones (assistant clerk), John Adams (surveyor). ELECTION OF CHAIRMAN". Mr B. J. Allsopp proposed the re-election of the Rev Gwynoro Davies as chairman of the Council. Mr D. E. Davies seconded, and the proposition was agreed to. The Clerk read a letter from Mr Davies regret- ting his inability to attend, being confined to his bed, the result of a bad cold, PANORAMA WALK. The agreement with Mrs Keighley as to her tenancy of the" Panorama".NN'alkbaviii- been read by the Clerk, was duly signed by the Chairman. GENERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE. The above Committe submitted its report which stated that the Surveyor's monthly report was read. The Committee recommended that consideration of the matters be deferred until the Surveyor is in a position to report that the several works which he has on hand are completed. The Surveyor re- ported that a landslip into the road at Aberamffra had occurred, and that lie, in conjunction with Mr. Bentley's men. had had the place cleared. The Committee recommended that Mr. Bentley be charged with the expense incurred by the surveyor, and that he be requested to have the place cleaied. That notice be given to the owners of the Belle Vue Arches to prevent water running on to the main road. Correspondence that had passed between the Clerk and Mr. Woodford with reference to the new main on the Marine-parade was considered, and the latter was invited to name a date when he could meet the Council. The Committee also re- commended that the wages of three of the work- men be raised to £1. Mr Allsopp said that he quite approved of the rising of the men's wages, but be strongly dis- approved of the bad condition of the streets. A pound a week was not too much for a working man. lie proposed that the report be adopted. The proposition was agreed to. The Chairman said that one of the members had said that the men should work overtime on Satur- day. He wanted to know if that overtime was to be paid for, as well as the increase in the wages allowed. Mr B. J. Allsopp thought that if the men worked overtime they should be paid for it. Mr Wm. Owen said that the ratepayers com- plained of the untidy state of the streets on Sundays. The fault lay with the shop-keepers who swept refuse and waste paper into the street late on Saturday night after the cart had been round. People could not expect the men to go round the town at about eleven o'clock at night. The Surveyor said that he would see to the matter. FINANCE COMMITTEE. The Finance committee recommended the pay- ment of bills amounting to £85 3" 3d. That the workmen in the employ of the Council be insured. The collector applied for an increase in his salary and the committee recommended the Council to consider the same. A vote of thaaks to the chair- man for presiding during the past year was unan- imously passed. The Collector before leaving the room stated he would prefer a salary of iLl per week with a commission on the collection, but he left the matter in the hands of the Council. Mr Tom Abraham said that when the collector was appointed the rates were higher, and at that time he had more commission for less work, as the rates had been lowered if meant more work for him. Mr B. J. Allsopp said that it was to his own benetiv that the collector should collect all the rates Mr Tom Abraham agreed with Mr Allsopp and thought it would be an encouragement for the collector to have more commission He proposed that it be increased from Id to 2d, bnt at the same salary. The proposition was agreed to. MEDICAL OFFICERS REPORT. The Medicai;Oiffcer said that he bad nothing to re port upon this month. The health of the district was most satisfactory. The water nuisance at Llyndu which had been repaired by the Council a short time ago was no better at the present time Th^ Council could not proceed against other Deoi)le for overcrowding when they caused over crowding themselves, lhere were twenty people then in that small room there. LU<tl' Mr. Allsopp: Hear, hear. Mr Allsopp adoed that the Rev, Gwynore Davies had often told him that when he went home from the Council meetings he always felt bad, after beimr in that room, CORRESPONDENCE. The Secretary to the Derby Branch of the Y. M C. A. applied for permission to pitch tents on a por txon ot the recreation ground for twenty or thirtv of the members who intended visiting Barmouth in the summer. ulu The application was refused. A letter was read from the Local Government Board, asking for information as to the CounaiPs title to lheir present offices. 8 The Clerk explained that an inquiry would h» held into the Council's application for a lrJr, £ 200 to renovate the premises, and the Board wanted the Council to find somebody to make a declaration at the inquiry as to the Council's title to their premises. title MrB. J. Allsopp thought they should not throw away the ratepayers' money by soen,liner u dog kennel like that place. Th^v "Vo anything to itwithxit pulling it down tlTtbe ground. Another fact was that it tva. • convenient piace^for the Council to meet." Mr William Owen observed that the Council were not in a position ,o spend £ 200 at the prS Mr Tom Abraham gave notice that he would move at the next meeting the resolution f ?h! Council to borrow £ 200 toVenovate that building OVERSEERS. WMrSS™ J' He,17'ichards. Jno Price Jones Owen sss !n ""ium COMMITTEES. The appointment of committees was deferred m*til ttxe next meeting.
UNIVERSITY GUILD OF GRADUATES. Annual Meetings at Aberystwyth. PAPERS BY MR T. K. DAWES, PEMBROKE DOCK, AND PROF. REES, BRECON. The seventh annual Collegiate meeting of the Guild of Graduates of the University College of Wales was held on Thursday, April 11th, at the University College, Aberystwyth. The business meeting of the Guild commenced at 10 a.m., the Warden (Professor Lloyd), in the chair. There Were also present Principal T. F. Roberts, Pro- fessors T. Rees (Brecon), Edward Edwards, E. Anwyl, and T. A. Levi, Miss A. L. Johnson, Miss L. SAeayyn, Mrs E. M. Lewis, and Miss Caroline P. Tremain, Messrs J. E. Llovd, R. E. Hughes, M.A., Chas. Owen, M.A. J. H. Davies, R. E. Owen, Jenkin James, F. P. Dodd, Edgar Jones, Charles Morgan (clerk), D. E. Jones (treasurer). H. E. I Piggott, D. R. Harris, T. H. Davies, F. Percival Clark, David Samuel, M.A., J. Alan Murray, and J. H. Appleton. The report of the Literature Section, which was presented by Mr J. H. Davies, stated that very little progress could be reported in this section. The two volumes in the series of reprints, which were last year mentioned as being in the printer s hands, were still in the printer's hands. The first volume, which consists of three early printed tracts in the Welsh language is being printed in facsimile, and tliis has caused great delay. About one-half of ihe book has been printed. The second volume, which is a verbatim reprint of the second edition of the Drych y Prif Oesoedd" is in a more advanced stage. At the last meeting of the Guild it was de- cided to ask Mr Llywarch Reynolds, M.A., of Mertbvr Tydvil, to act as editor of the works of Thomas Prys, of Plasiolyn. Mr Reynolds kindly consented to undertake the work, and the manu- script of the poems transcribed for the Guild by Miss Eluned Morgan had been forwarded to him. Prof Anwyl presented the report of the Dialect Section, which'stated that its aim was to collect the fullest possible information as to the spoken language of Wales in all its varieties, whether of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, or idiom. Hitherto, the work of the Section has been very largely that of orientation, but through the kind assistance given by many members of the Section and others "the secretary has been enabled to collect a large vocabulary of dialect words used in various parts of Voiles, a portion of which has been printed in alohabetical order in a form suitable for the tabufation of further and more accurate informa- tion as to pronunciation and meanings of words and the areas over which the words are used. When the facts of the vocabulary and its pronunciation have been well-ascertained it will be possible to base the study of dialect upon a sound basis of actual usage. The report of the Place Names Section was pre- sented by Professor Edwards, and the following gent lemen were appointed as a local committee Principal Roberts, Mr Jenkin Jones, Mr J. H, Davies, Prof Morgan Lewis, Prof Anwyl, and Mr David Samuel. The report of the Natural History Section was presented by the Clerk in the absence of Professor Pbillips, and adopted. An Economic Section was formed, with Professor Levi as secretary, and it was decided to take steps with the view, if possible, to forming an Anthro- pometical Section. The following officers were elected for the ensu- ing year:—Warden, Mr D. E. Jones, L.fec. clerk, Mr Charles Morgan, B.A. treasurer, Mr T. Mar- chant Williams, B.A. Standing Committee, Prof. Anwyl, M.A., Mr J. H. Davies, M.A., Mr F. P, Dodd, M.A.. Professor E. Edwards, Mr Edgar Jones,. M.A., Prof Lloyd, Mr Chas. Owen, M.A., Rev R. J. Rees, M.A., and Miss D. J. Thomas, B.A. OPEN MEETING OF THE GUILD. An open meeting of the Guild was held at three- o'clock, the Warden again presiding, when there was a representative attendance. Two of the mem- bers had consented to read papers, one being by Mr T. R. Dawes, M.A, headmaster of the County School, Pembroke Dock, on the subject of "Bilingual teaching in Schools," and the other by Prof Rees, M.A., Brecon, on The social mission of the University." BILINGUAL TEACHING IN SCHOOLS. Mr Dawes, who was accorded an attentive hear- ing, said-When I was asked by your committee to read -i paper on Bilingualism, I felt that I could not decline the honour, but I also felt that since t be word bilingualism had no such pleasing effect as that blessed word Mesopotamia, I might be per- mitted to chose another title and confine mv paper to Bilingual Teaching in Schools. By Bilingual. T*ea<jijin g I mean teaching which makes use of two languages for the purpose of instruction, and 1 pro- pose to consider in the greater part of my paper the bilingual teaching in the country of Belgium, Where the conditions have rendered such teaching necessary, and where we may find either an example or a warning to us in Wales whose circumstances are similar. Belgium is divided into two parts, of which the Flemings inhabit one, and the other those who in their own language are called Wallon, but in ours Walloon. These races differ among themselves in origin and in language. The Flem- ings, who are the most numerous, are a race of German extraction, brothers to the Dutch or the Neighbouring kingdom of Holland, speaking the low German language which is practically identi- cal with Dutch, and inhabiting the North Western portion of Belgium. The Walloons in the S.E., are French alike in race and language, and while the sympathies of the Flemings lean to Holland and Germany, those of the Walloons turn rather to France. French and Flemish are thus the lan- guages of Belgium. It is true that a French Patois is spoken by many Walloons in the South. But this has no literature and is merely a corrupt form of French. German is also spoken by many Belgians on the German Frontier, but when Bel- gium is termed a bilingual country, the languages referred to are French and Flemish. Though the majority of Belgians are Flemish, the official language of Belgium was for many years French, and is so, to a certain extent, at the present day. But the progress of the Flemish movement, which has for its object the maintenance of the Flemish tongue in Flanders, and indeed the spread of the language throughout Belgium has brought about great changes and tends to make the Belgians more -and more a bilingual people. A glance at Belgium a checkered history accounts for the predominant position that French has held. In the 17th cen- tury Belgium formed a part of the Spanish Dominions then, after a period of Austrian rule it formed part of the French Empire till the Battle of Waterloo, when, united with Holland, the two coun- tries constituted the Monarchy of Holland and Belgium. This Kingdom only lasted till 1830. Numerous grievances, such as favouritism shown to Hollanders in appointments to official positions, created disaffection among Belgians, and the Re- volution of 1830 severed Belgium from Holland, and it became under King Leopold an independent Kingdom. During these centuries Flemish always remained the language of the great majority of the people. But the language of the Government, of the administration, of the Law Courts, and gener- ally of the official and upper classes was French. Daring more than two centuries the religious cor- porations who possessed the monopoly of education proscribed the Flemish language from hatred of tha Dutch heretics, who published Bibles and other books judged dangerous for the Catholic Faith, and thus the upper and middle classes, educated in schoolsjof which the language was French, discarded Flemish andlearned to despise it. The masses re- tained their native tongue, but their children for the most part received no education. The schools charged fees they could not pay, and the teaching was in a language they did not understand. The French Revolutionists were no more favourable to Flemish than the Church Corporations had been. They strove to substitute French, the language in which the Republican laws were written and which they believed had a special virtue as an instrument of emancipation for Flemish, which they regarded as one of a number of insignificant idioms, only lit to express servile sentiments and retrograde r, ideas. Thus a report prepared for the Revolution- ists says The great crime of Patois is that they prevent the political amalgam. They keep people away from the Truth the fusion of all classes and of all provinces in one uniform nation will he the truitof the unity of language." The French Revolu- tionists, however, failed to substitute French for Flemish as the language of the people In 1830, 11 when Belgium became an independent kingdom, Flemish still maintained its position as the lan- guage of the people of Flanders, buL it had degen- rated from want of culture and become impover- ished. The official language of the country was French, but since 1830 a great popular movement, in favour of the use of Flemish in Flanders has sprung up and achieved numerous reforms. The motto of this 1 lemish movement is In inlander* Flemish." Al)(I i, ietiii,ii iias in latei- years more and more the language of Administration, of the Law Courts and of Government officials. No judge, or advocate, can now be appointed in Flanders without a knowledge of_ Flemish—114 We object," say the i leuiings," to be j udged by people we pay and do not understand. In the Com- munis, in the Primary and Secondary Schools, and in the Ai iiiy, Flemish has to some extent taken tan part of French. The streets tb"ougliout Belgium are named in both languages, ami ;;il official docu- ments. including the official nior.itor,are published in both languages, generally in parallel columns. The Flemish tongue is spokeu by greater number* now thai, at the beginning of century. Tt", Flemish papers, such as the llandrlrf/lad oi Antwerp have a very large circulation. Important. works in literature, and science are written in Flemish, and Flemish plays are performed in the theatres. Especially remarkable is the progress of Flemish in the Secondary Schools in the Walloon Dis- trict, and the desire shown by the directing classes that their children shall acquire a good knowledge of Flemish in the schools. The prejudice formerly felt against Flemish dies away as its utility is recognized in a country which is becoming more and more bilingual. The Walloons are indeed taunted with their quickness in learning Flemish when an afficial post is at stake/It would not now be advisable for an official to protest against the teach- ing of Flemish in the public schools of Brussels lest the learning of this Patois should spoil the French acoent of the children. Neither would a Burgo- master assert "There are no Flemings in Brussels." The struggle between the two languages has naturally produced bitter feeling in Belgium as the language struggle has done in Austria, Cape Colony, and elsewhere. The Flemings taunt/the Walloons with being the party of France, with seeking to rob a Dutch race of i:s mother tongue, and desiring to bring free Belgium again under the centralizing tyranny of France. The Fleming is 9 1 accused on the other hand of preferring a mere dialect with little or no literature and unknown out- side narrow limits to a world language so highly developed and so widely spoken with such magnifi- cent literature as the French. The Walloon calls the Fleming a "Flamingant"; the Fleming nick- 7 names the Walloon Fransquillon." Having glanced at the history and present condition of Belgium with regard to languages, I now turn to the schools. —These are of three types-the Elementary, the Middle schools or ecoles moyennes, and the Higher schools or Athennes. In the former the leaving age is 14, in the ecoles moyenes 16, and in the Athenes 18. In many of the elementary schools in the country districts of Flanders the only language used and studied is Flemish—but in the elementary schools of Brussels for example both Flemish and French are taken, and these afford a good example of bilingual schools. In the school Rue Six-Jetons, one of the best known elementary schools in Brussels, I found two sets of classes in the lower part of the school, the Walloons being taught mostly in French, the Flemings mostly in their own language, till at the age of nine the classes are united and the language of the school is entirely drench, save in the Juennsh lessons and in the geography and history lessons The direct method of teaching was most successfully used in all the classes, and at the age of fourteen the pupils con- versed freely in both languages In the secondary schools of Flanders, (both ecole moyennes and Athenies), the school language is French, but from 1884 Flemish has been used to teach natural science, geography, and history and Germanic languages. German and English are both taught by means of Flemish, with which those languages are closely allied. In the annual written examin- ation the pupils may choose either language for their answers and essay, and as a general rule the language at home is chosen even when the lessons have been given in the other. 1 have often attended classes where the ltjsson was given at first in Flemish and then repeated again in French. At the Atllenee of Bruges, where there are 200 pupils, of whom 120 are Flemings and 80 Walloons, knowing little or no Flemish, I,c masters are supposed to use the two languages continually in teaching. In practice, however, the teacher almost confines himself to'the language he prefers, and the pupils write their essays for home work in either language. On prize day the languages are used alternately. The correspondence with the parents is in both languages in most schools in the Flemish district. Some parents prefer Flemish, but others are indignant unless French is used. Do you think I cannot understand French," said an angry parent to a headmaster who had written to him in Flemish. In the Walloon district Flemish is almost univer ersally chosen as the second language, though before the Flemish movement bad popularized Flemish, German was the general language. A concours general is held for all secondary schools each year, when the pupils of the whole of Belgium compete together somewhat as in our Oxford and Cambridge Examinations. There is a strong feeling against the concours general among .other reasons because of the different condition that schools have to work in. As a rule the Walloons come out highest in the concours, but the Flemings are far the best in modern languages. Indeed, up to late years the Walloons complained they could not learn this brutal patois," this croaking of frogs," and Walloon masters have in- veighed against the Flemish movement as favouring Flemish masters who are good linguists and can teach both French and Flemish. In later years, however, as I have already stated, the Walloon pupils have made, great progress with Flemish. Parents often send their sons to schools in the Flemish district and encourage their clildreu to acquire it, and in the concours, Walloon pupils have gained very high marks in Flemish. As regards the method of teaching living languages, Belgian schools are in a state of transition. Some six years back the annual report published by the ,Government contained the following criticism on the teaching of French—" Pupils do not begin early enough to express their own thoughts. They are not properly taught. Teachers employ translation too frequently, and do not have enough exercises in the language itself." But to-day the direct method is very widely used in the schools. The following brief exposition of the method published by the Commune of Brussels has had great influence in achieving this result. The second language should be taughL by the natural or direct method. This method consists in teaching a language without having recourse to translation save when it is necessary to establish a close and direct com- munication between words and ideas. The teacher must proceed intuitively and progressively. The y z, basis of study will be the common vocabulary, and the principal lessons will be in all classes lessons of intuition and in the use of language. These lessons will treat of notions familiar to the children (the family, furniture, clothes, etc), or of subjects which have already been taught in the mother tongue. The whole attention will thus be concentrated on the correct pronunciation of the words and on the construction of the phrases. The teacher must strive to put before the eyes of the pupils the objects of which he speaks, or representations of them by models or drawings; to grasp the verbs the action must if possible be performed. For the adjectives tho method will be to show several objects which have a ccrni-non quality. In a word the teacher of the second language will proceed by the best of all methods, that which a mother uses instinctively when she teaches herjchildren to speak." In languages, the Belgian schools certainly achieve remarkable results. In the oral examinations for leaving certificates, I beard pupils of 16 or 17 carry on ordinary conversation in at least 3 languages, understanding them readily and dis- cussir.g with good grammar and accent the subject- matter of set books. At present it is generally ad- mitted that the Flemings are the best linguists, and I found among adults that those who conversed with me in English were invariably Flemings. And a Belgian stateman said in Parliament a few years back that the bilingual persons are all Flemings. This is, however, not true to-day. This success in teaching languages is no doubt partly due to the fact that more time can be spared for their study when the metric system is used instead of our cumbrous system, and so less time is needed for arithmetic. Other reasons are the wide adoption of the direct method of teaching languages and the thorough study by conversation by reading and by the grammar of two languages to begin with. In most bilingual countries just as in Flanders the inhabitants become expert linguists. Thus the Russians, who are well exercised in French and Russian, the Dane*, theJPoles, and the Finns excel as linguists. Lord Rosebery has referred to our ignorance of modern languages are almost a com- mercial disaster, and Lord Salisbury even affirms, that pupils destined for a commercial career should learn French and German before they think of Latin and Greek. Now, we in Wales, have an excellent, opportunity with our two languages, Welsh and English, of training ourselves as linguist while we are young. The contempt for the Welsh language which is referred to in the following extract is now almost extinct. A traveller in Wales in 1682 remarks:—"Their native gibberish is usually pratled throughout the whole iaphydome, except in their market towns, whose inhabitants, being a little raised, and (as it were) pufft up into bubbles above the ordinary scum, do begin to despise it. Some of these being elevated above the comruoH level, and perhaps refined into the quality of having two suits, are apt to fancy themselves above their t ongue, and when in their t'other cloaths, are quite ashamed on't". Instead of this contempt we find to-day a general awakening of interest in all things Welsh. It is astounding that the schools should have neglected such linguistic training in the past even if the learning of Welsh were of no immediate use—and everyone knows what an advantage it is to those of our scholars who will spend their lives in Wales, even. I say, were it of no use, still the training is invaluable. Most of our pupils have but few opportunities while at school of conversing in French (unless with Breton onion men)- but they will seize opportunities of improving Welsh learnt in the school, if, from the first, it has been taught by the direct method. And it is certain that the bilingual Welshman will as greatly surpass t lie monoglot Englishman as the bilingual Fleming surpasses thejmonoglot Walloon. The great difficulty with Englishmen it to get them to try and speak a foreign tongue. 1 read a few davs ago a description bv a French critic of British slowness and phlegm, stony reserve, partial aphasia, and dull heavy intellect." Of course such a description could not, apply to Welshmen. Our Celtic- volubility, not confined to English and Welsh, but extended even to French and German, will be a valuable commercial asset. Our Welsh linguist will supply a want in the British Empire. J.i.st as the purest English is spoken in Wales, let \1:: see to i, that our scholars, well trained in their i two lij'.tive languages of Welsh and English, taught by the most rational methods, by enthusiastic teachers, may go on to acquire French and German with equal purity of accent. Monsieur Hanotaux foresees the time when every educated man must know at least the three world languages, English, French and German. We must not be behind Swiss and Belgian linguists. Professor Armstrong speaking of mathematics says, 'We simply do not know what young people are capable of, and we must not allow ourselves to be humbugged by preconceived notions, and then he goes on to say that he agrees with Professor Perry that a boy of 13-21 ought to be far advanced in the Calculus. If such things are possible in what Ruskin calls the low cunning of mathematics, what may we not hope to see in the divine sphere of languages. I heard Z7, an inspector of schools use this phrase in extolling the virtues of science, "Pupils in school must cease grubbing for Greek roots and go and dig real ones." Perhaps, however, it were better to leave roots alone altogether and study living tongues. We might apply the following words of a Belgian statesman slightly altered to us in Wales:—We are a small people admirably gifted for learning languages. Let us profit by our natural gifts and by training ourselves, first of all in the two languages we have at hand go on to acquire other languages and provide what is so much needed, a supply of Imperial linguists. In the discussion which followed, Principal Roberts said Mr Dawes investigations had gone to confirm what some Welsh educationists had thought out for themselves on the basis of insular experience by the standard of international experience. So now they knew they were on absolutely firm ground, and they also knew that the revision of methods which they had recently to make in view of the intro- duction of oral methods of teaching languages were proper ones. Mr Dawes had shown" that there was a large place for linguistic instruction under the conditions of the direct method of teaching modern languages. But he might mention that if English was to be taught through English, and if Welsh was to be taught through Welsh, what place was there for the old ideas of teaching English through Welsh ? That, he had no doubt, had occasioned perplexity to a great many minds. He most firmly believed in what Mr Dawes indicated of the likelihood of their being in the future a strong I linguistic nation. That was far from being the case now, ancl every teacner present must confess that at the present time the linguistic attainments of Welsh students on the whole were sadly lacking. He believed that could be attributed and traced home to the illogical and uneducational system of I y teaching which had been in vogue in the past, and also to t-he unpatriotic and unscientific way in which the Welsh language had been treated in their education. Mr F. P. Dodd. Mr Charles Owen, Mr R. E. Owen, Prof. Edward Edwards, and the Chairman also offered favourable criticisms upon the paper. THE SOCIAL MISSION OF THE UNIVERSITY." Prof. Rees, in the course of his paper on this subject, said they had grown accustomed in Wales to speak of their University as a crown and com- pletion of their educational system. And so it was in idea at least. But that was only a small part of the truth, for in reality and effect the University was the flower of every reforming purpose and power that bad characterised the last two centuries. It illustrated the principle that that which was first in idea was last in genesis, for the idea, or, perhaps, the vague dream of a University had been persist- ently present to the mind of every patriot reformer, whether religious, literary, political, social, or of any other kind, from the days of Owen Glyndwr until the granting of the Charter. If the law of the conservation of energy held true in things spiritll- and it was their privilege that it was at their choice to make it so—then their University was destined to be not merely the crown of the educational system, not merely the highest form in their great national school, through which their youths who had been through the elementary and intermediate schools must pass before entering life's battle, but the crowning glory of their entire national life, gathering unto itself, summing up in itself, and again sending forth out of itself all the best forces of their people's life. As it had become the heir, so must it in turn become the parent of all the actual and possible nobility of their national life. Never had a University been so privileged as theirs was. Having developed out of the people's life and become in the fulness of time, as it were, the incarnation of its most cherished idea, it commanded to-day, as no other institution in the country did, the interest and admiration, the loyalty and confidence of practically every man and woman throughout the land. As it knew neither Jew nor Greek, bond nor free, but transcended all their divisions and limitations, so was it the highest unity which could bind them all together in the harmony of a consistent purpose and concerted activity, and the nation literally assume toward it the, schoolboy attitude of shutting its eyes and opening its mouth to see what the University would give it. But to disappoint these, fervent hopes would be easier than to fulfil them. The granting of a Charter created a University only in legal phraseology. Happily, the creative forces were present and active amongst them long before the. Charter was obtained, but it was always possible to divert such forces into wrong channels, or to confine them within too narrow limits, so that the mature growth might fall far short of the youthful promise. In particular, it was always the temptation of an institution that existed for the sake of learning and knowledge and what was called higher culture, to assume an attitude of pbilistine superiority, to become detached and isolated from the life around it, and so to influence it only by accident. Most people would readily grant in theory that every man should be treated as an end in himself, and no man as a means on\ v but no one was readier than their average University man to treat certain classes, such as scouts, servants, liobblers, &c as a means only to his own ends, and their university towns had reaped therefrom a fruitful crop of worthies, submerged individuals. There was a mighty humanitarian wave now swelling in upon the life of the older Universities, but its way was barred by the traditions of exclusiveness that, centuries bad piled up. Their University started without any such inheritance of traditions. Generally, it was a disadvantage to be without traditions, but in this respect it was their advantage. Having grown out of the ideals of the people, their University would be able to form such traditions as would be identical with those of the entire people whom it served. But they would always have two forces working in the opposite direction. They bad al- ways to reckon with the inherent tendency of human nature in any organised society to abuse privilege and power by making them exclusive, and so to abstract, that. power and the society which should possess it from that very life in which alone they could be effective. Moreover, the influence and example of the older Universities acted per- haps more powerfully upon theirs than upon any other of the younger Universities. But so far as they had any indication their University had been wisely guided to begin well, and promised to realise its function as the crown and unity of the nation's life. It was gradually, and, let them hope, surely, extending its influence and control over their entire system of education. Every year it was expanding its sphere of influence to embrace some new aspect of the nation's life and dreamers bad begun to prophesy the absorption of the Eisteddfod by the University some day. Whether these relations were mechanical or organic time would show, and, indeed, it was for them now to determine whether they should be. But they must be organic relations, through which the University shall send forth inspiration, purpose, light, power-its "very life-blood to every corner of the land, if it was itself to be a real tiling of flesh and blood, of mind and spirit.and not a mech- anical abstraction merely registering the number of Latin verbs, mathematical formula, etc., annually crammed in the Principality. There was no movement more significant than the endeavour that was now being made to bring the University into direct and practical touch with the general life of the people to organise the forces of the Univer- sity to attack the social problems and remove the social evils in the midst of which they were living. Social work, as generally conceived, was of t vo kinds —(a) To relieve distress and suffering caused by poverty, ignorance, anu vice, oy private or public charity; and (b) to remove the causes of distress, to mend the social evils by ending them. Tbe former kind of service was a luxury reserved for The comparatively rich, and one which most University people would be unable to enjoy. The most they could do was to try and get control over or give advice in the distribution of charities, and so prevent their creating greater evils than they cure, for there were many people who were willing to relieve the poor in their distress, but who dÜt not desire, or did not know how to deliver them from their poverty. Chari.y-giving in itself was a minor and somewhat doubtful part, of social reform. The true reformer would rather busy himself with pre- venting people from falling into distress, or with helping them, when so fallen, to rise again above their distress. Although it might be true that they had not in Wales a great, deal of the abject poverty of the slums and overcrowded dens of the large towns, they had an abundance of social problems and evils which multiplied annually their baneful crop of misery and degradation of the people. Hen wlad y rnenyg gwynion had a heavy list of crime to its account, and certain kinds of vice and immorality were so ripe as to cause them to blush in the presence of their neighbours. Lnthrift and ignorance converted their prosperity into their degradation, and here, as elsewhere, the peaceful rural districts were depopulated to swell the mass of the unhealthy, struggling, shiftless, miserable crowds of their great industrial centres' Could a University of men and women stand aside, wrapt up in its Latin and mathematics, heedless of these forces of destruction that were undermining i's own work and destiny, as they were working the ruin of the people ? A Corporation of Schol- astics might do so, but not a National University. The University bad a social mission of its own, a work of reform which it alone was fitted and able to perform. There were areas that were not at present touched by any existing organisation- masses of people in the populous centres that had. rightly or wrongly, become alienated from and hostile to the churches. People again who were too listless and indifferent to *seek moral guidance from any existing agency, and whose only acquaint- ance with social- life is through the music hall or travelling theatre and the police courts: Their University, unhampered by any prejudicial tradi- tions, endowed with greater knowledge, larger culture, and a more liberal and generous spirit, able also to profit by the errors of others, could p approach these people in a way to obtain a bearing, awaken their interest, win their confidence, and help them to a better life. There was also a kind of educational work which this University alone could perform among the people, such as to awaken a more intelligent interest in the technical and scientific aspects of the various interests and trades of the people, and to introduce the people into a new mould of thought and enjoy- ment by acquainting them with what was noble in secular thought and literature. There was, more- over, a possible class of workers both inside and outside the University whose energies and services were not utilized by any existing organisation, and who could be enlisted under a University scheme to do a noble work which would be to their own advantage, as well as to the advantage of those among whom they worked. Many of their pro- fessors, graduates, and students, as well as many intelligent and excellent people of every class, especially in the towns, were at present socially useless because they found no congenial sphere wherein to work. When they came to look into the practical details of any scheme that the University should adopt, they had to bear in mind three classes of problems, corresponding respectively to the agricultural districts, including the small towns and villages, the great mining centres, the colliery districts of South Wales, Denbigh, and Flintshire, with the quarry districts of North Wales, and the large towns, such as Cardiff, Swan- sea, Newport, and perhaps Chester, Shrewsbury, and Hereford. The University could only be in touch with the rural districts through the men it sent there. Into every small town, village, and parish in Wales, the University would be sending a minister, a schoolmaster, and perhaps a legal and a medical practitioner. Moreover, its agricultural and dairy schools had the opportunity to influence the young men and women of the rural districts. Many causes had been ascribed to the usual exodus, but speaking from personal experience, lie would be inclined to say that the two chief causes were its comparative dulness, and the apparent absence of opportunities to get on in life The University, through the men it sent out, could do much to mend bctii evils. The Parish Councils and Free Libraries Acts were intended to remove the dulness and deadness oi Vnlage life, but in most parts of Wales they were a dead letter. Uni- versity men should go into the country inspired with the determination to develope its social re- sources. They should first create a public opinion that would lead to the adopting oftlieseand similar acts, and then busy themselves to guide and edu- cate the people to make use of their opportunities. To infuse the hope of prospering and getting on into the rural districts was a most difficult matter. The whole population, farmers, and labourers alike, were convinced that under the existing laws agri- culture could not be made to pay, so that it, was no use taking trouble with it. How were they to remove the despair 1 Change the laws ? Yes", as soon as they could, but that would not be sufficient, Getting on was not merely making more money out of the farms. Could not the University raise agri- culture into the rank of a first class science ? And why not grant a degree in Agriculture? Then, as to the thickly populated mining districts, where there was more life and movement, greater pros- perity, and also more vice and misery, the Uni- versity drew from and sent into these districts the majority of its students of all kinds, and they should be sent there equipped and determined to combat the social evils in their immediate neighbourhood. It should not be difficult in the most populous centres to organise bands of Uni- versity people to confer together and to take con- certed action to this end. Some kind of institute or settlement might be worked by these Unions. The problems that needed solving and the evils that needed abolishing in these districts were many and various, such as the bad cookery and thrift- lessness of the housewives, the insanitary condition of streets and houses, the lack of healthy recreation- and amusement, the overworking of young boys in the colleries and the working of women in tin works and brickyards and the like, the pernicious credit and hire systems in trade, the ignorance of econ- omic principles which made the man the ready prey of popular agitators and greedy employers alike, in- temperance, and other forms of vice, the technical and general culture of the people. What infinite possibilities of improvement in all these matters would be open to a band of University-trained men and women, consisting of surgeons and lawyers, mining engineers and pro- prietors of work, teachers at elementary and inter- mediate schools, ministers of religion and trained musicians, and all classes to students that settled among the people. But to get hold at all of the lowest classes, men and women must live among them, and give of their time, of their hearts, and their lives to the work. But in order that the University might bring its influence to bear on the general life of the people in some or all of the ways suggested, it was time to organise its forces directly and consciously to the end. A Social Committee was now in process of formation. This might become a permanent Council to direct the social work of the University. It should be in closest relation with the University in its corporate capacity on the one hand, and on the other with each of the constitutional Colleges, including- their present residents, and past students. But, finally, no machinery in itself would be of the slightest use. They must decide at the outset that they were ready to work and to sacrifice a great deal for their ends. Reform would only be effected by moral and personal effort, and organisation could only provide channels for such moral and personal force to make itself effective. The spirit in which they would approach t he work is all-important—a large enthusiasm of humanity—the sense of their people's need and confidence in their possible sal- vation, a spirit wide and generous enough to embrace every possible good of the people. Religious work should not be excluded by that narrowest of all dogmatisms which could only tolerate negations, for religious workers would deem it waste of resources to attempt social work without the aid of religion, but neither should any kind of religion or other dogmatism exclude people who wished to call themselves, or who were willing to perform work that might be called non- religious. Likewise in politics. While avoiding party watchwords and propagandism, they should seek every aid from the politician as such, for legislation was needed to create the conditions for and to consolidate the work of individual and social reformers, but they should still work as if the salvation of the country were theirs alone to effect. These were only tentative suggestions, thrown out to,call upon their University to advance in the fulfilment of its promise and destiny in real service to the people-a destiny and promise once so happily united and realised, foreshadowed and portrayed in example for them in the noble, but, alas I too short career of the first warden of this Guild. Amongst those who took part in the discussion that followed were Mr J. h. Davies and Professor Anwyl. On the motion of Mr Charles Owen, seconded by Mrs Lewis, a vote of thanks was accorded to Prof. Rees for his address. A similar vote was also accorded Mr Dawes, on the proposition of Mr H. E. Piggott, seconded by Mr Derry Evans.
LAMPETER. (For other Lampeter news see inside). r "^e wor** of renovating the Brondeifi Unitarian Chapel has now been begun. The contract is said to be about R,2,000, Mr David Davies. Saw Mills, being the contractor. The building when completed will be an elaborate one, and will be built on the same site as the present chapel. ACKNOWLEDGMENT.—Principal Bebb, St David's College, has received the following acknowledg- ment from the Home Office, in reply to an address sent to his Majesty King Edward VII. a short time ago: Dear Sir, I am commanded by the King to convey to you hereby his Majesty's thanks for the loyal and dutiful address of the Principal, Tutors,.and Professors of the St David's College in the Cbunty of Cardigan, expressing sympathy on the occasion of the lamented death of her late Majesty Queen Victoria, and congratulation on his Majesty s accession to the throne.-I am, dear sir, yours, Charles T. Ritchie." RKTREAT FOR THE CLERGY.—About thirty ministers of the Gospel attended' the annual Retreat for the Clergy of the Diocese of St. Davids held at the St. David's College this week. fheconductor is tbeRev. George Harford-Battersby. The-proceedings of the first day Tuesday, were of an introductory character, commencing with even- song at 5.30. At 7.30; the first of a series of exposi- t ions of the Epistle to the Romans was given and at 9.0, after all had assembled, an opening address explained the idea of the Retreat, and offered sug- gestions for making a profitable use of the time. The following three days were successively occupied by pecial subjects. Wednesday Review af the past; renewal .ud deepening of penitence and faith. Thursday: The soul's attitude in the present; personal holiness. Friday: The work of the future influence aud ministry. A connecting thread was found in the series of expositions of the Epistle to the Romans, the divisions of St. Paul's great Letter answering to the subjects assigned to the separate days. On the last day (Saturday) a Thanksgiving Service will be held, if possible, before leaving. Subjects for afternoon conferences: 1, Sunday schools and the Catechism 2, how to instruct aur people in Church principles; 3, how to help Coin iii tinicaiits. It was not proposed to bind those attending the Retreat to any hard and fast rules. But as some would wish not to take part in general conversation, a devotionvl book was usually read at the principal meals. Early rising and retirement after the late evening' service were found essential. The Chapel was at all times available for private devotion.
MACHYNLLETH. Ibe Marchioness (D) of Londonderry and Lord Henry Vane Tempest returned to PI as on Tuesday. The townspeople were delighted to find her ladyship enjoying such excellent health. The Marquess of Londonderry has consented to visit Batb on the 25th for the purpose of unveiling mural tablets, placed by the corporation, on the houses once occupied by Ralph Allen and John Palmer, two worthies closely associated with the inauguration of the present postal system. SARZINE.—This new blood mixture prepared by Mr Hugh Davies, chemist, is finding a ready market, and is extensively used in all parts of the country. illATIRIAC,F.-On Wednesday morning at the Graig Independent Chapel, the marriage was solemn- ized between Mr Evan Richard Jenkins, of London, formerly of Dalbont-drain, Uwchygarreg. and Miss Maggie Morgans, Rhiwlwyfen. A ROMANCE OF DERW&NLAS.—This is the title of an article by Philip Sidney which will appear in our columns next week It deals with an episode of much interest to Machynlleth and its immediate neighbourhood. THE WEATHER.—Despite the sarcasm of novel- ists, people, of late, have had very good reasons to talk of the weather. Rain, rain, in cold, shivering torrents has been the order of the day for many a long weary week. The glint of sunshine on Tues- day was, therefore, very welcome, as it carried promise of better and brighter days. THE NEW MAYOR.—At the annual meeting of the Council on Tuesday Mr. Edmund Gillart was unanimously elected Mayor for the ensuing year. Since his election to the Council Mr. Gillart has proved himself a most useful member, and he has at all times shown himself to be fully equal to the duties of presiding over the deliberations of the Council and the destinies of the town. His fellow townsmen express the hope that Mr. Gillart will find his year of office a prosperous and eventful one. A HINT,—A correspondent writes The Council is to be congratulated upon its wisdom in electing Mr Edmund Gillart to preside over its deliberations for the ensuing year, There are many questions at Machynlleth which cry aloud for the hand of the reformer, and it is devoutly to be hoped that he will grapple with some of these without delay. If Mr Edmund Gillart will take steps to secure a public library for the town he will earn the gratitude of a no mean number of his fellow towns men, especially the younger generation. In pro- visions of this kind Machynlleth is far behind the majority of villages at the present day. The new Chairman of the Council is a gentleman who has enlightened views on public affairs, and he can command general support. The wish is, therefore, general that he should exert his influence while in office, to procure the town some lasting good, such as the institution of a public library. FISHING.—There are prospects of a good fishing season, and it is anticipated that a goodly number of anglers will be seen in the town and neighbour- hood during the coming weeks. The Dovey at present is furl to its banks after the recent rains and it is said that but very few, if any, kelts remain in its waters. LITERAny.-At the Llangefni (Angelsey) Eistedd- fod on Easter Monday, the prize of two guineas for the best essay on Avarice was awarded to the Rev. D. H. Hughes, Machynlleth, whose composition was adjudged the best of 19 sent in. Pedr Hir,' of Liverpool, was the adjudicator. I FAIR.—Last Monday's fair was a very poor one in every respect. There was hardly any demand at all. Mr Baker, of Rhydpepnan, said he had hardly any offers for over fifty head of cattle he had for sale. Buyers were very few. Some of the dealers present said that their friends in Northampton, who were large buyers, had scores of pasture under water, and they were, therefore not in a position to attend fairs and increase their stock. The weather told heavily against the fair, and prices ruled very low. THE SOCIETY OF CYMREIGYDDIOX—The last meet-, ing of the session was held on Wednesday evening, when the Rev Josiah Jones read an interesting paper on Machvnlleth from a religious point of view." Mr J. Rowlands presided.—The rev gentle- man traced the founding of the various religious bodies in the town, and many now living here who are descendants of some of the founders.—A hearty vote of thanks was accorded Mr Jones on the motion of Mr Ed. Rees, seconded by Mr W. M. Jones.—The following were elected officers for next session :—President, Mr John Rowlands vice- president, the Rev D. T. Hughes; treasurer, Mr W. M. Jones; secretaries, the Rev Wnion Evans and Mr D. P. Jones.—Several members spoke of the loss the Society had sustained by the removal of Dr E. Davies Rees from the town. Dr Rees was the prime mover in the formation of the Society. THE DEANERY OF CVFKII.IOO CLERICAT. ASSOCIATION. —A meeting was held on Wednesday afternoon in the vestry ef Christ. Church to discuss (1) the coming Ruridecanal Conference at Machynlleth in June, the papers to be read, and the speakers; and (2) the rating of the incomes of the clergy—its injustices, and the best means to be adopted to meet the same. The Rural Dean, the Rev W. Richards, pre- sided, and the Rev R. P. Hughes, curate of Llanwrin, was appointed to read a paper in Welsh on religious indifference, at the conference in June. The Rev Canon Trevor, John Williams, Penegoes, John Jenkins, Llanymawddwv, and C. P. Morris, Mallwvd, spoke. The clergy present expressed their svmpathy with the secretary of the deanery, Rev R. Richards, rector of Darowen, in his illness. Tne clergy m-el-ii entertained by the Rev Mr and Mrs Williams of Pene- goes at the Lion Hotel after the meeting. FUNERAL OF MH. WILLIAM JONES, CAMBRIAN HOUSE. The funeral of Mr William Jones, Cambrian House, took place on Wednesday afternoon in last week amid manifestations of deep sorrow. Before leaving the house, a short service was held, the Rev. Edward Williams reading a portion of the Scripture, and the Rev. T. F. Roberts offering prayer, this being followed by the singing of a hymn The cortege, as it wended its way to the cemetery, was of imposing length, the attendance of relatives and friends being very large. The obsequies at the cemetery were of simple character, the Rev Richard Edwards, Cemmes-road, and the Rev. Elias Jones, Newtown, officiating. The chief mourners were Mr David Jones, Aberllefeni House, brother; Mr J. Sylvanus Jones, Bank, Aberayron, nephew Rev. W. S. Jones, Machynlleth, nephew Mrs Owen, Machynlleth, niece; and George, David, Charles and Miss Nellie Owen Mr Richard Edwards, Ceinws. nephew; and Mr William Edwards, Ceinws, and Miss Edwards nephew and niece. Amongst those noticed in the procession were Revs. T. F. Roberts, Edward Williams, D. Lloyd Jones, Llandinam; Elias Jones, Newtown Richard Edwards, Cemmes Road John Williams, Sion; William Roberts, Melynbyrhedyn; Josiah Jones. E. Wnion Evans, and D. H. Hughes, Mach- ynlletli and Hugh Jones, Aberllefenni; Dr. Williams. Machynlleth Messrs W. M. Jones, Hugh Davies, Richard Owen, and Richard Rees (officers of Maengwyn Church) John Rowlands, solicitor, David Evans, solicit,or; Edward Morgan, solicitor; H. H. Meyler, (headmaster County School): John Thomas, (chairman District Council) J. M. Breeze; D. Smith, Llewellyn Evans, J. G. Jenkins, Bank, D. E. R. Griffith, Bank D. Ll. Jones, Bank; G. W. Griffith, E. Marpole, H. Morris, D. Morgan, London- deny House and G. Bowen, E. Jones, Roberts, and G. F. Roberts, Machynlleth; H Davies, Morris Thomas. Ivor Jones, and Richard Owen, Corris; J. Hughes Jones, and William Jones, Aberdovey Edward Rowlands, Pennal; Michael Roberts, Aber- llefenni; E. Roberts, Doldyfi; Daniel Howell, Llan- brynmair; Edward Lewis, Braichgoch quarry. David Evans, Gwerniago; William Parrv, Glan- fechan John Jones, Glanmerin; Evan Jones, Elan, Valley; Thomas Breton, Tywyllnodwedd; David Jones, Gyllellog; Hugh Jones, Foelfriog; John Disley, Aberllefenni, etc. The funeral arrange- ments were satisfactorily carried out by Mr Richard Rees, J.P., Paris House. On Sunday, the Rev. Elias Jones, of Newtown, who occupied the pulpit of Maengwyn Chapel, preached an eloquent memorial sermon before a large congregation. At the close of the service, the" Dead Iarch" was 1 played by Miss Maglona Rees. BOARD OF GUARDIANS. A niect in, of the above Board was held on Wed- nesday, April 17th, at thejl nion Workhouse there being present Messrs Ellis Hughes, in the chair- David Evans, Edward Hughes, E. M. Jones, Lewis Lewis, Thomas James, Rufus Owen, William Jones. Richard Morgan, Richard Hughes. John Jones, J. H. Evans. M. E. Francis, Isaac T. Parry. Hugh Hvans, R. Gillart. D. Gillart, and Daniel DaN-ies, with David Evans. clerk. STATISTICES Amount of out-relief administered durino- the fortnight, DaroWen district, per Mr David Howell, relieving officer. £ 42 in 269 paupers Machynllet h t district, per .vlr John L22 to 149 panper- j I enal district, per Jlr Yv iliiam Jones. £ 32 to 221 s paupers nvunoor in tlit; House, £ L4 j vagrants I relieved 63 last e I APPOINTMENT OF CHAIRMAN. Mr Richard Gillart proposed that the Chairman be appointed by ballot as usual, which was agreed to. Mr David Evan, who was appointed, in taking the chair, said he would have preferred .someone else to have been appointed, as he had already occupied the position for two years, but he would do his utmost to carry out the duties satisfactorily. THE VICE-CHAIRMAN. fr Hughes. Marfan, proposed Mr Evan Morris Jones as vice-chairman. ,f "Ul, Joincs proposed as an amendment that Gillart be appointed. Eight votes were recorded for each, and the Chairman gave bis- casting vote in favour of Mr Evan ^Morris Jones, who was declared appointed. FIXAXCE COMMITTEE. It was agreed that the whole Council should act as rinance Committee. CORRESPONDENCE. A letter was read from the Local Government Board enclosing a copy of the Act which requires all bottles containing carbolic acid to be labelled poison. CRBAX DISTRICT COUNCIL. The annual meeting- of the above Council was held at the Town Hall on Tuesday April 16th, there being present: -Lord Henry Vane-Tempest, Messrs John Thomas. William Jones, David Smith, J. M. Breeze, G. W. Griffiths, Richard Owen, Edmund Gillart, Henry Lewis, Richard Rees and Richard Gillart, with Messrs John Rowlands, clerk; D. 1 hi 11 ips Jones, assistant-clerk; John Jones, surveyor • and Dr A. O. Davies. medical officer. Mr Richard Owen proposed and Mr John Thomas seconded that Lord Henry Vane Tempest be ap- pointed chairman pro tem, and the proposition was agreed to. THE CHAIR. Mr W. M. Jones proposed Mr Edmund Gillart as chairman for the ensuing year. He said he need not speak of the merits of Mr Gillart. He would be the right man in the right place. Mr John Thomas seconded the proposition which was unanimously carried. Mr Gillart in thanking the Council said he was much indebted to the Council for the compliment they paid him, and for the honour conferred on him in electing him chairman for the ensuing year. It was a position he had never expected to occupy. The dutiesTftf.the chair were'soinetimes difficult, but he hoped that they would never be unpleasant. He was sure that there were other members of the Council who would be more able to fulfil the office than he woult1, but he would (If) his best. The position which they placed him in that day was not due to the political views that he held, but he trusted that it was owing to the little interest be bad taken in the work of the Council, and the way he tried to act in the discharge of those duties, which every ratepayer expected the members of the Council to carry out. He would always seek their assistance in the discharge of his duties. He thanked them for the honour conferred upon him. ATTENDANCE OF MEMBERS The Clerk read the list of attendances made by members of the Council, which was as follows:- Number of meetings held, 24; John Thomas, 21; Evan Reese and J. M. Breeze, 20; Richard Owen 19; David Smith, 18; G. W. Griffith, 17: Edmund Gillart and Dr Edward Rees, 16 WT. M. Jones, Richard Gillart and Thomas Paisons, 12 Richard Rees, 11; John Pugh. 10; Henrv Lewis, 9; Lord Henry Yane Tempest, 6. The list was passed as correct. VICE-CHAIR. Mr Evan Reese proposed the appointment of Mr J. M. Breeze as vice chairman. Mr David Smith seconded the proposition which was agreed to. Mr J. M. Breese thanked the Council for the good feelings shown towards him by appointing him vice- chairman, but as Mr Giliart would be chairman he was sure his duties would be light. APPOINTMENT OF COMMITTEES. The following were appointed on the Streets and Sanitary Committee Messrs Thomas Parsons, E, Reese, W. M. Jones, David Smith, G. W. Griffiths, John Thomas, John Pugh, Richard Gilhrt, and Lord Henry Vane Tempest, A quorum to consist of four members. Finance Committee:—Mr Richard Owen pro- posed that the whole Council shoald act as Finance Committee, and Mr William M. Jones seconded the proposition which was agreed to. Mr Richard Gillart proposed that the meetings of the Finance Committee be held on the same date as the Streets and Sanitary Committee, so as to have plenty of time to consider the business be- fore it. Mr John Thomas seconded the proposition, which was agreed to, four members to form a quorum. Commons Committee:—Lord Henrv Vane Tem- pest, Richard Rees, John Thomas, and John Pugh. Four members to form a quorcm. ° The chairman and vice-chairman aic ex-officio members of al! committees. ACKNOWL EDO M ENT. A letter was read from Dr E. D. acknow- ledging the Council's vote of symnat hy with him- self and his father on the de"t;1 of Mrs Rees. GAS ACCOUNT. A communication was read from the Gas Com- pany stating that the Council's request for a de- crease in the gas account could not be acceded to until the price of coal would be reduced. Mr Richard Owen remarked that it would not be long before coal would be reduced in price. The Chairman observed that. as the price of coal would soon come down the Council should do something. Mr. Richard Gillart thought that sorxe arrange- ment should be made with the company, so as°to have the gas supplied at a certain price for a cer- tain period. Further consideration was referred to the Streets Committee. THE TANK AGAIN. A letter was read from the Local Government Board referring to the letter of the Council with regard to the building used by the Machynlleth Union for the deposit of refuse, and enclosing a letter from the Guardians stating that they were of opinion that no nuisance existed at the workhouse premises. An extract was given from Mr. Bir- cham's report to the :effect that he inspected the workhouse and also the workhouse tank, which was the cause of a nuisance. It was empty and no nuisance existed. The refuse was taken to a dis- tant field, and if that were always done no nuisance would arise. The Chairman said the nuisance seemed to have been abated. The Clerk suggested that the matter should be left to the Sanitary Committee, which had con- sidered it from the beginning. The Clerk's suggestion was agreed to. SEWERAGE. Plans were received from the engineers of the Z! sewerage scheme, which were deferred until the next ordinary meeting of the Council. SURVEYOR'S ESTIMATE. The Surveyor submitted his estimate for the en- suing year, which was as follows:St P.320 6s; sanitary, £ 73 15s 6d water work- £ 38 16s • total, £ 43217s 6d. °
CORRIS. RECOGNITION. At a largely attended meeting of the Chester Liberals last Tuesday Mr Howell Idris was presented with an illuminated address as a mark of their appreciation of ,his gallant fight at the recent general election. A letter was read from Mr H. Gladstone. M.P., in which he said that Mr Idris had done much to get the party into fighting order, which he was sure would eventually bring success.