t' Aberystwyth College Agricultural SocjpÄ ( ADDRESS BY Mr HAJ ADDING. SHEEP liEARiypty, connected with the .„ Aberystwyth, held its annual The Agrirljnrsday..Februrary 28th, for which Univer'-ivfr J. Marshall Dugdale, the well-known nierer and breeder, of Llanfyllin, had consented to deliver an address. Mr D. D. Williams, of the Agricultural Department, occupied the chair, and amongst those present were Messrs Edward Davies, J,P., Dolcaradog; J. D. Perrott, J.P., D, Lloyd Lewis (N. and P. Bank), F R. Itoberts (solicitor), David Davies, J.P., Felindre, Lampeter; Mrs Prin- cipal Roberts, Mrs Murray, Miss Hawkins and Miss Benkiron, Mr Marshall Dugdale's diarymaids, tratned at Lady Warwick's College. Reading; Miss Katie Davies and Miss Evans, Llanarth; Miss Harries. Brondilo' Carmarthenshire; Professors Murray, Anwvl, Lewis, and others. Mr Marshall Dugdale, who was warmly received, said:—Last year at the annual meeting of your Agricultural Association you had an address on short-horn cattle. On this occasion I have been asked to address you on the subject of sheep. From the earliest time in English history Welshmen have been noted as great sheep-owners and, therefore, I feel that I am approaching a subject in which you will take great interest. If yen look at that won- derful source of information, the Bible, you will find that sheep are on almost every occasion named before cattle. In those ancient times their great importance seems to have been for sacrifice. You will remember that the Shepherds of Israel were held in abomination by the Egyptians, and when the exodus took place out of Eg-ypt, a special feast was ordained, called The Feast of the Passover," aud the animal specially ordered to be slain by every family of the Israelites was a lamb without blemish. In later New Testament times our Lord is spoken of as The Lamb of igo(i that taketh away the sins of the world." The first shepherd is mentioned in the fourth chapter of Genesis, where the ill-fated Abel is described as a keeper of sheep." The next noted shepherd we hear of was Jacob, and later on the celebrated David, who was following the sheep when called to be King of Israel. The accounts of both men as shepherds are most interesting, and the vivid description of both given in Stanley's Jewish Church is well worth reading. Shepherds and sheep are continually mentioned all through the Old Testament, and, last of all, our Lord ii specially described as "The Good Shepherd." It I is really quite homely the way in which His qualities in this capacity are described in the New Testament, To a nation of shepherd? the description Msy iQ uaderstanvl &n5 the SAMS qualities there described are precisely the qualities a shep- herd ought to possess in modern time?. Now what are these qualities1st, He is described as giving his life for the sheep 2nd, knowing his sheep 3rd, rescuing the sheep; 4th, feeding the sheep. I wonder whether any of you conld give a better definition. As regards the first point, even to this day in many foreign countries, sheep have to be brought every night into walled enclosures to be guarded by the shepherds and their dogs from wild beasts, and they often have a very anxious time of it. In this country, how- ever, things are different; but in the mountains of Wales, Scotland and England, many a shepherd in the winter carries his life in his bands whilst looking for his sheep in tne mist or blinding snow. It is a most impressive sight to attend the services on the; Sunday of the Royal Agricul- tural Show week, and to observe the sea of faces of shepherds and herdsmen. There is a look of quiet intelligence which is very striking. Acute power of observation is an absolute necessity to a shep- herd. He has not only to use his brains, but still more his eyes. The hanging listless head, the quivering tail of a sheep or lamb, at once show that something is wrong. Then there is the counting of the sheep, which is an important work. The trouble the shepherd takes to find the lost sheep, and his delight when it is brought back to the flock, is a matter of frequent occurrence, and the description in the New Testament is absolute- ly true to nature. The power of observation, which has been so well described in General Baden- Powell's book on Scouting," is a gift that can be gradually cultivated, and I can assure you from personal experience that in all matters connected with farming, and even in the ordinary affairs of life, it is of the highest and most vital importance. Then again the shepherd should know h:s sheep and their different characteristics; in fact, I con- sider this one of the most important points of a shepherd. Except for show purposes you want all your ewes to be good milkers; but unless the shep- herd is well up to his work, there is a possibility of an excellent ewe being drafted out at the end of the season because she looks bad, whereas as a matter of fact she may be one of the best ewes in the flock and her poorness be caused by having suckled one or two very go 3d lambs. In every-day practice you. will find that some ewes will, year after year, throw extraordinary good lambs. When such is the case, my advice to you is to keep such ewes as long as you can get them to eat, and as long as they can suckle a lamb. Sometimes a well behaved flock of sheep will take to bad ways, and be led away by some llighty ewe or wether. -It is of the utmost importance to find out this leader at once, and then the best way is to part with it, otherwise you may have other sheep falling into the same bad habit. As regards the feeding of the sheep it is most important for the shepherd to notice how the sheep are doing from day to day. They will do well in a pasture for a time, but after that unless they get a change thoy will begin to fall away in condition. An expert shepherd who knows his business well will tell directly when the correct time for moving the sheep has arrived. And now having spoken about the shepherd, let me say a few words about his dog. A really good sheep dog is a valuable animal. Looks go fur very little, but good work is everything. Your Welsh sheep dog trials are now famous, and show to what pitch of perfec- tion sheep dogs can be brought. In your own -cases try and get. a broken sheep dog if possible. To train a young dog requires great skill and patience, and if you have ewes in lamb it is de- cidedly bad to have them driven about by a young -dog. If you have a young dog and want to break him from running sheep, the best time is just after the lambing season, as the ewes will then turn on any dog and teach him his place. My advice to all young fellows is to buy a good broken dog, and then be* very quiet and firm with him and try and not spoil him. Having- now tried to describe the shepherd and his dog, let us come back to you who are studying for a farming life You have a great advantage over your parents, for in then- day there were no colleges like Aberystwyth and Bangor where the elements of agriculture could be picked up. You can learn the theoretical part at these colleges, which they had to pick up by personal experience. One word of warning let me give you. Don't think because you take the highest agricul- tural honours here that you know all about every- day farming. You may know the theoretical part, but you will find it very hard to bring your theoretical training to work in the every-day practical work. If you take my advice you will make friends with any old shepherds or workmen about the Iplace, and with a little tact you will learn their "practical ways of doing things, which you may compare with what you have been taught, and possibly you may be able to improve matters. Whatever you do don't air your own knowledge, or you will get no in,formation from the men. And now let me suppose you are going to start farming. Those of you who are farmers' sons will doubtless go on the old lines and may go to work on your father's farm. In that case you will have the advantage of dealing with sheep of a breed which experience has shown to be suitable to that par- ticular farm. But let, me su; po-H a man who wants to start a farm of his own. He must first think how much capital he can afford to lay out. Then lie mnst make up his mind what sort of a farm be wants, and lastly lie must take a farm and deter- mine how he will stock it. Of course any man may decide to ta<e up a special breed of sheep, and it he is fortunate enough to be able to get uold of an old established flock his operations will bw simple. If however he has to start fresh he cannot do better than quietly go round the farms ad j mining the farm he has taken and see the class (o) -dte.-p kept. there. You will have learnt at Collog- hat different localities suit different sheep, ai,, I will generally find that the sort of sheep or eV'us kept in a district are the best for that oarti'-ul i ■ locality. In the moun- tains of Wales sheep are -rally taken over with the farm, but in the low] o; 1 trtns you will pro- bably have to buy shef. lois you can do by buying couples in the spring or buying young ones at some sale. In the commencement you had better begin by being understocked, as you will not know what each of your fi. Is will do, and for the first sprin yon are '-me to be short of grass. Let me warn yni you?^ Iellowsagainst two things, (1) overstocking farm in a growing year, and (2) buying great naagains. You will "find these things very hard to resist, but a lot of money can be lost at bo; H. Vo:,r first trouble will be with vonr lambs, for it vo > pa* the ewes on too rich a pasture you will prohabiv have considerable, losses from strike. Sonv: ti,1d are much more diable to cause strike' 1 In n others, and only experience will show you where it is best to put your ewes and lambs. A- I ciid before when speaking of the shepherd' now is the best time to train a youne d<> I'm-pies are apt to run the sheep about, but an ewe wt-h a lamb is difficult to drive and will at once turn on a dog if he comes too close. I Strongly advi — you all to get your sheep accustomed to a whisilf. Always blow your whistle when you get the sheep together. In this way you will giadually teach them what you want and in time they will obey the call of the whistle and gather together wit bo at the help of a dog. In j it is a very good thing to go sheep up first thing in the morning 13 I .1111g at night. On hearing the whistle j c^.vep lying down will get up, stretch themselves, and will empty their bladders, thus doing a good deal to prevent their being struck. You will find it wants great patience to sort the ewes so as to get. the right lambs with the ewes. The best way is to divide them a few at a time. If you know the different lambs it is fairly easy. When you have sorted them try and put the different lots where they can see each other, if possible with hurdles between. The ewes and lambs will soon sort themselves, and if a ewe cannot find her lamb she will go back for it bleating all the time. Then the lambs will hear her and will run to the hurdles and join the ewe. Again, let me repeat, the quieter you go about the work the better. The next important thing is sheep washing before shearing. This is done in some running stream. It saves expense if several farmers join together and use one place, paying a fixed charge for t ue use of the hurdles. In ;,bout a week after washing comes the shearing. For this I strongly recommend one of the modern shearing machines. It saves labour—it gives an extra cut of wool. and it cuts the sheep less than ordinary shears. This saves a lot of trouble from the sheep getting fly-blown. Vip shear in June and then dip the lamas. This used to be done in tubs and was a very heavy business. Now, however, we have made a regular dipping place. This saves a great deal of labour which is hard to get and expensive. The lambs are thoroughly dipped and there is an immense saving in the dip itself as the lambs are left to drain and the dip flows back into the bath. We dip our lambs twice a year-oret-in June and again in August—and in the latter month we dip the ewes as well. I consider this of great importance as a preventative against maggots and sheep scab. The ewes and lambs want care- ful watching at this time of the year. If you see a ewe or lamb lying down by itself or switching its tail you may suspect maggots. You ought to carry about a bottle containing dip and pour some on the maggots, which will curl up, and you can brush them away with your hand. If you cannot find maggots anywhere on the budy of a ram, look under the horns. I once bought a Welsh ram of a particular strain to get a change.of blood, and after I had him a few days I got a telephone message that the ram was maggotted. The young shepherd who attended the sheep had at once seen that something was wrong but could not find the seat of the trouble. When his father came he found that the ram was maggotted just a little under the horn out of sight close by the ear. I went at once to the farm, but when we opened the door of the box where the ram was we found him dead. A post-mortem examination showed a few maggSis deep down in the ear, and one had pierced the brain. I mention this to show the great care that ought to be taken til looking QY9Z 3 shesy yvhen anything appears to be wrong. My shepherd said that In his long experience he had only seen one similar case, but it is certainly worth while your remembering about it. The worst places for sheep and Iambs getting flyblown are under covert fences, or under trees, or under wooden sheds. In October we draft our lambs. The common practice is to sell lambs indiscriminately, but we always save the best ram lambs and all the ewe lam js. We do this as it enables us to select the very best of the ewes, and it is extremely difficult to say early on which ewe lambs will turn out well. Some people breed from ewe lambs, but we do not do so, as we consider our ewes grow into stronger sheep if we do not breed from thm until they are shearlings. Now is the time to divide up your breeding ewes. A good deal depends on your selection of a .suitable ram. If you once buy a ram that gets good stock keep him as long as you can. It is not always the best looking ram that gets the best lambs. Except for show purposes dont keep any ewe, however good looking she may be, unless she is a good milker. With my Welsh mountain rams I never use them until they are shearlings in order to get size. Each ram should have an ear mark and the ewes should also be specially marked so that at lambing time you may know how each lamb is bred. If you grow any rape you will find it is a good thing to give the ewes some at this time. When you take the rams from the ewes they hadbetter be put together in very close quarters until they have tired them-elves with fighting, after which one will settle down as master and will keep order. The ewes can now be run together, but it is well to put an old ram with them. When you wean the lambs put them as far as possible from the ewes. As a rule you will not have much trouble with the ewes' udders, but if any get inflamed you had better rub the udder with goose oil. During winter dont let the ewes fall away in condition. When snow comes, or if keep is short, dont grudge a litte hay. It will keep off the fluke and the ewes will be stronger at lambing. Personally, I prefer thousand-headed kale for sheep in preference to turnips. The latter, as you know, contain a lot of water and are liable to freeze. Whatever you do try to get a little green stuff for the ewes when they first lamb. Thousand-headed kale, rye and rye grass, will all yield a nice bite. In the spring keep your ewes as quiet as possible, especially before lambing. All my ewes lamb out in the open. If a lamb dies get its skin and put on another lamb which is a double lamb, and the ewe will take to it. Be careful to see that the ewes suckle their lambs. If your ewes have long tails be: sure they are kept freei'rorn dirt, or it may effect the udder. For the fir^, three days carefully watch the little lambs as they are apt to get stopped. This is easily remedied with a knife, but if neglected the lamb may die. And now a few words about feeding and the diseases of sheep. Try and keep your sheep growing. Dont pamper your young sheep one week and then put them on poor land the next. Have a lump or two of rock salt in every field. It is a great preventative against liver rot. Breeds like the Shropshire will want more extra feeding than Welsh, Sheep intended for show require special and continuous good feeding. I dont believe in giving them at one time more than they will clear up. They like short, sweet, upland hay. Sheep drink ai)t of water, and if they can get it will do well in the hottest summers when there is little grass to be seen. They do not care for long rank grass. A little linseed cake with Indian meal and a few crushed beans with chopped mangolds is a good thing to give show sheep. My mountain sheep don't get footr rot, but with Shropshires it is very troublesome. It is very contagious, and it is a good thing to put a sheep tfcfet has it by o it- self. In some Welsh farms some fields on the farm are j noted for curing the footrot. Then again there is sheep scab. This is always more or less prevalent in the mountains of England and Wales, and it is a serious thing to get into a flock. Hither- to my flock has been lucky enough to escape, and I account for it from the fact that my are all so well dipped. At different times I have found num- bers of strange scabby sheep amongst my flocks. If you see a sheep biting at its wool and little bits of wool pulled out you had better look and ascertain the cause. Lice cause the same bitings. When scab first comes the outside wool is discoloured, and on opening the fleece you will see a little scab. If you treat this at once with sheep dip you will probably stop the trouble. The first stage of scab is very difficult to detect, and I have met many good shepherds who have never even seen a case of scab. Notwithstanding the greatest care and attention, at times the sheep will fall away in condition, and when this occurs the best way is to kill the sheep at once and make what use of it you can. If fit for nothing else it will do "to boil and give to the dogs and poultry. And now I have taken you through your year's work, and have given you some hints which I have found of much every- day use. I recommend you to read all you can, but don't think that because an experiment reads well at an experimental station that it will always suit an ordinary farm. Above all, don't look down on old fashioned farmers and labourers and try and puf: them right. Try, on the contrary, to find cut why they work as they do, and you will often find that there is a good deal of science in the old fashioned ways that have been handed down from father to son for generations. Mr Dugdale was accorded a most attentive hear- ing, and his address was frequently interspersed with marks of approval on the part of those present. I Mr Edward Davies, J.P., said the subject and the lecturer bad been so congenial to him that, he had had a really good time. He lJád heard a good many things he had never heard before. Mr Dugdale bad a world-wide reputation as a breeder of sheep, his ewes and rams being known all ovet the world, (applause). Mr David Davies, J.P.. said he had been mnch edified with what he had heard that day. But there were some things which he, as a practical farmer, would like to learn from the lecturer. He would like to know how long would it take to clip a Welsh-sheep with the machines which he bad referred to. Mr Dugdale's shepherd, who was present, replied thau it could be done in three minutes. Mr Davies said he had seen Welsh shepherds who could shear 120 sheep in a day, and he thought that was very good. He also did not agree with the lecturer as to his method of counting sheep. The usual way in -Cardiganshire, where there were flocks of thousands, was to let the sheep run by you, and count them by tbelhundreds. Professor Alan Murray said when it was intimated to the members of the Society that Mr Dugdale had consented to give this annual address, they all felt that the Society bad scored a distinct success, (applause). He would like to have the lecturer's opinion as to how far the Shropshires were suitable for the higher lands, and also on the question of crossing the Welsh sheep with the Shropshires or any other breed. Mr Dugdale, replying to Mr Davie", sa: I a man I who could countfsheep by the hundreds must be an extraordinary man, because he was one of a thousand. 1 Mr Davies said he did not think so, Mr Dugdale considered such a feat remarkable, adding that lie knew the Welsh farmers were excellent. As to shearing the sheep, there were still a few first class sbearers left, but by the old method sheep were much more cut than by the new. As regards Shropshires on higher lands, his father used to keep them when he (the speaker) first came into Wales. He found they took a great deal of feeding, and they did not grow to such a size as in the Severn Valley. They were always getting foot-rot, and required such a tremendous lot of feeding, that he took to the Welsh. Personally, he had found the Welsh do much better. They never got foot-rot, and wanted little or no feeding. In lambing time also all his ewes lambed in the open, while the Shrop- shires had to be taken in. All his neighbours crossed their sheep with Shropshires. He had tried it, but found, with his class of Welsh sheep, he did as well without crossing. Mr F. R. Roberts asked whether Mr Dugdale reared only Welsh sheep. Mr Dugdale replied that he reared no other breed. Mr Lloyd-Lewis asked what would the lecturer consider the average weight of a lamb fit for the butcher to kill at the end of the season in July or August. Mr Dugdale said at Owestry he showed three wether yearlings that averaged 160 lbs. a piece. Mr Jones proposed, and Mr Price seconded, a hearty vote of thanks to the lecturer, and this was carried with enthusiasm. Professor Alan Murray informed Mr Dugdale that the Society had done him the greatest honour they could, viz., elected him an honorary member of the Society. Mr Dugdale in acknowleding the vote of thanks and his appointment as honorary member, extended an invitation to the members of the Society to visit his farm and inspect the stock.—The meeting then terminated. Previous to the above meeting, a business meet- ing was held uti Wednesday evening, when the report of the general committee—including reports of treasurer, general and local secretaries, and out- committees-was received and adopted. The treasurer's report showed a balance of £7 12s 4td, and in the general secretary's report it was stated that all the County Councils had favourably received the representations made by the Society in favour of granting scholarships for the advanced short course at the College; the number of members on the books last year was 174, and 32 new members have joined; 78 experiments on grass, roots, and potatoes were carried out by members of the Society as followsBreconshire, 4; Carmarthenshire, 34; Cardiganshire, 24; Merioneth, 7; Montgomery, 4; Pembrokeshire, 1; Staffordshire, 4. The reports of local secretaries showed that local meetings had been held in Merionethshire, Montgomeryshire, Breconshire, and Carmarthenshire, and that the Cardigan- shire members bad paid a visit to Mr Morgan Richardson's farm at Cardigan, where they were very well received and afterwards entertained to dinner by him at the Angel Hotel The following were elected vice-presidents for the year Prof D. Morgan Lewis, Prof Edward Edwards, Mr Charles Barnett, Staffordshire; and Mr G. J. Davies, Penlan, Carmarthenshire. Mr Marshall Dugdale, Mr John Jones, Llandudno; and Mr H. Jones Davies, Carmarthen, were elected hon- orary members. It was resolved to add to the present list a competition in sheep fattening, and a committee was appoin- ted to draft the regulations, which will be published in the transactions. It was also resolved in future to hold two general meetings yearly-one at the College in December, and the other in the country in May or June—and that the summer meeting this year be held at uardiff on the occasion of the Royal Agricultural Society's Show. It was afco agreed to ask the readers of papers at the general and sectional meetings to hand over the papers to the general secretary for circulation amongst the members, and to publish a list of the available papers in the transactions. At the morning meeting on Thursday it was resolved to congratulate the following members (old students of the College) on their recent uppeint ments Mr John Roberts, Perferddnant, Merioneth, to be lecturer on agriculture in University College, Bangor: Mr David Thomas, Maeslly, Cardiganshire, temporary extension lecturer on Agriculture for Bangor College Mr A. Hopwood, Madely, Staffordshire, farm manager to the Cheshire Dairy Institute, Worleston. Reference was also made by Professor Murray to the loss which the Society had sustained through the death of John Derville, who had been serving with the Imperial Yeomanry in South Africa, and it was resolved, on the proposition of Mr S. Blore, to send a message of sympathy and condolence to his parents. The awards of the adjudicators in the Society's competitions were then announced as follows:—The Society's medal for the best essay to Mr Walter Williams, Brongaer, Llansadwrn, Car- marthenshire the challenge cup for the best root crop, won for Carmarthenshire by G. J. Davies, Penlan, Lampeter, who also was awarded the prize for the most interesting exhibit—a simple divise for trapping turnip flies; the prize for the most rapidly fattened beast to Mr O. A. Hopwood, Madely, Staffordshire. Mr Williams was then called upon to read his paper on The Farmer's Needs," which proved to be of a very interesting character, and was afterwards discussed by Professsor Murray and others, particularly in regard to co-operation. On Thursday evening, the annual dinner was held at the Lion Hotel, when eighty-one members gathered together, presided over by Mr Murray. After the covers bad been removed, a short speech was made by the Chairman, after which followed a programme of songs and recitations, with which the time passed very happily, until two o'clock, when the meeting concluded with the singing of God save the King," and Hen wlad fy nbadau."
Cambrian Railways Company. MEETING OF SHAREHOLDERS. PROPOSAL TO SELL THE RAILWAY. The seventy-fourth half-yearly meeting of the shareholders of the Cambrian Railways Company took place at Euston Hotel, London, on Wed- nesday week. Amongst those present were.—Mr i A. C. Humphreys-Owen, M.P. (chairman), the Earl of Powis, Lord Henry Vane-Tempest, J. Marshall Dugdale, (directors), Col. E. Pryce-Jones M.P., G. 13. Bryant, Edward Powell, Newtown and P. F. Wood (shareholders), with Mr C. S. Denniss, (general manager and secretary). A vote of sympathy with the Royal Family having been passed, and the loss sustained by the Company by the death of Sir John Maclure, the Chairman dwelt at length with the report and accounts for the past half year. In the course of this he said that the summary of receipts shews a nett increase of P-5,608, whilst the' expenditure had increased to the amount dl £ 7,985. The details of capital expenditure for the half-year showed that of Z15,988 spent on this account, £1.068 was for the completion of the new Scafell I and DouSfhty bridges. These, with the Craig-y-don y bridge,;near Aberdovey, had been built substantially of iron in lien of the old wooden ones. They had to orovide a new crossing place at Talerddig at an expense of £1.153 to facilitate the working of traffic, especially during the summer months. The renewal of the line with heavier materials had cost £2,731, and strengthening Barmouth Bridge was charged with £ 3.200. In the working stock they -P-2, -or fladspent. 055 in additional cattle waggons, which bad been purchased outside, and £1,122 for others which were being built in the Worshops at Oswestry. In the Revenue Account there was a slight decrease from first class passengers, but this was more than made up by £2,606 increase from second class, and although in the third class the number of passengers carried showed a reduction of 20,061, the revenue from this source gave an increase of £829, showing that the third class passengers had travelled longer distances. That was because they were mainly tourists. The revenue for season eickets was slightly up, and the total passenger increase was £3,133 From parcels they had an increase of P,965, and mails £350, but merchandise gave a decrease of £ 2,262. This was principally due to the decrease in the materials required for the new Birmingham waterworks in the Elan Valley. Live stock had produced an increase of £ 1,398; minerals an increase of £ 1,068. From mileage land demur- i rage they had a credit of £427, against a debit of R512 in the corresponding half-year. This was owing to the policy which had been referred to by his predecessor on several occasions of increasing the rolling stock so as to render unnecessary their paying mileage on the stock of other Companies. In the corresponding half-year of 1896 they bad a debit balance on tins account of £ 2,332. The charges for locomotive power showed a total in- crease of £ 3,731. This included what this half-year was the most important item in these accounts, viz. coa1. In this alone they had an increase of £ 5.614. Therehad been an increase of 1,274 tonsin the consumption, and the average price during the halT- year had been 14, pel'ton, against 10s per ton in 1899. Owing to the continuance of the war in Soutii Africa, some difficulty had been experienced in men to do work, and in keeping those already in employ, and they had bad to pay extra wages. The Workmen's Compensation Fuqd stood at E- 1,646. During the past two years they'bad set aside 9,1,000 a year for this purpose, but they had now effected an insurance in a substantial office by the payment of an annual premium of £442, which would realise the sum of £ 558 per annum from this charge. The total working expenses for the half-year amounted to 911111,214 12s lid, and the lotal tranic brought up by miscellaneous receipts to P.174,024 13s, leaving a balance carried to nett revenue account of E64,816 17s 7d, and this, with a balance carried forward from the previous half-year, made a total of £ 75,071. They were thus enabled to pay the full interest on A B and C Debenture Stock for the half-year, and the full four per cent interest for the twelve months on the D Stock, and to carry forward a surplus to the next half-year of iE2,169, exclusive of the sur- plus under scheme of £6,J34 5s. The Chairman said he thought it would be generally agreed that, having regard to the difficulties under which they had had to work during the half-year, and com- paring with the largely increased "expenditure of other railway companies, that the report could not but be regarded as extremely satisfactory, the total increase in their working expenses being at the rate of only 2.75 per cent, the percentage for the half-year under notice being 62,77. He however moved that the report of the Directors and state- ments of account to December 31st last, now submitted, be received and adopted. Mr Bailey Hawkins seconded the adoption of the report. Mr Wood, a shareholder, thought that there should be some explanation of the reason of the falling off in the first class passenger traffic. He was, however, very glad to observe that the Com- pany were paying increase:! attention to their engine power, because it was a great mistake on the part of any Company to be short of engine power, and they would find that powerful engines were really the cheapest in the end. He would like very much if the Chairman could give them a forecast of the cost of coal for the next half-year, 'because it was sure to be considerably less than in the previous half-year. He confessed that he viewed with apprehension the merging of the office of secretary and general manager, and he asked for an assurance from the chairman upon this point. They knew very well that in a progressive railway company like the Cambrian Railways Company very much depended upon the unhampered energy displayed by the general manager. Diligence.on the part of the manager and astuteness and pru- dence on the part of the directors would be of the greatest value. If the general manager was taken away to attend to pure office work it would mean penny wise and pound foolish policy, for in his opinion the geneial manager besides attending to the general business of the Compahy had to see that the people whom the Company served were satisfied. Mr Bryant thought that it was high time that something was done to benefit the shareholders. Apparently the railway was nonaged in the inter- ests of the debenture holders for the ordinary stock was now lower than it had ever been in the history ef the line. He had before observed that the Company should approach some big railway com- pany in respect to the matter of purchase, and he now moved That that meeting of shareholders request the chairman and directors to approach first the L. & N.W.. then the Midland, and afterwards the G. W. Railway Company with a view of ascertaining whether they were willing to purchase the railway, and the price they were willing to give for the ordinary and perference stock." r, Mr. Edward Powell, NeNvtown, in seconding the the proposal, said that he was extremely sorry that he could not accept the roseate view put forward by the chairman. He knew a little about the Cambrian Railways Company, for unfortunately he was dependent up^n it for travelling. In the first place he would like to call attention to the fact that out of the total number of passengers of 1,392,394, it only showed an increase of 3,779, winch was considerably less than one-third per cent, and that increase they would find was not more than one-tenth of the normal increase of well-managed lines. On the other side of the account they would find that the expenditure bad increased by L7975 and to that should be added the £ 1000 difference placed to the Locomotive account, which brought up the total loss to P,8975, and in round figures an increase of £9000. And remembering that the increase in the rates was from a source to which they could not look to in the future, be did not think that the prospects of the Company could be regarded as prosperous. In 1899, the nett revenue was P.67,194, and in addition they had P,507 for interest, so that the total nett revenue was £ 6770. For 1900 the nett revenue was £ 64,816, out of which they paid £ 99 interest, leaving a revenue at £ 64.717 or a reduction in the nett revenue of £2984. From this they would see, remembering that the Company were this year placing 91600 to Locomotive account instead of £2000, that they were E4000 worse off than during the corresponding half-year of 1899. Now it was due to themselves and the public that they should enquire what was the real cause of this decrease, and he was bound to say from his own experience that it wa entirely due to the traffic arrangment of the Company. He knew that it was very awkward to go into details at a meeting like that, and he ought to say that a committee of which he was a member, had used every effort to try and improve the arrangment but they obtained no redress. The Chairman hereupon asked Mr Powell whether he was speaking in the capacity of a shareholder or a customer. Mr Powell replying said, as a shareholder, and added that he might point out to the notice of the other shareholders that if the Directors increased the facilities for travelling, both the shareholders and the public would benefit. Mr Powell then went on to deal with the present time table arrangements. Let them take the case of Aberystwyth which was one of the most important places on the Cambrian Railways. Even 20 or 30 years ago, Aberystwyth was one of the largest watering places in Wales, but now during the 24 hours, only three trains left London for Aberystwyth. One left at 10 o'clock at night, another 5-15 a.m., and another at 10-15 a.m., and practically Aberystwyth was served by one train, for leaving out the 10-15 a.m. a passenger would have to travel all night or get up at four o'clock in the morning. There were three trains to London from Aberystwyth; and one was a night train. He desired to remind them that places like Rhyl; Llandudno, places without the attractions of Aberystwyth. had an immense number of trains. When this was pointed out to the officials of the Cambrian, they replied that the places on the north had more traffic, but he would now take Penmaenmawr which was not so important as Aberystwyth. What did they find at Penmaen- mawr? They found that six trains ran to and from London each day. How then could they expect Aberystwyth to flourish when served in this manner 1 He would now come to Newtown. From this place there were seven trains running to Welshpool, but out of those seven only three were property connected with the Shrewsbury line. He felt this very strongly but he did not express him- self half so strongly as some of the passengers. He could tell them frankly tflat the people along the Cambrian Railways were up in arms against the system from which they were now suffering and it was high time that the shareholders took the matter into their own hands. He was going to suggest that a committee should be formed to consult with the directors but be would now second the resolution. He desired to say one thing; that was this, that there should be no further delay in doubling the line. When the heavy traffic of the summer came on, as every one knew, there was considerable delay on the Cambrian Railways, and often trains were pulled up at wayside stations. Assuming that the cost, would be £ 200,000 for doubling the line this at 4 per cent, would be onlv £8,000 and this .wülld easily be met by the in- creased traffic on the line. He invited contradiction from the directors of the following :—Was it or was it not a fact that Barmouth received nine- tenths of her visitors via Dolgelley on the G. W. Railway in consequence ef the inconvenient, service on the Cambrian Another point which he had been requested to mention was that of the goods traffic, and here again there was a good deal of complaint. Some of them probably thought that he had spoken strongly, but he could assure them that he was perteciiy satisfied that the direc- tors to the best of their ability were desirous of serving the public, hut he must add his opinion that recently they had allowed their ollicials to adopt a retrograde lnoveir.e.nt which was opposed to the active policy which was so marked a few years ago, and it was an unfortunate thing for the shareholders that it bad been dropped. Mr Bryant, in reply to the Chairman, said he was sick of being a shareholder and lie had lost a lot of I money. The Chairman: Order, order, Mr Powell said that, if -be proposition was accepted and put before the meeting, he would agree to adopt the report, oflierwise they would have to move an adjournment. It was agreed to put the amendment before the meeting as a resolution. The Chairman said that as to the question of the merging of the offices of secretary and general 1.6 y manager it was only reverting to a system which had in the past lasted for a considerable number of years. The experiment of having separate offices was tried when Mr Denniss was but it was not satisfactory, and upon lie retirement, of Mr Drayne, the late secretary, it was decided to revert to the old practice, and he could assure the directors that Mr Denniss's .••fivity was not im- paired nor had his attention been distracted from I the general work of the Dealing with Mr Bryant's statement that the were iiiej-ely working the line for the ,f the debenture holders, he said that if that, were so, then the gentlemen sitting around f hat Board were the most extraordinary body of philanthropists who ever occupied such positions, for they were all large holders of preference and ordinary shares, and some of them held deben#ures. It was their first, duty to pay their debt. they managed the Company with a view oi doing that. Mr Powell had said something not covering the debenture interest lat-t eaV, but that was an entirely erroneous idea, be- anse they had covered them for the or fifteen years. As to the comparison of Rhyl and Llandudno with Aberystwyth, he might point that these places were on the main line, and the L. and N.W.R. Co were at this moment quadrepting the line. By this means they were able to give couveniences to com- paratively small stations, and he only wished they had a place half as good as Penmaenmawr on their system. They were obliged by the financial con- dition of the Company to exercise the severest economy (hear, hear). In no other way could they fulfil their duties to the debenture holders, nor in any other way could they keep the Company out of the hands of the Receiver. He could tell them frankly that after going into the question with the General Manager, he could not as Chair- of the Board sanction a second train in the morn- ing or evening. The report was then put and adopted unani- mously. Mr IVood said that before the other motion was put he would like to have a word upon that point. He thought it would be the greatest piece of folly to pass such a resolution (hear, hear). Would it not be better to ask the directors to take the matter into their earnest consideration ? Probably in the future an opportunity might come when the railway might be sold, and to hurry a thing of that sort was perfectly suicidal (bear. hear). Such a thing would have to be approached in the most careful way, otherwise if they sold now they would be throwing their property away and be laughed at by the whole of the railway world. He believed the time would come when it would be the best thing to do. It was quite true that a large railway company could work cheaper than a small company. He hoped that they would not pass that resolution in its crude form and lie might point out that it was not the Cheshire Lines Railway that had been sold but a little branch of the Cheshire Lines Ex- tension, and they must take care to make this dis- tinction (hear hear). The Chairman said he entirely concurred with the remarks of the gentleman who had sat down. It would be most impudent on the part of the Company to go crying "stinking fish" over the country, here, there, and everywhere. He hoped that such a proposal would not be sanctioned, A Shareholder: The directors can feel the pulse of the Company, and unless the shareholders take some steps the directors are so thoroughly satis- fied- ° J Several Directors: No, no. Continuing, the Shareholder said that he sup- posed the Cheshire Lines did this Mr Wood I rise to order; it is not the Cheshire Lines Extension. a A Shareholder: I know them as well as vou do. Mr E. Powell suggested that a Committee of Shareholders should be oppointed to confer with the directors. Mr Bailey Hawkins: That is a vote of want of confidence. He remarked as to the extent of the directors interest in the line in the way of pre- ference and ordinary shares. Mr Powell claimed that, the small shareholder had a right of speech, and he held 4,000 shares. Mr Hawkins And I can say 40,000. Mr Bryant: I have 16,000. Mr Hawkins: Your interests are very serious but you are not a wise man in wanting to sell the rail- way to a larger company. Do you know, sir, that it took me from four to five years to negotiate the sale of a small line, and when I did sell it I got what I wanted and not what the Company had to offer ? Mr Bryant: We are not bound to take their offer Mr Hawkins When they approach us that is another matter altogether (hear, hear). You are now crying stinking fish." Mr Bryant: I am getting old and I want a decent income. Mr Sletter.ey: 1 represent 60,000 or 70,000, and I protest against such a resolution being passed so as to injure the property I represent (hear, hear). The Chairman put the motion, when the mover and seconder alone voted for it, and it was declared lost. Mr Powell: Will the Board agree to the appoint- ment of a committee The Chairman That will be a vote of want of confidence. THE DOVEY SWING BRIDGE. A special meeting followed for the purpose of considering the Bill now being promoted in Parlia- ment by the Company. Mr Denniss read the Bill, which was as follows A Bill to authorise the Cambrian Railways Com- pany to extend their railway at Pwllheli; to con- struct a fixed instead of an opening bridge over the River Dovey; to grant further powers to that Company in respect of the use of steam vessels, and for other purposes. The Chairman said that in the first place this Bill was required in order to enable the Company to make an extension of their line at Pwllheli. by the aid of an embankment now under construction, and over which the Town Council would give them way leave, and they simply asked for power to make the extension if the conditions which the Corporation held out to them were fulfilled. The next point was the bridge over the Dovey which was at present constructed as an open bridge. The traffic had very much passed away from the river, and for the last ten or fifteen years at least, if not longer, the bridge had never required to be opened. If the bridge was altered as proposed, it wouJd enable them to run their heaviest engines over, and would make the engine work on the Coast branch much easier. He was aware that there was a good deal of popular feeling in the locality at the same time most of the people did not feel very strongly on the subject, and he thought that they might hope to make some amicable arrangement with them by which opposition to the Bill on the part of the locality might be removed. As regards the y steam vessels they were wanted for the purpose of running trips along the Bay from one town- to the other. He formally moved that the Bill be approved. Mr Bryant asked what bad become of the steamers that were at Aberdovey which they obtained at a lot of expense, and could the Chair- man say if the Government were going on with the Harbour scheme at Pwllheli ?--As regards the steamers, the Chairman replied that these were chartered. In respect to Pwllheli harbour, nothing more bad been heard of the matter since the inter- view which members of the House* had with Mr Ritchie. Mr Hawkins seconded the motion. Col. E. Pryce-Jones, M P., said that he for one was very anxious to support, the Directors in doing the best they could for the Shareholders and public generally, and lie suggested that the Directors should include in the Bill a clause to the effect that, if the slate trade necessitated river traffic in the future, the bridge would revert to a swing bridge. He felt that there was a public right to be main- tained, and although he felt that the bridge would never be required for the purpose of letting boats up, he at the same time could not shut his eyes to the fact that a public right demanded protection. They knew the progress of the Ship Canal and they were acquainted with the fact that it was proposed to construct a Canal to Wolverhampton,and having in view these facts be suggested that the Board should adopt his suggestion and they need no longer fear opposition from Montgomeryshire. The Chairman on behalf ef the Company could not agree to that. To change the bridge after closing it up would be an enormously expensive business and he would put it to those interested in that part of Montgomeryshire that they had better have a bird in band" and accept the consession which Mr Denniss had explained to them, rather than frustrate a scheme by insisting upon a con- dition which the Company could not accept. Col. Pryce-Jones: Then the Board refuse to con- sider it. The Chairman I should not like to use the word "refuse" because it sounds unnecessarily hostile and it would be much better for the people down there to get a more substantial benefit. Col Pryce-Jones thought that the Company would be taking away a right which possibly might be of great value in years to come, He was bound to say that he would consider Mr Slatterly said that this gentleman had addiessed them half-a-doren times and they could not be kept there all the afternoon, If that clause was inserted it would be practically inoperative If the Bill became law what body would have the right to demand the re-opening of the Bridge ? He must ask the chairman to put the motion. The chairman said that he had given Col Pryce- Jones a good deal of latitude and he must put it now. Col Pryce-Jones did not know who the gentleman was who interposed and perhaps he did not know who lie was, but he wanted the Board to understand that he was doing it in the interests of the company. Mr Slatterlev said that he knew Mr. Pryce-Jones for a very long time, and up to the present lie had been able to take care of his own business. The proposition was then put and carried. The customary vote of thanks to the chairman, the directors and the staff brought the meeting to a close. -_n_
LLANGWYRYFON. TYMOII HAU.—Gyda nesad V gwanwyn.-vinogir amaethwyr ac eraill sydd yn amcanu prynn hadau i dalu ymweliad a masnacbdai Meistri Thos. Powell a'i Gwmni, Aberystwyth a Llangwyryfon. Yno ceir detholiad eang o hadau gardcl. hadau cloron, ac hadau amaethyddol, a'r rhai hyn am brisiau rhesymol. Gwerthir 38 pwys o hadau, yn cynwvs cligon i orcliuddio erw o dir, am 38.. --I
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