CARDIGAN DISTRICT LETTER. THE NETPOOL BEAUTIFIED. Owing to the unfavourable weatheV Mr •Morgan-Richardson suspended the work in connection with the erection of the orna- mental shelter which he has generously given the town of Cardigan for the Netpool -promenade. The work is in progress now, owever, and is sufficiently advanced for he public to see the substantial nature of the gift. The situtation chosen by the Council proves to be an ideal one for the purpose, notwithstanding the grumpy com- I ments of the local paper. But, there, comments from that particular source are generally at a terrible discount! The m +UC- I7,ene88 of the Netpool will be dut 1 f and it should be the y °f every good towns-man and-woman, « constitute themselves as a body of unclassified police," as Mark Twain says, o protect the shelter, and other public Property from mutilation and injury. The elter is anchored to a solid bed of con- <rete, and with fair treatment should stand tile storms of a generation. The Town Council have taken time by the forelock, and have sounded a note of warning before cause for complaint has arisen. The wn Clerk was instructed at the quarterly meeting of the Council on Monday to write to all the schoolmasters in the district to *Jrn their scholars'; so that the first Offender will be dealt with severely. A STORM IN A TEA CUP. This well-known phrase aptly describes the discussion which has arisen on the Cardigan County School Board of Manage- ment upon certain newspaper comments ^*nmunicated by a pupil of the school to a -Pembrokeshire journal, and which reflected to some extent upon the Managers and the School. The Managers took the matter very Seriously indeed, and the young man has received due and solemn warning not to do it again pupils of the school must not write to papers, much less discuss the conduct of the Managers. However, even School Man- agers have their limitations, like everyone VY*d it is hardly likely that the liberty ° fli su^Ject will be interrupted in this ruthless fashion. A spirit of esprit de corps ou f in future be a sufficient safeguard •ST* any comment calculated to injure the 00 • Students inspired by Juvenal and is contemporaries must give vent, and the provincial newspaper is a channel easily 611 u'f • • ^ne cann°t help feeling that the Pro ibition by the School Managers is un- worthy of their dignityl because had the comments been a bit more lightly handled, *nd if the Knights-of-the-Round-Table had been properly anointed, the feeling would have been very different. Instead of crushing the budding journalist they should encourage him. VALEDICTORY. During three years observation there has never been gathered together in the town of Cardigan so many Free Church pastors as were assembled at Hope Congregational ^uapel on Monday evening, to pay their "Valedictory tributes to the Rev D. Garro Jones, who is leaving this week for Llan- drindod Wells. They came from the North, the South, East, and West, from the coast oliad the hills to wish him" God-speed." For nearly three hours they talked on one theme, and it is believed there was sufficient elocutionary steam within the building to have kept up the pressure for a week. Out of respect for their pastor the congregation C5 would probably have remained to the end Jjyit fortunately their powers of physical urance were not put to quite so severe a test. Mr Jones has worked strenuously during his 51 years pastorate, and he can proudly claim almost universal friendship in the district. In serving the English Con- gregational Church in Cardigan he has laboured under the disadvantage of knowing that he could not possibly swell his adherents beyond a very limited number, because Welsh preaching is the more acceptable to the townspeople. Mr Jones received as Parting gifts a purse of gold from his congregation, with an illuminated address, a portmanteau from the Temperance friends at Cardigan, a silver mounted walking stick from the Temperance friends at St. Dogmell's while Mrs Jones was given by the members of Hope Church a handsome china te lervice. These marks of good-will thoroughly explain Mr Jones's position. He is about to succeed to the pulpit of the Rev Kilsby Jones, and equipped as he is with intellect, Rigour, originality, and last but not least, heart, the mantle of the great preacher will not unworthily rest upon the shoulders of the Rev D. Garro Jones. OFF TO THE WAS. -[n obedience to the orders of the War Office the three Cardigan Volunteers who. Welve months ago, volunteered for active service in South Africa, paraded, fully uipped, last Wednesday, and accompanied by the men of F. Co. 1st V.B. Welsh, and the znn of the Royal Naval Reserve, together 0 7?^h the civilian population headed by the Zr^yor and Corporation, proceeded to the j^fcilway Station, where they entrained for r&rdifF to undergo their preliminary training sailing. Their names are: Lance k?rgt. John Evans (25) of Llwynduris, Car- digan, bank clerk Pte. Jenkin Jones (26), tive of Milford, bank clerk, and Pte. W. Richards (21) of Moylgrove, Cardigan, labourer. There are three fmen at the front How, with Capt. R. W. Picton Evans, and their term of enlistment is about completed. Although the notice received was short a good deal of enthusiasm was worked up, and the itown Clerk collected a substantial amount for division between the men in kind And money; in addition there were many private gifts to each of the men. Col. W. Picton Evans, the Commandant of the 1st Welsh, made the public presentation to the men in front of the Guild Hall. If cheers and popular excitement could afford any Satisfaction to the men under the circum- stances, they had all they could desire. It is to be hoped they will return in due time safe and sound, and not find, as so many fine fellows have found, alas, an unknown grave en the trackless veldt. 11 HERE AND THERE. In connection with the Anniversary of Hope Congregational Chapel, celebrated on Wednesday last, Cardigan was favoured by a visit of the popular lecturer, the „Rev, W. Pedr Williams. Here and there was the subject of his lecture, and it is needless to Say that he made a great impression upon his large audience. Mr Augustus Brigstocke very genially presided. TELEPATH.
= It is rumoured that owing to the cost of the war the Chancellor of the Exchequer will Unfold the Budget at the earliest possible moment. This report has got on the nerves of members of the liquor trade to such an extent that early this week they poured money into the Treasury in order to obtain delivery of goods lying in the bonded ware- houses. Clearly they anticipate taxation of wine, spirits, and tobacco. In circum- stances such as these brewers are unable to speculate much, for they have first to manu- facture tlie article, whereas dealers in the other liquors have them ready-made at hand, and with them it is merely the question of paying in or obtaining the sums necessary to satisfy the Crown's claim for duty.
Cardigan County School. SPEECH DAY AND PRIZE DISTRIBUTION. ELOQUENT ADDRESS BY THE HIGH SHERIFF. [Br TELEPATH.] The annual prize distribution took place at the Cardigan County School on the afternoon of the 6th inst., when the occasion was signally marked by the presence and approbation of the High Sheriff of Cardiganshire (Dr Garrod Thomas). The Mayor of Cardigan (Mr D. Ivor I Evans) occupied the chair, and there were present, by the joint invitation of the Managers and Staff, a small, but influential assem- bly of those most interested in the welfare of the school. The Mayor h ving briefly opened the pro- ceedings called upon Dr Rees for bis report. HEADMASTER'S REPORT* Dr Rees observed: There is such a lot of re- porting done in connection with this school that it does not seem to be necessary for me to expand on the subject at all. At the end of each term a report of the work of every pupil is sent home to the parents. Every year we have to send a report to the Managers for the County Governing Body, and every month there is a report to the Managers meeting; and there are sundry other re- ports, official and otherwise, so that I need say very little here to-day. I might almost in one sentence say all that I need say, and that is, that my colleagues on the staff and myself have throughout the past year done everything we possibly could with the material we had to work upon. That my state- ment is correct I think you will be able to find out from these papers that have been handed to you. You will find from them that the work in the upper part of the school has, at any rate, been eminently successful. I have not troubled you with details about the lower part of the school, but there is the Central Welsh Board report on that work. It has come to hand, and there is hardly a subject taught at school for which the Inspectors have not some good word to say, so that altogether, what with the r, report on the upper part of the school, in con- nection with houours, and the senior and junior certificate s, and the work in the lower part of the school, as well as the work of pupils who did not go in for examination, I think we ought to feel really proud of the work that we have done here (applause). I do not say that it is altogether due to us as teachers, because I know very well that the material we have got to work upon is decidedly good. Now, just as an indication of the kind of work that we can get through here, if the scholars remain at school long enough, or parents do not interfere with the work of their children, I will just mention one fact. We have here to-day a pupil, who, on entering school, had done next to nothing in English Grammar. Last July that pupil took the honours paper in English Grammar --the very highest offered by the Central Board, and obtained distinction in that paper (Hear, hear). As you know, this year the Central Welsh Board have not published the results as yi previous years, so that we cannot find out how we stand this year as compared with other schools; but some present in this school may have received the general report of the Central Board—that is, a report in which no mention is made of any par- ticular school, and from that report we are able to gather something as to the kind of work that is done elsewhere. I was looking over the work done in Latin. Latin is a subject that is taught in every one of these County Schools. Eight pupils throughout the whole Principality took the highest paper in Latin. Of those eight pupils two of them are here with us to-day (applause). You will also find if you look through this leaflet thats.ome of our pupils have been able to secure exhibitions in the Joint Counties—Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire. Threi exhibitions are offered by the County Governing- Body of Cardiganshire, and you will find that these three exhibitions have been awarded to pupils from this school. I ought, perhaps, to say that the first exhibition this year was gained by a pupil from Aberystwyth; the second and third came to our school. The two girls who won these exhibitions preferred to remain on at school, consequently these two exhibitions went back, and one of them was offered to another pupil from this school, so that I consider that these three exhibi- tions have been in a way awarded to pupils in this school. In Pembrokeshire the County Governing Body awarded three county exhibitions. Of these three, two have come here. I think that is sufficient to show .that the quality of the work done in connection with the Central Welsh Board is decidedly good. We have here again on the leaf- let a paragraph showing what our success has been in connection with the London University. Four names are here of pupils who, last June, were succesi'ul at that University. I do not, as I say, claim that all the success is due to us. We have here boys and girls who work harder than almost any of you would credit. Eight hours we are often told is time enough for anyone to work during the day, but I am positive that some of the boys and girls must have been working more thiilt eight hours a day, counting the time spent at school. Possibly Dr Thomas will not approve of what I say, at any rate of children at school, that they have to work so many hours a day, but when these pupils come up fot their prizes I think he will have to admit that work agrees with them eminently. They do not seem any the worse for it at all (Hear, hear). There is one thing I am glad of, and that is that parents of children show a certain amount of interest in the work done by their children at school. The more interest there is taken by the parents, the better we find the children work. If parents will once understand that every week a list is put up in school shewing the position of each scholar, and if parents ask their children what position they held at school last week, I think that their progress would be more satisfactory than even it is now. We find that those are the bright pupils who come from homes where the parents take an interest in politics, books, or in literature generally. I am very pleased that parents have come as they have come to-day to witness this prize distribution. It is an encouragement both to the staff, to the managers certainly, and to the scholars themselves. This- is festival day; this is a day that they have for themselves. They are not compelled to attend here at all on this occasion, but they do come, and I daresay in their hearts they are really glad of the opportunity of carrying away the prizes with them. I thank the Mayor for his presence, and kind remarks about the staff and myself, and I will now give place to Dr Garrod Thomas (cheers). DR GARROD THOMAS' ADDRESS. It would be only reasonable, and at any rate it is correct for me to say that it was with great pleasure I contemplated once more visiting the capital town of my native county. Whatever pleasure I may have at first experienced, was considerably modified a few days later when I found I was supposed to give an address. As a medical man I am very much in the habit of speaking to an audience of one or two, but it does not come very frequently in my life's work to speak to a large audience. How- ever, inasmuch as Dr Rees is in the habit of obtain- ing obedience from each one of you when he gives a command, so it is only reasonable and right that I should implicitly obey. It is really very pleasant for me to be here, for I spend my life in seeing a great deal of the seamy and troubled side of Nature. Here I only see young faces, with nothing seamy about them,—full of vitality, and full of sunshine, and I hope all are as happy inwardly as they appear to be in their faces. I have to congratulate you upon the excellent buildings in which yon are assembled; the walls look rather bare it is true, and I think they could be improved by something in the way of ornamentation, which might be sug- gested by those who understand these things better than I do (applause). Ah that touches a chord (langhter). I cannot help thinking of the school- room in which I myself received my elementary aducation in this county. I wish in the first place to compliment you upon the excellent results of the Cardigan County School contained in the sheet that you see before you. It is proof that the raw material which the staff have got to work upon is certaintly of a superior quality. I wish to con- gratulate the staff upon the results wliiutl tucj obtained, and this town of Cardigan upon its good luck in having such an excellent school in its midst. It is very natural for me to go back in my memory to the time when I was a school-boy in this county. Then anybody could be a school- master—anybody, that is to say, who was not a suc- cess at anything else. Amongst our schoolmasters we bad the lame, the halt, the maimed, the deaf, and the asthmatic (laughter). My own experience was this, that our schoolmaster was an asthmatic (laughter). He suffered very badly in that way, and asthmatic though he was, I had a great amount re e or; reverence for him. He was notl allowed to go out in the fresh air, so he paraded up aad down the schoolroom, with his bands behind his back, and what we call a "wick-wack" in his boots (laughter). For a long time it was the height of my ambition to be a schoolmaster at Llwyncelyn, and to possess a pair of boots that creaked (laughter). My rever- ence went so far that I almost wished I had the asthma as well (loud laughter). Now the teaching profession is quite different. Men have to start early in life,work labouriously,and train assiduously, and even after tliev have obtained degrees, and have otherwise qualified themselves for teaching, it. generally follows that the competition is extremely keen, and the plums comparatively fsw. If the educationalists of to-day had done nothing more than to realise once again the meaning of the word "education," they would have done a great deal. You know the derivation of the word—"e and "duco"—meaning to, and out of, that is, todraw out of boys what is already there, to develope and cultivate the talent already there but lying dor- maiit. In agriculture it, is the same. The wise farmer knows in what soil to put his wheat, grass' oats, or barley, and he is the more successful farmer who Iknows exactly to what use he should put a particular field. And it is much the same with boys and girls, who differ by nature, and differ by heredity. Yet in my time, particularly with girls, they were always trained and taught in one particular groove, with very little variation from it. There was the matter of music. Every girl was pushed on in music, whether there was any music in her soul, or not. I knew the case of one little girl who practised so many hours a day, until she could play every piece of music in her book, and yet when her mother or governess came to play any one of those pieces, which the child herself could play perfectly well, if the child could not directly see what was being played, she had no more idea of the song or piece than if she had never seen it. She did'nt know whether it was "Johnnie comes marching home," or "God Save the Queen. Yet if given a pencil and a beet of paper, she would spend her morning happy and delighted and she is to-day not altogether a mean artist. The same thing is true with regard to boys; they are pushed into various professions for which they have no liking medicine, law, commerce and various others. There is plenty of material in the world for all, but the difficulty is to distribute it according to our liking. Take one instance of this-Evans, of Carno. He was a draper's assistant for years, but he did not like it. He felt that it was not his calling, and when he went to what was his forte, he became a prince amongst the preachers of the Principality. To work only for the sake of getting a living is really irksome, and it is always wise to have some amount of liking for the work you have to do. I doubt whether the masters of the future will be better than the masters of to-day, but I think the systemjmay be improved. But anyone can give advice. As I go from house to house I meet some puzzling cases, and I often find that somebody else has been there and told them that Seigel's Syrup, or Pink Pills would be a certain cure. "Fools rush in where angel's fear to tread," and Dr Rees may be at this moment think- ing that 1 am the fool rushing iN where he himself, as an angel, fears to tread,—in giving him a little bit of'advice in the matter of education. In my mind, education should be as much as possible practical. My leanings possibly are towards science in some branch or other. Classics I do not know very much about at the present time, but I was obliged to attain to some amount of proficiency in order to pass certain preliminary examinations. I doubt whether one boy in 500 who has to work at Classics goes far enough to derive any real pleasure from the learning of them. I remember hearing of an American who was speaking very proudly, and righly so, about his own country-how enormously big it was, and what an enormous number of celebrated people had been born and bred in America, and lie was reminded that one acre in old Athens had produced more celebrated people than the whole of America has in its whole history. I believe this is strictly true, and, therefore, one feels on very thin ice when when one speaks against the Classics. All I say is that very few of our boys are able to go far enough to derive any real pleasure or profit from them. Teaching ought to be practical from the earliest period in life, and I take it that the probable reason for the success of the Kindergarten system is because the children are taught to handle things for themselves. There is always a danger of one being taught, and being shewn rather too much. I think it is an advantage that they should be allowed to puzzle things out for themselves, and what they find out in this way is of much more value on that account, And so it is through the Elementary schools upwards to the Intermediate. I am told that you have a chemical laboratory and a workshop here. I remember how difficult it was for me to learn theoretically the names of the appliances used by chemists, when a very easy lesson practically would have simplified matters so much. It has been said that examina- tions are too much a test of memory and not a test of reasoning. I don't know what is going to take the place of examinations; I doubt whether any- thing can. Examinations have become very numerous, and they are going to stay with us, but we need some plan which will make them less a test of memory and more a test of the reasoning powers, which will have to be developed. All I have to say in favour of written examinations, and in justification of them, is, that if you will look at the calendar of the University of London in the forties, fifties, and sixties, you will find the names of those who afterwards became famous in some branch or other in the work in which they laboured. As an illustration again of the advantage of practical work, I would like to bring before you a chapter from my own experience.. I went to a medical school for skin diseases, where we were supposed to be very well taught by a most cele- brated man. I studied carefully under him for three months after I took my degree, and I thought I knew a great deal about it. Then I was advised to study under another man, and the difference between the two was enormous. In the first case the teaching was purely theoretical. He spoke learnedly of this and that, but the second man not only spoke learnedly, he always brought a patient to demonstrate what he said in the presence of the whole class. What he taught me in that way was much more pleasant to receive, and certainly remained much more firmly in the memory. I do not know whether we are making enough of modern languages. England has been back- ward in the amount of attention given to French and German, as being the leading foreign languages. Some of us may have felt quite humiliated at seeing our countrymen on foreign shores, at railway stations, at cab stands, and in hotels, absolutely at the mercy of waiters and others and firms are con- stantly sending commercial travellers away to France and Germany, who are utterly ignorant of the language. It is comparatively easy' early in life to acquire a fair knowledge of any language, and it is surprising at any rate how the Germans and French succeed in getting a good, practical, working experience of the English language, although they do not set foot in this country. The commerce of England has suffered seriously, I think, from the lack of this practical training in foreign languages. I de not forget that English is to many of you virtually a foreign tongue, at any rate, it is not your mother tongue. And there was a time when we felt no friendship towards the English, and when we were disposed to look upon them as interlopers, and as people to be tabbooed, but all that is; changed. My advice to you on the subject of Welsh is, do not forgdi it, and do not lose any opportunity of acquiring any other foreign language as well. They are likfc so many windows in your soul, you will be able to look out, and in that way derive a great deal of pleasure and advan- tage. We do not say one word against the English language, it is a noble and most expressive lan- guage, and it is the language of commerce, but do not forget your Welsh. Take every opportunity of reading Welsh literature that you possibly can. Some people are proud of the moss ad mildew of time, and allow it to cover their old Welsh lan- guage, but this it does not deserve. It is the language of emotion and sentiment, and of pathos and prayer. We should never allow ourselves to forget it. Study its literature, and every now and then you will come across a gem and a jewel enshrined in the old literature of Wales that you will, perhaps, scarce think could be there. I ought not to forget that there is something else to culti- vate besides your mind, and that is your body. Mens sana in corpore sano is a motto that has been taken up by some of the best men in our country, and you ought also to remember that your physical powers ought to be developed as well as your brain. It is very good advice to work while you work, play while you play, and throw your whole energy into both. Solomon tells us that drowsiness clothes a man in rags," and I don't think there is much doubt about the wisdom of Solomon in this respect; and if you throw your energy into the work in which you are engaged, you will succeed. I am very pleased with the motto of your school. Egni a lwydd," which I like better than the motto of our school at Newport —" Nid, da lie gellir gwell" (Nothing is good where better is possible), which, I think, is going a bit too far. One of the boys had only succeeded in getting two of his sums right out of six, and when the master spoke to him he flippantly answered '■ Nothing is bad where worse is possible," and I think we have been less proud of our motto since then. The work of the teachers is a very high and noble calling, for they train the mind. Man physically is a mere speck in the great crea- tion. and yet he is the greatest of all, for God has breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. An honest man is the noblest work of God, and you, he trainers of the mind, have a very high calling in this world. The hand that rocks tjie cradle rules the world," and they rocked the intellectual cradle. Your privileges and responsi- bilities as teachers are great, for what has man not done ? Has he not made it possible for us to send messages round the globe in a few seconds ? Has he not made it possible for one merchant to sit in his office and speak to another merchant 300 miles away ? Has he not made it possible when a promi- nent man speaks to-night for us to read his words at the breakfast table the following morning ? Has lie not made it possible for the most terrible, painful, and mutilating operation, to be performed painlessly, and for the patient to awake in a short time utterly oblivious of all that has passed ? Has he not made it possible for us to travel in luxurious carriages, and to be hurled along at almost the rate of a projectile, and yet to reach our destina- tion in safety and comfort ? And there are those huge palaces on the deep connecting continent with continent and making communication easy and safe. When in a century's time the first 2,000 years of the Christian era comes to be chronicled, high up in the roll of honour, we shall find the Victorian era, for, surely, during the last sixty years the mind of man has been more active than in the 1 1 centuries before And it is for you, the young people who enjoy advantages greater than have ever been enjoyed before, in coming into the world at a time when the thirst for knowledge is greater, it is for you to make the 20th century, on the threshold of which we now stand, excel the 19th as a landmark in human progress (loud applause). DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZES. The leaflet to which reference has been made contained the following list of 8uccesssful scholars, who received from Dr Thonas their parchments and prizes:—Session 1899-1900. University of London, Matriculation :—Howell E. James, D. J. Michael, Harriet Rees, Maggie Thomas. University of Wales, Matriculation :-J. J. Da vies, G arennie Morgan, Maggie Thomas. Central Welsh Board, Senior Certificate:—J. J. Davies, O. T. Griffiths, Gwennie Morgan, Lottie Pugh, Harriet Rees, Phoebe Richards, Maggie Thomas, Muriel Timothy, Eynon H. Williams. Cpnt.rsLI W.-Iqh -R(iAr(i iiininr --A A Griffiths, George Harries, G. E. Morgan, Elonwy Timothy, Florence Williams. County Exhibitions, Cardiganshire. £15 annually for three years.—Lottie Pugh, Maggie Thomas, Harriet Rees. County Exhibitions,TPembrokeshire.'JSlOannually for three years.—Howell E. Jatnee, D. J. Michael. Civil Service Appointment.—E. O. Bowen, and B. E. Davies, as boy copyists, Howell G. James, Post Office. LIST OF PRIZES. Form I., Maggie James, Lamb's Tales Form II., Howard Daniel, Wellington's Great Battles Form III., Robert G. James, Deeds that won the Empire"; Form IV. (Junior Certificate), A. O. Griffiths, Tennyson's Complete Works George- Harries, Oman's History of England and Pal- graves Golden Treasury Elonwy Timothy, Ten- nyson's Complete Works Florence Williams, do.; Forms V. and VI. (Senior and Honours Certificate, Matriculation, Wales and London), J. J. Davies, Addison's Tatler and Kolbe's Chemistry 0. T. Griffiths, Addison's Tatler" and Smith's Latin Dictionary"; Phebe Richards, Tenny- son's Complete WorksMuriel Timothy, 1icturesque England Gwennie Morgan, ien- nyson's Complete Works"; Lottie Pugh, do.; Howell E James, "Shelley and Addison's (Men of Letters)," Addison's Tatler," Gase's French Dictionary," York Powell's History of England"; D. J. Michael, Lubbock's Pleasures of Life," Addison's Tatler," Hales' Longer English Poems,Thackeray's Es- mond Harriett Rees, Smith'sKptin Dictionary," Addison's Tatler," Daudet's Jack"; Maggie Thomas, do. MR. C. MORGAN-RICHARDSON. Mr Morgan-Richardson was cheered on rising to speak. He said: I came this afternoon under the impression that I was simply to be a spectator, and a listener to a very interesting function. I bad promised myself a little while ago a whole year's holiday. You bad seen me, and heard me so often during the time I had the honour of being Mayor of Cardigan, that I felt I might take a holiday for 12 months. Now, you boys and girls know what a holiday means—when you get away for three or four weeks in the summer; when you throw your books aside and feel .inclined to ab- solutely forget that you have a book at all, and you can appreciate my looking forward to an absolute holiday. But I felt that I might make an exception in the case of this Intermediate School meeting One reason is because I take a great interest in the school itself and the scholars, and another that I wish to shew my loyalty to the Mayor, who always assisted, and helped me in every way, during my term of office. Besides, I wish to shew my ap- preciation of the work done here by Dr Rees and the staff. When the request was put to me to-day, and I was told the duty I had to perform, I wished to be allowed to make it an open question whether I should undertake the task or not: but after listening to the delightful and brilliant address of Dr Garrod Thomas, I rise with the greatest pleasure to propose a vote of thanks to him. I think he did himself a great injustice in saying that he was in- experienced but that was perhaps merely an artifice of the paractised speaker. The result shewed that he was more than a practised speaker, because in the clear, lucid, and practical address whieh he has given, and which be illuminated from time to time with flashes of humour, he several times rose to the height of eloquence. I am not going to detain you discussing the address, but there are one or two things which I will take the liberty of referring to. 1 was reminded of a very thoughtful article which appeared in the Fort- nit/htly Review, entitled Will England last the Century?" and one of the points made by the writer is that out commerce is leaving us, and passing into the hands of Germany and France. Dr Thomas drew attention to the fact that French and German boys are thorough masters of the English language, while our boys neglegt foreign languages, and that is one reasonjwhyjwe are fighting for the trade of the world, and it sometimes looks as if we were going to forfeit our proud pre-eminence. Dr Thomas dwelt upon Mens sana in corpore sano," and as a doctor he would know how very important it is for us to keep up the body as well as the mind. Dr Rees had told them what a tremendous amount of work the scholars did; he had spoken of an eight hours day, and said that you did a great deal more. I do not think that in Wales we are likely to fall into the same mistake as the English schools (and which was one of the points made by the writer of the article referred to), viz, in occupying ones minds so largely with sport-a subject to which so much space was devoted in the papers. I do not think this is likely to happen in Wales, although, if you may judge from one of the Cardiff papers, you might imagine that the Welsh nation lived only for the sake of football (laughter). At the same time, I think for the sake of the health of the boy, some portion of his time should be spent in developing his body (hear, hear). I take a great interest in this school and the scholars, and I can say that I have always done so, but more particularly from the time I read the essays written some time ago for prizes offered by me. I was astounded, as I told you then, by the cleverness of those essays, and by the evidence they gave of the thorough education given in the school. I have looked at the Intermediate schoolboy from a different point of view ever since, and when I meet those boys walking along the road, I tnink, What deep problems they must be considering in their minds," When I ride along and meet a schoolboy I ask myself What is that boy thinking of now ?" Possibly he is thinking how the history of the world would have been changed if Pompey had beaten Oeasar, instead of Caesar beating Pompey, Or possibly he is distressing himself by the fact that the surface of the sun is contracting year after year, and wondering when the sun will have con- tracted 10,000 miles in say, 2,000 years, whether there will be heat enough left in the world to bring leaves on trees in April, or thaw the ice in December (laughter). And yet it is possible that after all he has failed to learn his lesson for the day, and is wondering what will happen to him, or possibly he is troubled about that hedge sparrow's nest between my house and Llechryd, and whether he shall take two, or three eggs, or take the nest altogether (applause and laughter). I took the deepest interest in those essays, and I hope very soon to have an opportunity of repeating those prizes again (cheers). In conclusion I have to ask you to join me in a most hearty vote of thanks to Dr Thomas, High Sheriff of Cardiganshire, for coming here to assist us on this occasion, and still more for his most lucid, brilliant, practical, and eloquent address (cheers). Aid. O. Beynon Evans seconded, and it was carried with cheers. The vote was duly acknowledged, and Dr Thomas promised togive a prize also. A vete of thanks to the Mayor terminated the proceedings.
The Agricultural Labourer Problem. j At the Aberystwyth University College on Friday i Mr Henry Davies, Glyneiddan, president of the t Carmarthen Chamber of Agriculture addressed a [ gathering of Agricultural Students attending the [ -1 short course for Farmers" and others on the above subject. Mr D. D. Williams, occupied the chair, and among others present were Principal Roberts, and many members of the staff, Mr J. H. Davies, Cwrtmawr, Mr Richard Rees, J.P" Machynlleth, Mr Hugh Lewis, J.P., Newtown, Mr Haydn Jones, J.P., Towyn, chairman of the Merioneth County Council, Mr A. Clendon, headmaster, Dolgelley County School, Mr Evan Richards, Penuwch. Mr Davies, said: In int roducin,, this subject I confine my remarks chiefly to the county of the broad acies in Wales (Carmarthenshire) as being more intimately acquainted with its social and rural life but what is applicable to Carmarthenshire is applicable in the main to the other counties affiliated to this College. However if the subsequent discussion consequent on the subject be pregnant with sug- gestions how best to cope with and arrest the pre- sent difficulty of the Agricultural labour question that we are beset with, I cannot feel less than highly gratified that my efforts in bringing forward this matter havenollbeen in vain. Yet I must further con- fess that the more one learns of the issues involved, the vaster and the more complex does the subject appear. I look forward to an instructive and use- ful discussion, for it is a subiect that comes in con- tact with everyone of us. I ask you to criticise me freely, give me no quarter, and state your views candidly how best to solve the problem. We hear in these days of what has passed into popular phraseology as "The man in the street' and hre we are treating of what 1 may call The man in the furrow." But the question we have to grapple is how to prevent the man in the furrow being transformed so easily, so extensively into The man in the street." I don't know whether I must needs tender any apology to yo\i for introducing this subject, as I I thought it singularly appropriate considering its unquestionable prominence in our daily agricul- tural life. It has thrust itself so much into pro- minence and is so much felt that it is the all-absorb- ing topic of conversation whenever and wherever farmers happen to meet and congregate. It is ever an anon-Have you bad your full complement of servants 1 How scarce they are; and after having theru they are so very difficult to manage, or as the case may be they are too difficult to manage, they have the upper band. The quality is so inferior they lack interest in their work and what is going to be- come of farming under these ad verse circumstances? Are they not very apt questions, I venture to ask you. That being so let us ponder and examine carefully if these questions, aye grievances, which we are so much acquainted with, have any founda- tion, that we should entertain them and their causes generally. Whatever may be said, there is, no blinking the fact that the agricultural labour question is one of the, if not the most difficult items to be contented with in present day farming. I say it not with a smile on my face but in grim earnest; it is all death to us. In order that the casual ebserver should have a grasp of the situa- tion how this question has become so prominent and such a serious and acute one, he must be taken back through the vista of ancient history. During the fifties and sixties, when corn growing was the chief branch of Agriculture in these counties; when the collieries, ironworks, and tin- works of South east Carmarthenshire and Glamorgan shire were only just developing, and agricultural and labour was plentiful, wages low and every cottage in the land occupied, in fact the lot of the agricultural labourer of that time must have been a hard one to endure. I am very often disposed to think that the farmer of that age rather took undue and unfair advantage of him. Though things have altered considerably in the labourer's favour since that period, the heritage of resent- ment and mistrust still survives, but the gulf that. existed between them then is not now so impass- able; there is no great social cleavage. Then, during the seventies, the industries of those districts I nave alreaoy mentioned as well as others of minor importance in these counties developed and ex- panded wonderfully, and their effects were soon felt far and wide. The rural population migrated to those centres of activity where higher wages and shorter hours were obtainable than on the farm. Subsequently, those migrators came, as is known in ordinary parlance i roi tro gartref to see their friends and relations, and by their im- proved garb and replenished purses and an air of independence were the means of attracting some of their relations and friends back with them. Although the agricultural labourer was drained away through these channels, the upshot was that his wages were increased at home. Still, the farmer did not feel much the scarcity; cattle and dairy produce enhanced so much in value, that it was to his distinct advantage that he should very materially reduce his arable land by its extensive conversion to permanent pasture. Also another salient feature during this time was the introduc- tion of the mowing machine, the reaper and the threshing machine. Those were important factors that helped to lessen the drudgery as well as the quantity of labour, What playedamore important part, and has itself by this day done more than anything I have already mentioned, was the pass- ing of the Elementary Education Act of 1870, and more recently still, Free Education. The date of the emancipation of the Agricultural labourer-1870-was big with fate for him, though he hardly knew it then, and now he is reaping the bountiful harvest his emancipators then sowed with infinite patience and courage. Coming to the next decade—the eighties the Agricultural labourer becomes more and more scarce, the means of communication improve as rapidly, glowing accounts reach him or her of the big wages. shorter hours, more liberty and enjoyment of life generally accessible than on the farm, He pauses, he reflects, sees how the playmate of his youth has succeeded in the "works" or as the case may be, and at the end of the next hiring term resolves to join him as he is now ad- equately equipped in the rudiments of education for a position of some trust. He goes, thereby re- ducing year by year the agricultural labour. Rural cottages now become vacant, and many are already in ruins. Who cannot to-day but look upon them with a sympathetic gaze. Those scenes in many a glen, where the smoke on a grey morning was wont to be seen winding its way in a long straggling string far up into the sky. On many a hillside which first caught and welcomed the earliest rays of the morning sun, once rosy-cheeked children gambolled, frolicked, and looked the picture of health, but have now flowed in a strong and healthy stream merging into urban life. These happy scenes have now changed to roofless, ruined walls, broken-down banks-the footpaths leading to and around the cottage-to the spring generally at the end of the garden, long since grass-grown. The elderwood,the birch-tree, and the willow, which each participated in their turn in the skill, energy, and thrift of the cottager, are standing symbols of many a scene in rural life. All to-day point to the extent of a holding now left desolate. This was a sign of the times which it behoved us to read, mark, learn and inwardly digest. Slowly and surely the unresisted and irresistible migration continued, leaving behind its too palpable traces bringing in its train its effects on the rural tailor, weaver, shoemaker, carpenter, and blacksmith who, consequently, had to seek fresh fields and pasture new In the face of all this influx the farmer is compelled to feel the scarcity, and he has to realise that the selection becomes more limited and the wages advanced. He does notreq uire somany as formerly, and hejean still count in some instances on female casual labour. Farmingimplements become more general, corn has dropped in price, cattle and dairy produce lend a better renumeration, more land is reduced to permanent pasture, less reluctantly, for he sees that it pays better and lessons the labour bill which he now begins by the end of this decade to grumble at openly. Summing up the decade, the agricultural labourer becomes far more scarce. The rural labourer's children are well trained in the elementary schools, and are intellectually equal, and in the majority of cases superior, to the farmer's children, as the latter, on account of the prevalent depression, have to assist in the work of the farm to curtail the labour bill very often before going-more often after returning litme from school whereas the former are allowed to pursue their studies unmolested. Owing to the diminution in numbers of efficient labourers boys from reformatory and industrial schools are introduced to meet the deficiency by the scores, but I am glad that during recent years they have been somewhat reduced. I regard such a method of trafficking with these monoglot younsters as being fraught with the gravest and far-reaching of consequences. If you will only just turn your attention to some of our Quarter Sessions, you will often have observed that majority of cases were charges principally of theft against these boys and girls. What makes it graver still is their intermarrying, which cannot do less than tend to the degeneration of our race. Of course, among them there are exceptions that prove the rule also I think proper provision cannot very well be made for their social||wants. As a clerical friend of mine during a disscussion on this very sub- ject some few months ago at a meeting of the Carmar- thenshire Chamber of Agriculture very pertinently alluded to the inadequency of their being provided for spiritually. The labouring class on account of the higher wages and the character of the holdings has been merging imperceptibly into the farming class, and duly asserting itself far more prominently; sometimes the farmer's own children find it more convenient and profitable to hire themselves on some farm. The difficulty which a farmer experi- ences in procuring a labourer or farm-servant is ne comparison with the much greater and ever grow- ing difficulty of obtaining efficient maids. Should a farmer be unfortunate to be deprived of the services of a maid through illness or the ever re- curring and ever growing breach of engagement during the contracting term, to get a substitute oi any kind, his chances are very remote and the sequel is the farmer's wife, whose unfortunate lot is to be so circumstanced, has to meet the difficult]) the best way she can, and test her skill and energ) without one, unless she may be able and fortunate enough to have the occasional aid of some neigh. bouring labourer's wife until the hiring term agair arrives. Perhaps the female labour question is more accentuated and aggravated in the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan, as according to returns, more female labour was employed in these counties than in any of the other counties of Wales, and that it has by this time dwindled down to the same level. As to the last decennion that has just ended, the question of agricultural labour has be- come most acute to the farmer. It has become almost to the tenant-farmer a question as import- ant as his rent; in fact, labour has become so scarce that he is so much hampered in his agricultural pursuits that be is hopelessly unable to do the utmost of his holding. He has to shift and struggle .19 in the beat way he can, and that not without, as is too frequently noticed, results to the detriment and deterioration of many a farm. What can account for the slovenliness, the uncut thistles, the trash growing far out into the fields along the hedgerows, and the backwardness of work generally, even in the verdant Vale of Towy, leaving out of consideration highly situated lands where large tracts have gone out of cultivation, but the scarcity and advanced prices of agricultural labour which it is impossible for the farmer to compete with in present-day circumstances. Ah I it too plainly tells its tale here and there. The railways have also added by this time to the list of inducements for the farm-servant, who is offered good opportunities mainly because his eyesight stands him in good stead. His eyes in the country are not sorely tried by lurid and brilliant lights; he goes to bed early; compensates for that by his early rising. His range of vision is very varied, in constant training in the neatness of farm-work, hence hi forte in recognis- ing the different shades of light on the railway. I It is proverbial with us down in Carmarthenshire I that three things alone pay in agriculture at I present. It struck rue a short while ago that they could be very familiarly known by the three B's-basic clay. barbed wire, and a boy-servant from the reformatory or industrial school.—I am constrained to credit the author of the first two, but as to the latter I have had no experience, but from inferences have great doubts. The first two are undoubtedly a great saving in labour. However, I cannot pass by without com- plimenting the author on his minuteness in describ- ing so vividly the main factors of agricultural labour as carried on. Truth to tell, even on large holdings where the farmer has only a small family who work like any hired hands, only much harder, he is so circumstanced that it is with very great difficulty he can carry on his business. He may have capital enough to carry on his work but his chances are so remote of having his full comple- I r.. 1. UIU.1 VI. Jduour. A rut i have no hesitation in saying that where the farmer manages his holding with his own labour, and he may by thus doing be more capable to meet his demands, his children that work with him are not sufficiently remunerated and would pecuniarily be better off in service. As to female labour the most intelligent, ambitious, and energetic, as well as the vain and indolent, are attracted to all sorts of occupation, especially town service and sewing, other than farm work, leaving a very small and inferior residue to select from, and yet it does not seem to have reached the irreducible] minimum. It is well to observe it and to note its causes. Dairying, which is one of our staple branches of agriculture, has to suffer appar- entiy in consequence. Moreover, I am constrained to come to the conclusion that the agricultural labourer has not suffered from the depression that the farmer has been so sorely and continuously stricken. In one sense, he has very materially benefitted through it. In what way, you may be inclined to ask? He has been able to demand practically his own terms and a far more liberal treatment, owing to the very fact that his employer is handicapped as to selection and is in difficulties, and cannot afford to be as independentas formerly. In very truth, the necessity of the employer is proving the opportunity of the employed, and t he labourer is, therefore, asserting himself in spheres of social life that the barrier, which was formerly visible between the two classes, has been almost completely removed. One salutary effect of this scarcity has been to develope mutual respect. But has not this great advance in the agricultural labourer's wages been the means of more keen com- petition for farmers ? I say it has, because is it not the legitimate ambition of the few servants who remain on the land to take and cultivate a farm ultimately? The saving and thrifty farm-servant may put by his earnings, and should he be fortunate to have a maid equally saving and thrifty as a help- meet, they are in a position to take a small farm, thus entering the competition. More than that, both having been in service for several years and at various farms, see various methods and customs, naturally, choose the best, hence the scope and nature of their experience at the commencement is not by any manner of means limited, whereas the ordinary farmer and his wife, in the :majority are only initiated in and acquainted with and rigidly adhere to the methods and customs of their parents, which they likewise had inherited from their ancestors and handed down from generation to generation. In passing, I take this opportunity of speaking in commendable terms of the efforts of this College, in conjunction with the various County Councils, in so successfully combating some of these prejudicial customs and methods that (lie so hard. Reviewing the situation, broadly speaking, the environments of the agricultural labourer have steadily improved since the Repeal of the Corn Laws. Up to 1870 his improvement chiefly con- sisted in his wages being increased. Subsequently his improvement will be chiefly observed by a general amelioration of his surroundings and an enlargement of his social opportunities. With elementary education within his reach, and latterly free schools, his younger children no longer assist in farm-work or about the homestead—they have more time to devote to their school work and their play. He also does not require his wife's earnings as a hired hand; she can stay at home to attend to her domestic responsibilities, or, in the case of havingSa few acres of land, which is far too rare, she is able to devote herself to turn its produce to the best account. The labourer too has more time at home, or should he be single his working howrs have been curtailed at both ends, whilst the intro- duction of machinery, the increasing application of artificial manures and feeding stuffs, and the relinquishing of arable tillage to pastoral, have all very materially relieved him of the drudgery he had years ago to undergo. In spite of this amelioration in his con- dition he is not satisfied with his lot and he turns his back on the land. "The man in the furrow" drifts into the man in the street." and the cause is not hard to find. We continually read in Lhe press of the cry" back to the land." How is he to be got back? I tfelieve be is beyond redemp- tion now that trade is so brisk in every industry excr t agriculture. He has relished the sweets of urban life, its bustle, excitement, glamour, amusements—the tendencies of the age, its variety, shorter hours and lighter work, and tells his cousin on the land that by remaining there he scorns delights to live laborious days." Then with all these attractions which the farm servant is invited to, and the continued :migration, 1 am not without hope that it is back to the land he would fain come if properly treated and provided for. It is not for me to say what properly treated and provided for imply-that is pabulum for the politician, and this meeting, happily, knows no politics. If you will just observe the Welsh and English literature of our urban communities, you will see that those who have left the land have a deep affection for it in their hearts, and a yearning and a desire for their native hearth. And yet, where'er I stray, I carry for my part The mountains so gray and the fields in my heart." The problem we have to solve is: How to retain what remains on the land, and how best to cope with the scarcity. Firstly, by the use of machinery; secondly, by the application of artificial manure; thirdly, better housing and accommedation tourthly, shorter hours; fifthly, improved system of education. I will now deal briefly with these seriatimMachinery By the improvement and introduction of agricultural implements which have been wonderfully developed in recent years that the great scarity in agri- cultural labour has been coped with so success- fully, and to that source we shall be compelled to look forward to in the future. The introduction and the rapid strides that have taken pla^e in the improvement of agricultural implements have not only enabled the farmer to curtail his labour bill and alleviate his labour but have conferred an inestimable boon in accelerating the labour and rendering it so much lighter. Those whose memories can recall some thirty or forty years can only realise the revolution that has taken place through machinery in agricultural labour. Manures —The increasing application of artificial manures has likewise tended to lessen the character and quantity of labour, and with the rapid strides of science is destined to prove more so again in the future. Better housing and accommodation —The housing of the agricultural labourer leaves a good deal to be desired. As a rule his cottage belongs to a certain holding, is straw-thatched and the tenant of that holding is responsible f,¡r its rcp*dr. The repairs in these days incur a great- expense to the tenant as straw-thatching is a heavy item* consequently the cottage is neglected, at, last deserted, adding another victim to the long and odreary catalogue of ruins too often met with. I maintain that the landlord should in his own 1 interests-I uphold that property has irs duties as well as its rights—provide a cott.tge or two with a little land attached, as a necessary adjunct to the t holding, and the sooner it is recognised as such the f better for both parties concerned. Had it. been recognised in season the country would wear a far !> different aspect, now nearly all the farm servants are on their employers find and lodgings, In this 9 11 rrespect vast improvements have taken place, and in many instances a large amount could still be done to improve their lot. Shorter Hmirs-The hours of i labour on farms have been lessened to a consider- s able extent, but what I wish to impress uoon all is Have they been lessened to a degree that compares favourably with the hours in other spheres of labour ? The longer hours than in other spheres of labour, and being so tied are, I venture to think, the factors that are chiefly responsible for their turning their backs on the land at present. Why should we be blind to it? Let us recognize and tackle it. Conferences of farmers should be convened to con- sider the question with a view of fixing uniform hours and popular holidays for the farm servants. I fully comprehend that it would be a difficult matter to arouse their interest, and have such con- ferences held, as, I am sorry to say, farmers are, I believe, the most disorganised body of any employers of labour. The very fact of their having each his own methods, independent of one another, every holding, so to speak a colony of its own, managing its own affairs, creates a feeling of dis- interestedness in their own class and militates contrary to the very principles of organisa- tion. Would it not be possible to give one one half the servants on the farm half a day off every fortnight and the other half the other fort- night and so on alternately ? It would surely give the servant boys and girls, the girls in particular, a much needed recreation for visiting their friends and relations as is usually^enjoved by those in ser- vice in towns, Might not that be accomplished, probably without any serious inconvenience during seasons of the year when there is no great pressure of work on the farm;,? Those views may seem a bit revolutionary but if yen will only just reflect how the nosition of the labourer has improved in the past, (and I am confident history will not grudge him the xull measure of:praisl for it), I am con- vinced that jou will agree with those views that I 4\ have expressed. Such views are, I believe, withiflr a measurable distance of being consummated. and we should appreciate them and meet the problem face to face. If some such ar- rangement could be arrived at, although it seengis great loss of time, would it set ba appreciated ita the majority of cases. Thus the loss of time would be reclaimed, and would it not conduce to keep the people more rivetted to the land and no$ impoverish the rural population! Improved System of Rural Elementary Education- I was pleased to find that the new President of the Board of Agriculture, Mr IIarburyr who has admitted that the Board ought to act as a watch- dog of agriculture—it would be curious to ki.ow the length of hie chain-saying at Preston "that the education given in our country villages has not been the kind of education which would best fit children for country life" and again at the Farmer's Club dinner "our present elementary education is eminently fitted to make children dis- satisfied with country life," Were there ever better truisms ? Could not rural elementary education be so suited as to make the labourer more inter- ested in the land ? I don't think anyone can uphold our present system of elementary education as being conducive to excite a quickened interest in the land. There is an old Welsh maxim, Ll*wer gwir goreu ei geli," i.e. Many a truth had better be concealed. Perhaps it would be more discreet on my part to do accordingly. At all events the farmer,, frankly speaking, generally is not a friend to education and I maintain that he has his proper reasons for being so and has not to go far to seek them. Why ? because the mode of education taught in our rural schools has all along calculated to alienate his feelings from it, therefore it is un- fair to abuse him. Let us consider the why and wherefore,. Of course, people's friendships and sympathies run parallel with their interests and the system of rural education has not been favour- able to his interests. What do we see in its effects ? The brightest, the cleverest, and the most energetic of our labourer's boys and girls leave their cottage homes and villages to seek occupation other than farm-work in the manufacturing centres and other scenes of activity, crowded together in workshops and such like places. Yes, the rural elementary school has been markedly instrumental in depriving the farmer of those whom he might have expected to be his best and most competent assistants. Education, instead of bringing home the dignity of la,bour somehow seems to have managed to cast discredit upon it and to have bitten our rural youtli with th J mania for dudeism." A new curriculum has been issued by the Board of Education during the past year more suited to the wants of agricultural and rural education, and at the same time to make the course of instruction more attractive It is to be hoped that all who are here preparing for the service of Agriculture will lose no opportunity after returning home to bring to bear on those who have the control of the rural schools the incalculable advantage of teaching a more rural curriculum in order that the best and most intelligent of our rural youth be attracted more to the oldest, the greatest and not the least honourable of our industries, agriculture; that it should not be arrested on the onward and upward path of progress. Gentlemen apart from agriculture and the industries dependent upon it—there is this—this one consider- ation boldly confronts us—the country and the country conditions alone breed a race of men and women in whose physique and health are to be found the best and indispensable recruiting ground for our great industrial forces. Ah Is it not from the country side that the chief benefactors of Wales have sprung from ? Our bloated towns with their slums and rookeries cannot possibly produce a healthy and vigorous people. I call attention to this to demonstrate the necessity of asking ourselves the vital and imperative questions:—If the country- side migrates in wholesale fashion as it does, what will become of our national character ? and where will our national vigour come from ?
CROSS INN. SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENT.-The winter sessions of the Evening School was brought to an end by a tea party and a concert, which took place on Friday last. The following ladies served at the tables:—Mrs Morgan, Misses Evans, Trefaes; Miss Williams, Post Office; Miss Evans, Bryncerni; Miss Jones, Abertrinant; Miss Evans, Bronwenau Miss Jones, Cryngae; Miss Clarke, Cnwcyn; Miss Jones, Henfforddfach. In the evening a concert was held, when the Rev W. H. Davies, Pontsaeson, presided, and the following persons took part:- Solo, Miss Jones, Cryngae; recitation, M. H. Morgan, and H. M. Davies; solo, W. Evans, Gwar- caeau; solo, M. Rowlands, Bath; recitation, W. R. Owen solo, W. J. Morgan dialogue, Miss Evans' Bronwenau, and Miss Williams, Post Office; song Party; recitation, J. M. Jones, Abertrinant; solo S. M Jones; a speech by Mr Jenkins, PantyfaHen. member of the Board dialogue, three Friends » duett, M. Rowlands, and E. H. Evans; recitation' Emily Evans; dialogue, D. Rowlands, and J. E- Clarke; song, Party; recitation, M. E. Clarke* solo, James Thomas recitation, E. R. Evans; solo, M. Rowlands; recitation, M. E. Williams dialogue- Misses Jones, Ffynonwen; solo, M. Rowlands: dialogue, Misses Evans, Abertrinant; solo, E. T. Jones; duett, E. R. Evans and M. Rowlands. An excellent address was given by the Chairman on the Evening School and its advantages, and the. duty of all classes to foster such institutions. The songs were accompanied by Mr Morgan, C,M., and a most eujoyoble evening was brought to a close by singing God save the King."
LLANON. ANOTHER OLD COMPLAINT.—The sleeping beauty" must be ranked amongst the beautiful attractions of the place. It demands the undivided attraction of the local jobbers as regularly as a fortnightly time-keeper needs winding. After having performed a good days' work it will begin to pant and puff until the attention of the Parish Council is attracted. The members thereof will give it a well deserved repose and then go through a whole paraphernalia of work in order to fit it up for another days' work. The money thus expended would doubtless be sufficient to provide the village with an ample supply of water, but it may be that the Parish Council is a trifle antigue. If we depend upon that body it will be a case of, As it was in the beginning is now and ever shall be world without end." DEBATING SOCIETY.—A meeting of the debating society was held in the lower Schoolroom on Thursday Jan. 31st, with the Rev D. Lewis in the chair. The subject for debate was:—"That the pen is mightier than the sword." The affirmative was taken by Mr E. W. Jenkins, Arddbori, who in the course of his speech said that the pen was the instrument of peace while the sword was the messenger of destruction; that our religion was one of peace and of glad tidings; that if the pen bad fair play the sword could be dispensed with. Mr Stephen Davies who had in the absence of Mr Alfred Price volunteered to take the negative said that while the influence of the pen often ended in complete failure, the sword on ihe other hand forced obedience that England's great power was due not to the pen but to the sword; that the sword was now the ruling power and that the proposed disarmament of the nations could never succeed. Capt Richards said that the sword prepared the way for the gospel, put down insurrections, avenged injustice and had but lately opened the iron doors of China that the King of Glory might enter in. Mr Fred Jones speaking on behalf of the pen said that the subject could well be called intellectual force versus brute force instead of pen versus sword. The pen appealed to something higher in man than the sword could, that it was merely the degeneracy of man that made him shiver at the sign of the sword. The pen appealed to reason, the sword to feat; Mr Johnny Davies and Mr J. D. Thomas made short speeches on behalf of the sword and pen respect- ively. Mr John Rees Jones said that the pen ruled the sword. Capt Sinnett-Jones, who next spoke, said that when Lord Beaconsfield. during his ministry, sent an ultimatum to Russia, he also ordered a number of ironclads to cruise along the Russian coast. Hence he concluded that the sword was the most influential Mr Daniel Evans hoped that the time would soon come when the sword would be lodged safely in the scabbard and that there would be no occasion to draw it for any purpose. When the house was divided, the result stood as follows:-For the sword, 31; for the pen. 27; majority 4. At the close of every debate in future the chairman said that those members wh.. support the affirmative side shall separate en masse from the rest and occupy the south aisle of school- room, while those who champion the negative cause shall proceed to the north aisle, thus the non-voters are left in the middle. The chairman will then appoint two stalwart men who are generally members of the committee astellers io count tbf" voters. It has also been suggested that Biblical quotations shouldfnotjbe made too lightly.—Anothe meeting was holdfast Thursday, with the Rev D. Lewis in the chair. The subject for discussion was That pulpit teaching is more influential than that of the hearth." Capt. Richards, Pauley who took the affirmative, pointed to the influence of tlic- pulpit as exerted in the bygone days, and still exerted in the present. Every denomination and every Christian sect had been instrumental in bringing thousands, nay, millions of converts to the true fpld by means of their splendid work. Mr Evan Davies supported Capt Richards, and said that the teaching given on the hearth was erroneous and inclined to make the hearers superstitious and timid. D, Morgan, who took the negative, dwelt upon scriptnral examples and historical instances of mighty men, who, while leading a wild and dissipated life yet remembered the lovin" hearth on which they had been reared. He was suppoited by Mrs Davies. Roes-hill. Johnny Davies, John Davies. and J D. Tnornas. Whrti the boti,(o was divided there was a good majnd1 y on the su:w of the hearth.