Business Notices. PRESENTS. COMPLETION OF ALTERATION AND REMOYAL TO NEW PREMISES We itave completed our NEW PREMISES, and have now at our disposal space adequate for the increasing demand of our business. TOYS FOR BAIRNS You are puzzled what to give your loved ones, Boys, Girls, Babies. You want to pre them something good, useful, something that will be a pleasant reminder of your thoughtfutness. To do so, look in at WARD & CO.'S ■T As in previous years permit us to draw your attention to our show of inex- pensive and USEFUL NOVELTIES suitable for PRESENTS. Each succeeding year we strive to go one better. Our Stock of Nick-nacks in all Departments is greater than in any year before, and if variety of choice and price count anything, we are sure of pleasing you. TOYS, JEWELLERY, STATIONERY, FANCY LEATHER CABINET, and ART POTTERY in great variety. TOBACCONIST GOODS of all Kinds. I WARD & CO.'S ABERYSTWYTH BAZAAR 6, Great Darkgate Street, Aberystwyth. C O A G H AND Four-Horse Charabancs EXPRESS and MAJESTIC, WILL LEAVE PHILLIP'S HALL, TERRACE ROAD, Also from BRANCH AT NORTH PARADE, Every Morning at 10 o'clock, for DEVIL'S BRIDGE BRAKES, WAGGONETTES, LANDAUS, AND CHARABANCS Will leave Daily for LLYFNANT VALLEY, HAFOD, PLYNLIMON and ABERAYRON. PLEASANT AFTERNOON DRIVES to Orosswood Panorama Drive, Rbeidol Falls, Monk's Cave, and Talybont. Private Address: Proprietor 31 MARINE TERRACE. D. PHILLIPS. GRANITE, MARBLE, AND STONE WORKS, MACHYNLLETH. J OH N JO NES, MONUMENTAL SCULPTOR, &c. Estimates given for every description of Monuments, Memorial Tablets, Headstones, Crosses, Tombs, etc. Specimens to be seen at Smithdown-road, Liverpool; Birkenhead, and Newtown Cemetries, Newtown, Uanllwchaiarn, Machynlleth, Dinas Mawddwy, Eglwysfach, Towyn, Aberystwyth, Camo, and Dylife Churchyards. FOR GOOD AND RELIABLE BOOTS AND SHOES | OF T# BEST QUALITY GO TO EDWIN PETERS 61, GREAT DARKGATE STREET, 51, (Three doors above Town Clock,) ABERYSTWYTH. Gentlemen's and Ladies' Boots and Shoes of every description. Repairs on shortest notice c. Powell St Co., Market Street, ABERYSTWYTH. WINTER SEED WHEAT SQUARE HEAD MASTERS. OEOPPER, AND MOST SUITABLE FOR THIS DISTRICT. APWLY TO T. POWELL & CO., ABERYSTWYTH. THE JlBEYSTWYTH NAMELLED gLATEWORKS, R o PEW ALK, A BFRYSTWYTH. MANUFACTURERS OF ENAMELLED SLATE CHIMNEY PIECES. Slabs of every description always in stock Prices and estimates on application. BEST CUTLERY AND ELECTRO PLATED GOODS AT David Ellis & Sons, IRONMONGERS, 14, GREAT DARKGATE ST., AND 6, CHALYBEATE STREET, I ABERYSTWYTH DANIEL, SON, AND MEREDITH, (EgTABLISHED 1875). AUCTIONEERS, Valuers and Estate Agents, ABERYSTWYTH, TOWYN. AND BARMOUTH. J Sales o Landed and Residential Estates, Free- hoW. and Leasehold Properties, Mines and Quarries, Hotels, Farming Stock, Household Furniture, &c., undertaken. Valuations for Probate, Mortgage ct,.cl other p-urposes. Appointed Valuers by the Cardiganshire and Merionethshire County Councils, under the Finance Act, 1894. I < J. W ALTER EVANS, 1-91 G REAT DARKGATE STREET I ABERYSTWYTH. Is now showing a Splendid Selection of NEW GOODS In all Departments. BOYS' [Ar MEN'S SUITS IN A GREAT ¡.. VARIETY. NEW DRESSES, FURNISHING GOODS, &e. NEW SEEDS!! HADAU NEWYDD!! EP. TAYLOR begs to inform his numerous • customers that he has received his annual stock of garden and field seed of the best pos- sible quality. Early potatoes of various kinds; best early, and Marrow; Fat Peas, and all other seeds. E. P. TAYLOR, Fruiterer, Greengrocer, and Radnor House, Game Dealer. Terrace-rd., Aberystwyth. SPECIAL NOTICE. GREAT SALE OF DRAPERY GOODS AT London House, DURING THIS MONTH. NOTICE. JOHN ROBERTS, TOBACCONIST, QPY TERRACE ROAD, 9 A BEEYSTWYTH AGENT FOR GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY Co. LTD. GREAT WESTERN. RAILWAY. A B a.m. PM* PM* p.m. pm. ABERYSTWYTH Dept. 8 15 12 B 30 1 15 1 15 6 25 WREXHAM Arr. 12 52 5 B 28 5 43 6 47 10 26 CHESTER- „ 1 20 7 S ? on o n Son LIVERPOOL (Landing Stage) „ 2 2° 7 B 0 7 20 8 0 12J0 MANCHESTER (Exchange) „ 3 2 8 B 10 8 10 8 37 WOLVERHAMPTON „ 2 13 6 25 BIRMINGHAM „ 2 38 Wednes- 6 53 LONDON (Paddington)- „ 5 20 days only 10 50 A.-Passengers by this,train are allowed one hour at Shrewsbury for lunch. B.-Via Dolgelley. Passengers wishing to travel by this Train should ask for Tickets via Dolgelley when booking. Passengers are requested to ask for Tickets by the GREAT WESTERN Route Every Information respecting Great Western Train Service can be obtained of Mr. J ROBERTS, 25, Terrace Road, Aberystwyth, or of Mr. G. GRANT, Divisional Superintendent, G.W.R., Chester. PADDINGTON STATION. J. L. WILKINSON, General Manager. NOTICE TO FARMERS. M. H. DAVIS AND SONS, ABERYSTWYTH. Have received their Stock for the Season of CHAFFCUTTERS, PULPERS, ETC. • —- H. W. GRIFFITH, BOOT AND SHOE WAREHOUSE, 7, COLLEGE GREEN, TOWYN, MER Agent for the noted K and Cinderella Boots. MILLINERY ESTABLISHMENT 1, GREAT DARKGATE STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. • MRS. J. W. THOMAS MILLINERY, BABY LINEN, AND UNDERCLOTHING ESTABLISHMENT. Hats and Bonnets Cleaned and Altered. CENTRAL PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO. Speciality :—Stamp Photos. Charges Moderate. J A ME S McILQUHAM, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GLASS, CHINA, AND EARTHENWARE DEALER BRIDGE END STORES, ABERYSTWYTH. TEA, BREAKFAST, AND DESSERT SERVICES. STOURBRIDGE AND OTHER GLASS. Every thing [down to the lowest Culinary Articles. One of the Largest Stocks in Wales to Select frorc Contractor for Hotels and Public Institutions. Special attention given to Badged and Orested Ware. Services Matched, no matter where purchased. Goods Lent out on Hire. AN EXPERIENCED PACKER KEPT. Inspection invited and your patronage respectfully solicited eâdbury's c!3 CIE ABSOLUTELY PURE, THEREFORE BEST. FREE FROM ALL ADMIXTURES, SUCH AS KOLA, MALT, HOPS, ALKALI, &c. The Standard of Highest Purity.Tlte Lancet. INSIST on having CADBURY'S (sold only in Packets and Tins), as other Cocoas are sometimes substituted for the sake of extra profit NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. RIADER.—James Shirley flourished 1596- 1666. Get the "Golden Treasury" by the late Professor Palgrave. ENQUIRER.—There is an Atlantic of differ- ence between Yale and Gale. In fact the two cannot be justly compared; for they differ not only in degree but in kind.
THE ABERYSTWYTH INFIRMARY. THE annual general meeting of the Aber- ystwyth Infirmary held last Saturday under the presidency of Mr H. C. FRYER was one of the best on record, not only for its influential attendance, but also for the excellent harmony which characterized its proceedings. There was a gratifying absence of that cantankerous criticism which contributes neither support to the institution itself nor encouragement to those who ha\ e its welfare at heart. The excellent progress reported at the annual meeting last week is but the natural outcome of steady perseverance and an enlightened policy. Like many other insti- tutions, the Aberystwyth Infirmary in its earlier stages had to contend against preju- dices and difficulties which could be over- come only by hard educative work land the good influence of true friends. Mr. FRYER, last Saturday, called attention to the fact that the benefits of the Infirmary, particularly as regarded in-patients, seemed to be ex- tending every year, and that much greater appreciation was felt in the county generally of the indoor treatment than formerly. At first a good deal of hesitation was shown, people believing that they would be under too great confinement, while they objected to being removed from their homes. Now, all that prejudice was got over, and there was a great and increasing demand for in- door tickets. Last year, for instance, there was an advance of twenty over the previous year in the number of in-door patients. Moreover, there was a satisfactory decrease in the number of out-door patients. The subscriptions and collections at the churches and chapels had, however, fallen off during the past year; this may be in part explained by the numerous other demands upon the charitable during the same period. We have reason to believe that with an organized effort, such as the popular "Hospital Sunday" movement, the funds of the Infirmary could be materially increased by collections at the various places of worship throughout the district. For, owing to its numerous good offices, the institution has already won a warm place in the affections of the people, and the last shadow of doubt as to its benevolent aims and objects has been banished. And, enjoying as it fortu- nately does, the personal devotion and services of such a man as Captain COSENS- the newly-elected President and worthy successor to the late Mr. JOHN BONSALL-the permanent success of the institution is assured.
TEACHERS AND FIXITY OF TENURE. THERE is hardly a profession the members J of which are more patience-tried and worried than that :of teaching in the Primary Schools. Some of the noblest work of the nation is in the teachers' hands, and whatever will ease their burden of sordid care should command the attention and support of the country. A public meeting will shortly be held at Aberystwyth, when the following resolution will be pro- posed by [Mr VAUGHAN DAVIES, M.P., and supported by other members of Parliament and leading educationists in the district: —" That as the widespread prevalence of insecurity of teachers' tenure of office seriously militates against the efficiency of the schools and the educational interests of the children, and the evil having been accentuated by the recent establishment of a compulsory superannuation scheme in primary schools, this meeting regards with great satisfaction the promise of the Government to deal with the question of Teachers' Tenure of office at an early date." Parliament has beenj unanimous in its recognition of the greatness of the teachers' office, and it now remains with the country to express its approval of any measure brought forward in Parliament which would grant the teachers reasonable security against capricious dismissals, instances of which of a most painful nature have been circulating in educational papers for many years. The National Union of Teachers has lone a great deal in effecting the recent jhanges in the educational system which have given a more rational and liberal basis, md the efforts of the Union in. organising such a meeting as this for Mid-Wales is tc be commended, and we hope that a gather. ing. worthily representative of the districi will come together to support the abov4 resolution.
SOCIAL OSMOSIS. THIS week we publish a full and exclusiv report of a timely and well-informed address on a subject the paramount importance of which cannot fail to win the interest and engage the attention of a wide circle of readers in this and other districts, We need hardly add that we refer to the paper on the "Agricultural Labour problem," read by MR HENRY DATIES, the president of the Carmarthen Chamber of Agriculture, before the students attending the 11 Short Course for Farmers" at tne University College, Aberystwyth. This is by no means the first time that problems of this kind have vexed the soul of the tiller of the soil. History has made us familiar with their periodic appearance, for they invariably follow great economic and industrial changes. They are the results of certain causes— causes which vary with each succeeding age; thus rendering the problem more difficult of solution, inasmuch as the ex- periences and remedies of former ages are not applicable in present times. The problem seems to us to resolve into one of adaptation to circumstances—and the measure of its difficulty is the extent and depth of the social upheaval which produced it. There is such a thing as osmosis in society as well as in chemistry; and innumerable instances are on record of the "submerged tenth" of one generation becom- ing the "upper ten" of another, and vice- versa. Space will not permit us to dwell more at length upon the subject this week, and we can do no more than ask our readers to carefully peruse the valuable contribution of one who has studied tbe-question at first hand and is able to speak with that authority begotten of ripe experience and intellegent observation.
VITAL STATISTICS. A CONSIDERABLE portion of our space is devoted this week to the publication of the Annual; Reports of the Medical Officers of Health in the district, which are, by the way, fully as deserving of the attention of the public as the despatches of our generals from the seat of war and even more so, for they affect the safety of the life and health of the community in a far more vital manner than those documents relating tales of bloodshed in foreign lands. Read the reports of the, medical officer of your own district, and you will learn something of the incessant warfare that has to be carried on between cleanliness and disease and what frontal attacks and flanks movements have often to be made to repel the insidious invasion of a dread scourge which never flies but when it carries certain death on its wings. Satisfactory progress is reported from some districts but much yet remains to be done, for there is no finality in improvement.
NOTES AND COMMENTS. .0 It is understood that the popular Lord- Lieutenant of the County of Cardigan has recently had a windfall" amounting, it is said, to the sum of £ 60,000. The art of rat-catching is evidently a lost one; at any rate the rat crusade of the' Cardiff Corporation is not a success, al- though fourpeuce a head is offered for every carcase. Speech day at the Cardigan County School was held last week when an eloquent address was given by the High Sheriff of the County, a full report of which is published in this issue. Two thousand persons assembled at Ludwigshafen, on the Rhine, have addressed to the German Chancellor a resolution ex- pressing the hope that the Powers may yet be able to bring about the restoration of peace, and to preserve the status of the South African Republics. The inhabitants of Carmarthen seem to take an unenviable pride in their gaol, for on Tuesday the Mayor brought the question of the reported intention of the removal of the prison before the Town Council, and stated that its closing would mean a serious loss to the town, and suggested that an influential deputation should approach the Prison Authorities.—This is vested interest with vengeance. Three hundred tons of slate from America have lately been landed for use in houses being erected at Barrow. It is stated that the slates can be brought over so cheaply that it pays to use them in preference to those from the quarries at Kirby, only seven miles away, or those in the higher parts of Furness. The rumoured amalgamation between the Severn Valley and Powisland Company, Lid Newtown, has now been practically con- summated. At all events the directors of both Companies have arranged the terms o £ > | co-partnership which will shortly be sub- mitted for the sanction of the respective shareholders. The King and Queen will, it is said, go to Windsor Castle for a, day or two after cere- monies connected with the opening of Par- liament to-day. Beyond that their Majesties' r ™°^ements are not arranged. The suggested visit to Germany is in no way settled at > present, and it is not even certain that it will take place at all. k In the King's Bench Division on Monday, Justice Lawrance heard an action brought 3 by Mr. R. G. Smith,, solicitor, of Aber- ystwyth, ngainst the Cardigan County Council to recover X300 damages for injury sustained throughthe alleged negligenceof the defendant Council in leaving a heap of stones on the Ponterwyd road. Judgment was given for the defendants, with costs. e The King, says the Morning Leader," is no stickler for precedent where it does not fall in with his own view as to how things should be done. Within the last few days a very high official ventured to remind his Majesty that there is no precedent for the QueenConsort accompanying the Sovereign in equal state to the opening of Parliament. The instant reply was, this was a matter of indifference, and that the King intended to create a precedent. The King enters very carefully into every detail of Court ceremonial. The heralds and.,theirs assist- ants have been sadly disappointed more than once during the past three weeks, for after carefully reading up various ancient tomes for precedents, they have had the whole of their arrangements frequently altered by his Majesty.. The Daily News says that there is no foundation for the statements issued by a news agency that the Penrhyn quarrymen are on the point of resuming work upon the terms posted by the manager. These terms are merely a repetition of those discussed at the conference in London, and which the men rejected by a vote of 1,700 to 70. Most of the men are scattered in different parts of the country, and^-there will be no resumption without first submitting to their decision any terms which may be offered. To talk, therefore,, of a likelihood of the quarry being about to resume activities is to mislead and to raise false hopes. Unless and until some substantial modification is made in the unreasonable terms submitted by the Penrhyn management there appears no prospect whatever of peace being restored at Bethesda. The Lancet" this week has a notable article on the drinking habits of the nation and of the mischief that is done thereby, It points out that since the days of Dr R. B. Todd, a generation back, no leader of medical thought has sanctioned a reckless use of alcoho! in any form. And not a few of the men in the front rank have spoken with plainness on the subject and have reduced their prescription of alcohol to the lightest forms and the most modest quantities. Mention is made of such recent and living authorities as Sir J. Burdon Saunderson, Sir Henry Thompson, Sir William Gairdner,. Mr Victor Horsley, and Dr Robert Hutchinson—all men of scientific light and leading-who have spoken out on the question. Indeed, the growing number of deaths from alcholism and the increasing consumption of it by the people, men and women, and especially women, in our con- temporary's opinion, make it incumbent upon medical men who have studied the question to place their views clearly before the public. Hooliganism occupied the attention of the Charity Organisation Society at a special meeting in London on Monday. The Rev. Hugh Legge, of the Trinity College Mission, in Stratford, read a paper in which he pointed out the falsity of the general assumption that the boy rough was a problem to be taken and dealt with by himself. The Hooligan, he- said, was the symptom of a disease, and not the disease itself. The popular method of dealing with the question, which readily adapted itself to an attractive kind of philanthropic propaganda suggestive of bazaars, duchesses, and subscription lists would not meet the difficulty. It was easier to subscribe to these thiugs than personally to superintend one's house property in Bethnal Green or Southwark. Mr Legge did not think that the club cure would stop Hooliganism. It did not touch the ground whence the evil sprang. Steady, commonplace work on the various public bodies, coupled with a deter- mination on the part of the general public to ameliorate the conditions of life, though not exciting, was the only effective cure for social disease. Believing that large salaries are serious hindrances to the work of the clergy, the Rev F. W. Cooper, rector of Prestwich, one of the most valuable livings in the Man- chester diocese, has offered to surrender £1,400 a year of his living, retaining only X400 per anuum. His church council having refused to accept the responsibility of the offer, Mr Cooper has written a letter to his parishioners, declaring that he shall strictly adhere to his determination that the X-1,000 must be placed in a different bank from his own, and applied solely to church purposes. The church historian of the future, he explains, will be only too likely to relate how harm has been done by the strange anomalies in clerical incomes; that while the great majority of the parochial clergy were in serious poverty there were a few whose income was more like that of a squire than of a parish priest. So far as his own conscience is concerned, he could put matters right by a private rule of his own, but there was something more to be considered, giving due weight to the rule forbidding the slightest ostentations in things of this sort. Strange anomalies are not wanting in this district, for instance, the vicar of Llanilar, has to hand over annually a goodly sum, we believe, to the incumbent of St. Michael's Church, Aberystwyth. One of the greatest evils against which the temperance advocate has to fight, and in which he has the sympathy of those who are not abstainers, is the law which permits the sale of intoxicants to children- of tender years. At a large and enthusiastic meeting of the Children's Protection League held at Exeter Hall on Monday, Lady Elizabeth Biddulph pointed out that Great Britain stands almost alone amongst the countries of the world in not protecting the rising generation and in permitting children of any age to buy beer and spirits, and children of over 13 to drink beer in a public-house. It was the object of the (Children's Protection League, she said, to secure measures to pre- vent the continuance of this evil. The League welcomed all supporters, whether abstainers or not. It was not tied down to any temperance propaganda. Lady Mac- naghten, who presided at the meeting, out- lined the two aspects of the danger. A. child who was sent to a public-house to fetch beer frequently fell into the habit of tasting it, and acquired a liking for drink. This was bad enough, but perhaps what was worse and what had more effect upon the child's morals, was the language they heard find the sights they saw in the public bar. Early impressions are the most lasting, and the effect of such scenes on a child's mind mast be terrible. Speaking at the annual Peace Society meeting at Darlington on Monday night, the Dean of Durham (Dr Kitchin) said many people must have been distressed at the way in which pulpit utterances had gone in favour of the war during the last year and a half. There was, he thought, a great risk that war would have a detrimental effect upon the tone of the British nation. Here is a true story from the Aberyst- wyth Board School. The other day the teacher tested the general knowledge of the dullest boy in his class by asking him Who was the best King, Edward I. or Edward VII." Repeated appeals brought no response from the dunce, whereupon the whole class, seeing their chance to shine, immediately had their hands up ready to answer and, as soon as the master gave the nod of permit, the reply came in a full choru "Don't know yet, sir; too soon to say." Wales feels a deep interest in the question whether his Majesty King Edward will retain the Chancellorship of the University, which as Prince of Wales he accepted a few years ago. His appointment as Chancellor was a personal, not an official, one, and the Chancellorship is, therefore, vested in him so long as he may be pleased to retain it. There appears to be no precedent (says the London Daily News ") for the retention of a University Chancellorship by the reigning Monarch. On the other hand, there seems to be no Constitutional reason why the King should not continue to act as Chancellor. With reference to the rumour suggesting the inclusion of the arms of Wales in the Royal Arms, an official of the Herald College informed a press representative this week that the only basis of the rumour was that many Welsh people had written to the Herald College urging the inclusion of the arms of the Principality in the Royal Arms of our new King and on the Royal Standard. The official stated that this was an old pro- posal, and he doubted much whether it would come to anything. If Wales in the quarter- ings of the Royal Standard, he said, why not also Australia, or Canada, or South Africa ? The decision, at all events, is with the King. A conference attended by temperance delegates from all parts of the country was held in Manchester this week to discuss the recommendations in what is known as Lord Peels Report. Sir William Houldsworth, M.P., who presided at the sitting of the Conference, called upon all temperance reformers to unite in support of the recom- mendations of the Minority Report. Vis- count Peel also spoke cf the importance of unity, and expressed the opinion that the time had come for definite action. He defended his scheme from the charge of "confiscation," and speaking of the popular element it was proposed to introduce into the licensing authority, said the present magistrates had unquestionably failed to administer the existing law. A resolution was unanimously adopted pledging the Con- ference, without prejudice, to any other scheme which may be approved by the general body of workers in the temperance movement, to strive earnestly to secure legislation on the lines of Lord Peel's Report at the earliest possible date. Sir Edward Clarke, addressing the Hol- born Conservative Association on Thursday night, said that after sixteen months we found ourselves again resisting the invasion of Colonies which were unquestionably part of the dominions of the Crown. This invasion must be repelled at any cost. When that had been done we should have & second opportunity of bringing the war to a, honourable and satisfactory conclusion. This would never be done by the sword alone. We wished to rule, not a ravaged and desolate waste, but an industrious, orderly people. There would be dignity, not weakness, in offering fair terms of peace, a complete amnesty to all who had borne arms against us, an assurance of civil equality, continued administration of the system of law to which they were accus- tomed, and a continuance, as far as practicable, of the local self-government hitherto in operation. Such an offer would secure the prompt submission of the forces, definite acknowledgment of this country's sovereignty, and the establishment of civil and military authority, which, with effective control by the Government of every railway in the Colonies, would make impossible any future organised resistance. Mrs H. Davies-Evans, of Highmead, is taking an active and commendable interest in the noble work of alleviating the hard lot of those who suffered through the war, viz., the Wifes and Children of our Soldiers and Sailors. Early last year we had occasion to dwell at length on the merits of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Families Association, and much credit is due to Mr Vaughan Davies, M.P., for the prompt steps he took to urge the claims of this Association upon the public in this district. It is stated that over 80,000 families depend, either partly or entirely. on the Association, and it is needlnss to add that every contribution to its funds, through any legitimate channel, is welcome. Mrs Davies-Evans has sent out collecting cards (8,000 to 10,000 altogether) to the schools of the county, ar.<1 has addressed a • gracefully worded letter of appeal as a memorial to Queen Victoria-to the scholars. The presidents of the divisions of the Cardiganshire Branch of the Association include Lady Evans, Lovesgrove, for Aber- ystwyth, Mrs Price Lewes, Tyglyn Aeron, for Aberayron, Mrs Wm. Brigstocke, Blaen- pant, for Cardigan, Mrs Inglis Jones, Derry Ormond, for Lampeter, Mrs Fitzwilliams, Cilgwyn, for Newcastle Emlyn, and Mt-a. Waddingham, Hafod, for Tregaron. Sir Charles Dilke says the relations. between Great Britain and France had never been better than they were at present 1Jbe Newfoundland question alone seemed to. be dangerous, but he thought that question could easily be settled. After rderiing to the improvement in the relations between France and Germany, Sir Charles-says there are reasons of a commercial; natlwe" and independent of sympathies or, antipathies, why all European nations should,, if they do not draw nearer to each other,, at any rate try to suspend or relinquish their animosities, when they consider the formidable nature of the competition which they will inevitably encounter both from North and South America. People in Europe are. too much inclined to regard Germany as a great com- mercial rival of Great Britain.. The fact is, it is to the United States, whom the United Kingdom as well as Germany and France must soon lower their flags. Our disputes can only serve to accelerate the speed at which the two Americas are advancing towards the first rank. Concluding, Sir Charles says, It is certain that we shall increase our Navy. We can no more reduce our fleet, which makes our country a suffi- ciently bard nut to crack, even for a com- bination consisting of Germany, Russia, France, and Spain, than France can consent to dismantle her fortresses and lay open her Eastern Frontier." Sir Charles exhorts the great English and French publics to adopt m attitude of friendly rivalry, and not to criticise the natural exercise of right of freo examination and free discussion*