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Weeds: [Being a paper read before the members of the Aberystwyth Paxton Society by Mr D. D. Williams Of the U.C.W.] As a rule every one grows definite crops upon his land, whether farm or garden. The crop produced is composed of plants desired and presaut by special invitation, as well as of other plants not specially invited and not specially sown. These uninvited guests constitute the weed part of the crop, chiefly wild plants and it may be even cultiv- ated plants. Potatoes left unintentionally in the soil may spring up in the succeeding crop, and being uninvited guests there, constitute weeds. In the same way any other plants springing up in a field growing another crop are weeds. Writers on weeds define them variously thus:—"Every plant different from the crop and growing with the crop to its hindrance." Any plant when it is not wanted." "A useless plant "etc. Weeds have been the natural produce of the ground since Adam delved. They are a curse, and their hardihood,powers of propaga- tion, persistence and ubiquity are universally re- cognised. That they can be Eradicated there is no donbf,but only by continuous labour, and the moment the effort is relaxed the small seedlings pop up their heads. The gardener must always be more suc- cessful than the farmer in combating weeds. be- cause his cultivation is more intense and his area smaller. Few gardens are without a weed and cer- tainly no farm, and not only is there no clean garden or farm, but any land would soon become foul if it were not for the free expenditure of the sweat of the brow which is the oldest weed killer. To the culti- vators oflthe soil, leae of life is one of the most im- portant features in the natural history of any weed and a point too often overlooked s ince methods of eradication depend thereon. Weeds may conveni- ently be divided into three classes, viz., annuals, biennials and perennials. Annual weeds are those which finish their business in a single season, abundant flower and seed production is the coo- spicuous feature of these, they grow from seed, flower and produce seeds in one-season-this is the end of one generation of them, e.g., charlock and chiclvwseds. Biennial weeds like annuals yield one crop of seeds, and one only. The business of life is however not confined to one, but distributed over two seasons. During the first year they de- vote themselves to vegetative processes i.e. to the manufacture of seedmaking materials which are stored away in the fleshy tap-root which is always prese.it in these, and during the second year this stored-up food together with all the available material within the plant is used up in the produc- tion of seed. Then the plant dies. It is easy to distinguish between the scoring biennial and the annual which lives from hand to mouth, so to speak: only in the former is the tap root especially thickened and fleshy, examples of these are seen in burdock and in our cultivated roots turnips &c. Perennial weeds,-Tlie-e like biennials, make neither flower nor seed during the first season; unlike biennials however they yield repeated crops of seed during succeeding seasons. To accomplish this, they must be provided with a perpetuating and persistent apparatus furnished with buds and called for convenience root stock." The presence of this, is, indeed, a most important botanical peculiarity. From this, new roots, new shoots and seed parts are produced, within it is contained a store of root, stem, leaf. flower, and seed-making foods, and by its activity the plant is propagated and multiplied. Perennials then can multiply in two ways by root- stock and by seed, so that it is most important to be able to distinguish the root-stock and avoid confounding it with the root, e.g. the "creeping root of couch grass and strawberry is not root but root- stock, and the bulbs or knots of oat grass or twitch are root-stocks. Docks, coltsfoot and thistles are all familiar example? of this class of plants. An- other point of importance is the relative amount of seed produced by these three classes of plants. The perennials must not exhaust themselves in seed production, if they do, perennial character is lost. Thus it happens that most pronounced perennial character is always associated with comparatively scant seed production, whereas annuals and biennials waste all their energy in seed production and then die. The behaviour of weeds when cut should be carefully studied in our efforts to eradicate them. If the stem of an annual is severed from the root the plant is killed because the root left behind in the g:ound has neither buds nor apparatus capable of producing them. A biennial may be cut in two ways:-(l). Below the j unction of the "crown" with the tap-root. (2). Above the junction of crown and tap-root. In the first cisea we-ti.1 is killed, but in the second an increased number of stems is devel- oped from the cut crown left in the ground. Special cere is accordingly necessary when cutting is re- sorted to for destruction of biennial weeds. Cutting the perennials does not destroy and kill but serves rather to propagate. Complete removal is the only effectual killer in these cases. When connection between weed and soil is severed, food within the pfcint may be applied to seed maturation hence a»nuals tending naturally to seed, especially if somewhat fleshy," such as common chickweed should be weeded as early as possible. If they have flowered and are allowed to lie on the land or on the dung heap some seed is matured and shed. Though uprooted, biennials and perennials may also mature seed when left lying on the. land or thrown on the dung-heap, Part stored with food should always be specially noticed and specially destroyed; such are usually characterised by thickness and fleshness. A food storing organ • other than seed indicates a lasting plant, thus, spear-thistle is a biennial and has a storing tap root. Dandelions and docks have a storing tap root and root stock (perennials) while couch-grass and coltsfoot have a storing root-stock but no tap root (perennials). The habits of growth of the aerial part of weeds must be mentioned as it has mpqh to do with the resultant injury to crop. This dfiends chiefly upon the length of the stem and the amount of fibrous skeleton contained therein. An elongated stem with abundance of skeleton gives a plant of erect lia-oit. When skeleton is defective the stem either trails along the ground- tb rate habit-as in duckweed and spurrey, or rises to light and air by using a crop plant as a support. The part of the weed which attaches io the support may be, 1 The leaf bearing stem twiners," e.g. small bindweed. 2 Hooked hairs. hook climbers," e.g. cleavers. 3 The teoniwls of the leaves, leaf climbers," e,g. hairy vfpcp.j When the stem does not elongate, the leaves are aggregated together and form a rosette apparently springing from the ground; this con- tracted habit is exemplified by coltsfoot, dandelion and daisies. Erect weans occupy little space and shade crop plants comparatively little. Prostrate and contracted weeds take up much surface room. trl tend to choke the crop plants used for support; removal by weeding can only be accomplished, if at all, at a very early stage. Climbers affect the support plant in much the SaMi fcay as twiners; union between weed and crop plant is however less intimate. The habit of grow h the root-stockshould be well under- stood a"?' it affords an important clue to the extriparion of such weeds. Root-stock gives perennial characters and is accordingly the part to ii1Iy destroyed. Habit, here depends chiefly np^ position with regard to the ground, length ancr nvTection of root-stock. Running habit is possesssf^ifoy weeds with the root-stock on the surface of^the ground, elongated and horizontal, e.g^sil^r^eed and running buttercup. Growing lt«»rm«^ ^rops to overshadow and starve these out is the best remedy as they are always bottom plants. Cteeping habit is possessed by weeds having root-stock under ground and elongated e.g. 4istle, corn-horsetail, coltsfoot and couch grass. These are more difficult to eradicate. Earlv refabVal of the leaves and growing luxuriant rtvershadw and weaken these will be the Bulbous habit means that the root- stock1'is1 spdeiaily short and thick, e.g. bulbous battwcip.. Removal of buibs by mechanical ggqpesges will be effective in these case. Other weeds possess deep rooted habits with the root- stack contracted into a crown at the apex of the fleshy" tap root, (the tap roo-, dies away in the prevail* three) examples of these— docks, ribgrass, anc^Anfl&Itons. The removal of the root*-stock is not sufficient in these cases, for the tap-root will throw up fresh shoots, as commonly seen in dqcks. Weeds may interfere with the crops in gjgj&tsS —1 They diminish Jhe cropped area, imerteiii with 3rnp feeding by utilising the fOOti¡ p;mterial-o,fthe soil and preventing access of ligllt to •ire crop. 3 They interfere with root jjreajthim* ^fjd^prevent access of air to the crop- roots. <.1J)ri: 4 they interfere with crop development by^wniog, climbing, etc. The methods by which weeds are multiplied should not be overlooked and this mav take pkie in two ways :— (1) By propaga- (2)!bv.^eproduction. It is not the root winch i the great propagator, but the stem with its buds or root stock, and occasionally the root it- in f\os. The chief method, however, is -i.e., by means of seed or seed apparatus, and this is the only way by which an- biennials ean'muUiply, A red poppy, for instance, produces 25 flowers, and each flower about 50 seeds. Jfhese, then, should be taken in hand before flowering in a I! f ases, and especially if at all flfshv. ffize of seed is uf considerable im- poj-taace aj!-rega^s ease of extermination. Small small seedlings burial at a moderate depUi secures destruction because the seedlings cannot reach the light and must die from starvation, i,e.. chickweed. Many weeds are sown by means of the seed apparatus which is the seed enabled,~iiv » eel-box. The seed box affords the seeds. Such .weed seeds req uire much water for germination and are more suited to wet and heavy soils, e.g., docks and silver weed. The of composite plants, like dancteljoQj$tc., are provided with feathery ii.u.pqp wjffth /fesna^le them to get blown by the wind to distant areas. Horsetail and ferns are reproduced by :p()re. A field or garden may be- come contaminated .with weeds in several ways, and fyfc r>egreliable, filrnei.- and gardeners clo ¥! 'J!L:rr' not take more precaution against them by exercis- ing greater discrimination in selecting :pure and strong seeds and using clean dung and composts, More contamination is due to these causes than any other, although it is true that many seed are blbwn with the wind and some seeds are sown before the leaves appear, of which coltsfoot is a familiar ex- ample. The system of throwing all sorts of rubbish into the dung heap has gone on long enough and with our improved system of education it is to be hoped that these little matters, which may appear trifling—will receive closer attention; These seeds, etc., pass through the animals indi- gested and get there while others are put there with the rubbish usually piled on. They consti- tute dung impurities and are only of use to the land when thoroughly decayed, then and then only are they dung. That "dung impurities" are stern realities is patent to anyone -the rank: vegeta- tion growing on the heap itself affords conclusivc evidence. It is, therefore, no wonder that weed- ing is ever doing and yet never done." Road scrap- ings again contain the seeds of hedge and road side weeds, e.g., couch, docks and ribgrass. Crops may be seriously damaged by the prematured use of such a manure. In his war against weeds the cultivator of the soil—whether farmer or gardener has to make his land clean and keep it clean. In this he is aided by natural agencies such as frost. which kills tender weeds, and by starving birds whichf devour* many seeds in winter as food Special means are also necessary to get rid of weeds' These in practice as just mentioned are reduced to' 1, Method of making the land clean, 2, Method of keeping the land clean. Land can be made clean by preventing the growth of weeds, and bv the mechanical destruction of those that have grown. Plants vary in hardihood. Environment favourablel to one may be unsuitable to the others. According to the great natural law of "the survival of the fittest weeds may be impeded in their growth and ultimately succumb if the land is so cropped and so treated that the weeds cannot hold their own. Thus many weeds disappear by draining, tilling, manuring, liming, and depasturing. Artificial manures always tend to destroy weeds by producing luxuriant crops which smother them; but nitrate of soda is said to encourage chickweed. Annuals cannot stand depast- uring, which is equivalent to cutting down or leaf removal. Again it is very prejudicial to those perennial weeds with underground root-stocks like couch grass by making the soil too compact. Various mechanical processes again lead to weed destruction, ploughing and digging cut, and bury weeds. The cutting destroys annuals and biennials but not perennials. At the same time seeds are buried, some too deep for germination, other too deep for the seedlings to reach the surface. Hoeing cultivating, rolling and harrowing, all tend to destroy weeds. Cutting leaf, removal, land pulling and gathering are also effective methods. There are two methods of keeping land clean, viz, by prevention of reproduction by seeds or spores and by prevention of multiplication by root stocks. Weeds are prevented from seeding by taking in hand before flowering. A cut or pulled weed may produce seed, if at all fleshy. A fact never to be forgotten when land is to be kept clean. Every- thing put upon the field must be pure, i.e., free from living seeds of weeds the dung, roadscrapings, the compost and the seeds should all be pure. Propagation by root-stock is only to be prevented by its complete removal. Time will not allow us to take any of the weeds separately. So in summing up he should like to impress upon the minds of his hearers the importance of carefully studying the special characters of all weeds, and their duration in determining methods of eradication, and to be alive to the fact that a great many weeds are put in the soil by the cultivator's own hands by- using impure seeds, dung and compost.
Gardening for the Month.
Gardening for the Month. Little can be done in the flower garden unless the weather be open and dry. Dig over the borders if that has not been done already, and make any desired alterations of paths and beds. In fine weather transplant hardy shrubs. Plant all bulbous roots that are still out of the ground. Propagate by division of roots daisies and thrift, and protect the beds of hyacinths, ranunculuses, anemones, and tulips. In the kitchen garden trench and dig up all open ground if the weather permit, and in warm exposures sow articles that are to be brought forward early. In the fruit garden trees may still be transplanted. All snails should be looked for and destroyed to save trouble later on in the year. Sow beans for transplanting in March; cabbage at the close of the month, and peas on a sheltered border. The first interval of open weather should be taken advantage of to get in any bulbs which may remain unplanted. Train neatlv creepers, such as honeysuckle, rose, vine, an i clematis. Mignonette, stocks, etc., should be sown in pots, and sweet peas and a few hardy annuals on a warm border. Protect choice bulbs against frost. To force Rhubarb begin in good time. The crowns, if forced by a very strong heat, often grow very unevenly. If subjected to a mild heat they do not start away quickly, but grow steadily at first, and then rapidly. Moreover, there is more bulk, and the stalks are more highly flavoured. There is no better material for forcing the growth than leaves, where these can be had. They are sweet, too, and do not taint the Rhubarb. Failing leaves, strawy litter may be used. This method of forcing requires pots, tubs, or boxes to be placed over the clumps, and surrounded with the heating material. Always leave a small opening at the top to let out unwholesome steam. The roots may be lifted and forced into growth in cellars and other dark sheds and buildings, but lifting roots weakens them for a number of years.
"Lewys Glyndyfi." The Oymdeithas Cymreigyddion Cyfeiliog held its third meeting of the present session in the Town Hall, Machynlleth, on Wednesday evening, the 9 h of January. Amongst others present were Mr John Rowlands, president, Rev D. T. Hughes (Morfa), vice-president the two secretaries, Wnion and Ap Gwyddon Revs Josiah Jones and D. Darley Davies, Messrs John Pugh, J. Caradog Ashton, and D. Lloyd Jones. The public business of the even- ing was the reading of a paper on Lewys Glyndyfi," by Mr Edward Rees, J.P. The society is greatly indebted to the author for having given them an able paper on a man who, 50 years ago, though then comparatively a youth, exercised a considerable influence for good in developing the literary talent of the to Nn of Machynlleth, and was instrumental, with a few other kindred spirits, in establishing a Literary Society there in the early fifties. Amongst others who received their early taste for literary culture in that society we find such names as Eryr Meirion, the Revs Evan Jones, Carnarvon Josiah Jones, Machynlleth Mr Richard Williams, F.R.H.S., Ncwtown, and Mr John Francis, Wrexham. Though the Rev Lewis Meredith left this country in 1856 for the United States, and spent the remainder of his life in America, Mr Rees devoted the greater part of his paper to his early life-his early struggles in the pursuit of knowledge under the scantiest of advantages, and the most unfavourable of circumstances, and to the indelible stamp of early environment on his works, life, and character. Lewys Glyndyfi was born of humble parentage in 1828, at what was once a hamlet, —boasting of a mill, a flannel factory, and a fuller's mill (melin, ffactri, a phandy), called Felin y Ffridd, situated about a mile from Machynlleth, just where the lovely Corris valley loses itself in the more extensive landscape of the Dovey-a romantic spot unrivalled in all Wales for rural sim- plicity and natural beauty. It was at the neigh- bouring Sunday Schools of Pantperthog and Tai Newyddion, Llwyngwern, that he began to learn the rudiments of Welsh culture, for in those day they not only studied the Scriptures, but also devoted a certain time to grammatical analysis of the lesson. This custom was introduced by a few literary quarrymen who came to the neighbourhood from Carnarvonshire to work at Llwyngwern. At an early age Lewys, with his parents, removed to Cwmlline, where he worked as a boy-hand in his father's factory, but near by his machine stood a small table covered with books and writing material. His small library contained principally the works of such bards as Dafydd lonawr, Gutyn Peris, Dewi Wyn o Eifion, and Caledfryn, with a few volumes on theological subjects; and it was under such circumstances this young Welshman laid the foundations of his knowledge, which in after years was destined to charm and edify his pastorates, and which won for him the title of the poet- preacher "in the land of his adoption. When about twenty-two or twenty-three years old, he was for about two years afflicted with spinal disease which necessitated his being bedridden, and it was during this period that he composed some of hit, best productions in prose and verse. Their merit will be evident when it is known that many of his productions appeared in the I- Traethodydd," then under the discriminating editorship of the late Dr Lewis Edwards, Bala. At this period he also published his volume of poems "Blodau Glyn Dyfi," a book which, during the fifties and sixties, delighted a large circle of readers who little knew under what pathetic circumstances it was pro- duced. Despite his youth he was an acknowledged authority on Welsh" poetry, and in 1854 he was an adjudicator at a cyfarfod llenyddol at Aberhosan, "SR. adjudicating the prose, wtieii "Gwilyrr Cyfeiliog," "Tafolog," and "Cyfeiliog," were amongst the aspirants for literary fame. This meeting was the first of its kind ever held in the neighbourhood, and was the first fruits of a literary revival which has since done much to produce the pr.>eiit-day love of Welsh culture and letters. After Mr Meredith's departure for the States he soon became famous as a preacher, lecturer, and literary critic, and it is said that a series of articles published by him in one of the American periodical on Tennyson and his works is con- sidered to> be as masterly an exposition of the poet and his teaching as any published. In 1863 he visited this country as a delegate from the Northern States to elicit the sympathy of his fellow with their caase duriiag the civil war whilst Henry Ward Beecher v as is fellow dele- gate to the English people. Mr during his visit to the-States in 1891 had the pleasure of meeting onca again his old friend, Lewys Glyndyfi. in Chicago, at which time his li, ii was failin., and his enfeebled frame was rapidly breaking up. Soon after, whilst travelling in another part- of the V, States, Mr Rees received a message informing him of his friendS death and by rapidly travelling ,day and night he reached Chicago in time to pay his last tributa-to the memory of a life-long friend. Mr Rees. at theinvitation of Lewys Glyndyfi's many friends in America, wrote his biography, which appeared in serial form, in nine consecutive num- bers of the" Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd in 1394. Mr Richard Williams also wrote an article to his memory in the "Geninen," and gave him a fitting place in his well known "Montgomeryshire Worthies." At; ttde conclusion of the paper, severa. members testified to the pleasure they bad in listening to such an interesting paper. The Rev Josiah Jones' remarks had the additional interest of being personal reminiscences of Lewys Glyn Dyfi. The society's thanks to Mr Rees for his paper was proposed by Wnion, and supported by Rev D. Darley Davies and Mr J. C. Ashton. The remainder of the society's programme promises to be quite up to the reputation it bas already gained J for itself.
1L!<[j A Merionethshire Document<
L < [ j A Merionethshire Document The following copy of an old document in the Record Office thrown an interesting side light on the methods by whien. our ancestors succeeded in raising and training- their soldiers. The principle of a.standing army had only just been introduced, if I remember rightly. Hence the duty of pro- viding soldiers fell itpOQ the deputy lieutenants of the county, and I suppose upon the Sheriff. But what is the meaning of the reference to women in the order? Did women carry arms and were they trained to shoot with muskets? Perhaps some correspondent can explain. MERIONETH. Dolgelley the 4th of June 1678. It is ordered by the deputy Livefcenfuts then present whose names are subscribed that the principall person in charge of each particuler foot armes shall hereafter pay to the respective Trayners for every private general muster by the certificate of their respective Captains after Id per diem during their stay from their homes by reason of such muster, and that such principall persons in the said armes shall upon complaint or refusal in any of his assistants to contribute their proportions towards the sum by him herfcor them payd to his or her said Traynr be enabled in due manner to leavy and have of such. refusers the double of the sum payable by him her or them by way of per.altie the said penaltie to be disposed of by the orders of the deputy Livetenents according to the law in that case made and provided and it is also ordered that such principal! in fire armes provide and deliver to. their Traynrs balfe a pounde of powder for every, muster aud three yards of match to follow every match-locke. Given under our hands and seales the day and yeare above written. John Lloyd, Owen Wynne, Lewis Owen, Richard Anwill. Affirmed at this present meeting 9th July 1679. John Lloyd, Lewis Owen, Richard Anwill. John Lloyd was of the old family of Lloyds who. lived at Maes y Pandv. Towvn. He was sheriffvof Merioneth in i651-2, 1666-7. Owen Wynne. Perhaps of Pengwern, Festinifig.. Sheriff of Merioneth in 1692-3. Lewis Owen of Peniarth. He was fourths ;-A descent through his mother Margaret Owen, heiress of Peniarth, from Lewis Owen. the Baron. He was born in 1622 and died in 1691-2. He was LP; for Merioneth in 1658 aad Sheriff in 1646-7. W: R. M. Wynne, Esq,, of Peniartb and Owen Slauaey Wynne, Esq., are lineal descendants from him. Richard Anwill of Park. Sheriff in 1658,91.P.
LLANBRYNMAIR, MARWOLAET# UN 0 FINTAI ENWOG "WILLIAM PENN."—Dydd Mercher, TAcli. 7, bu farw Mrs Jane Jones, yn y dwyrain o Gomer, Allen. Co., Ohio. Achos ei marwolaeth oedd cancer. Merch ydoedd i Robert a Harriett Peate. Ganwyd hi yn Llan- brynmair, Sir Drefaldwyn, G. C., Mawsth 11, 1823. a derbyniodd ei haddysg foreuol yn ysgol yr Hybarch John Roberts, tad J, R. ac S. R. Derbyn- iwyd hi ynaelod eglvvjrsigpan yn14oed,apbarhao(ld felly hyd y diwedd am dros 63 Ð flvnyddoedd. Siaradai yn uchel lawn am yr eewogion uchod. Yr oedd yn ddifyrus ei chlvwed yn ei dull doniol ei hunan yn adrodd am danvnt, ac yn dyfynu rhanau o'n pregelhau, Symudodd i'r America yn 1848, y flwyddyn a gofir gan genedlaethau i ddod pan y gadawodd mintai Llanbrynmair am Liverpool,' ac yr hwyliasant yn yr hen long enwog William Penn." Lluchiwyd hwy am wythnosau gan ystormydd ar donau cynddeiriog y mor; end cawsant gilfach a glan yn mhorthladd Philadelphia, ac 0, mor Ilawen oeddynt i gael rbywbeth sefydlog o dan ei traed unwaith yn rliagor. Digwyddodd un peth hynod ar y fordaith hon, sef ei pbriodi hi a Richard W Jones, gan y diweddar Batch Michael Jones y Bala; ond ar ol cyraedd Cincinnati, priodwyd hwy drachefn yn ol cyfraitti Talaeth Ohio, a bu yn briodas faith a dedwydd. Ganwyd iddynt bump o blant. Nid oes ond dau yn fyw sef Robert B., yr hwn sydd yn fferruwr parch us. yn y Dwyrain o Gomcr, gyda'r hwn y cartrefai bi; hefyd William M., yr hwn sydd yn fasnachwr llwyddianus yn LinUl.O'r DRYCH.
DOLGELLEY. RURAL DISTRICT COUNCIL. The monthly meeting of this Council was held on Saturday last at the Shire Hall, Dolgelley, Mr John Evans, Barmouth, presiding. There were also present, Messrs Cadwaladr Roberts, Llan- gelyuin J. Meyrick Roberts; Llanfihangel Ellis Pugbe Jones, Llanddw-vwe-is Morris G. Williams, Llanenddwvn Ellis Williams, Llanaber; J. Pugh Jones and Hugh Jones, Talvllyn John Roberts, Brithdir Owen Jones, Llanymawddwv Richard Jones, Llanelltyd and Robert Hughes, Llanfach- reth with W. R. Davies (clerk), W. R. Richardson (assistant clerk), and Dr Hugh Jones (medical officer). BARMO¥TII JUNCTION COTTAGES. It was reported that the water supply at Bar- mouth Junction Cottages was now completed aud working satisfactorily. LLWYXGTVRIL WATER SUPPLY. At the previous meeting a Committee of the whole Council was appointed to meet at Llwyn- gwril to confer with Mr D. Gillart regarding the I proposed water supply for that place, and to report to this meeting. The Committee had met, and the report stated that the Clerk had explained the pur- port of the communications rrom me Local Govern- ment Board. After discussion it was deemed ad- visable to abandon the present scheme, and to visit the stream and springs known as Waunoer. The committee and medical officer also visited Cefn- meusydd and the surrounding district, and were of opinion that there was an abuudance of water, and subject to its being satisfactory on analysis re- course should be had to that district for a supply. The committee also decided to take samples of water from different spots, and to have the same analysed. The Clerk read ;the report of the analyst, Prof. Alan Murray, Aberystwyth. who stated that owing to the shortness of time allowed him he had had great difficulty in completing his analysis by the time specified by the Council, and bad been unable to search for any other mineral poisons except lead. If the Council desired it and were able to wait for a week or ten days more he would make a more thorough examination for other substances If they wished separate reports for each sample or any furthur information he would be pleased to supply it. The analyst stated that all the samples contained a slight sediment and exhibited a slight yellow colour-that of No 1 being the darkest-but were free from smell and taste. They were very soft in character, of neutral reaction, were free from organic pollution and from lead. The only con- spicuous point of difference between them was that the albuminoid ammonia in No 1 was much'higher than in either of the other two. This probably indicated the presence of vegetable matter, but the quantity was not sufficient to prove detrimental to fj,h life. The Medical Officer said he did not consider the sediment, mentioned in the analysis as dangerovr, because it was natural that samples taken from mouniain streams, which ran inrough peaty soii, would contain some amount of vegetable matter. By providing a settling tank this would disappear before it reached the reservoir. He was disappointed with the analyst's report, because some of the inhabitants had complained that the water was too hard for domestic purposes. Mr Cadwaladr Roberts wished to know whether the medical officer considered that the analysis was one which would be accepted by the Local Govern- ment Board. They had no time to lose, and if the analysis submitted that day was considered satis- factory they could save at least, a fortnight's time. The Clerk thought it wquld be preferable to get a thorough analysis to submit to the Local Govern- ment Board. Mr Cadwaladr Roberts proposed that the Clerk secure from MrMurray a complete analysis, and that he also instruct Mr Gillart to proceed with his preparations for carrying the scheme into effect1.. MrJ. P*b-Jones seconded. Mr E.' Eugh Jones proposed as an amendment that Mr gi--ll-art take no steps until Mr Murray's complete analysis had been received. They had already spent enough money on this matter, aa& they should first of all know what they were aboute There was no seconder to the amendment, antb the resolution was then carried, Mr E. Pugh Jones- being the oaly dissentient. WELL AT BONTDDU. Letters were read from Mr Wilding Jones,. London, antl, Mr H. J. Wrigbt, manager of the St. David's Gold and Copper Mines, Limited, Bontddui regarding the above matter. The latter stated that they had been, doing and were still doing every. thing necessary to clean the river on either side of the bridge aad also the path to the well. They had had tMs work in hand for some months, and not a smgle stone had been thrown into the river for at teast two months. He would further say that th3- fErst4hing they did was to make a sub- stantial wall with new path to the well, and the inhabitants had never suffered one single day any inconvenience- through not being able to get to the spring. He would further add that he thought it a great shame that any complaints had been made by inhabitants,, especially as nine tenths of them were dependaag on these works as a means of liveli- hood. He did not know whence the information I came" that theviillagers of Bontddu were. wholly deprived of the advantages of the well," and this he contradicted as he had already said the inhabitants had been all through, and were still > ible to get the water they required. J Mr Ellis Williams contended when the river was j high approach to the wll was impossible, and in Face of this assertion, it was decided to again write to the Mining Company, asking them to make ac- cess to the well possible at all times. EREJTBYN WATER SUPPLY. The Clerk read a letter from the Dyffryn Parish Council stating that this Council's letter of the 20th ult had been read at the last meeting, and the Council wished to thank the District Council for their readiness to agree with their request. The. Council had selected two sources of water in the parish, both of which, in ;their opinion, were suit- able for tile- purpose of supplying the villager of Dyffryn with water, as well as the adjoining parish of Llandwywe is, if necessary. Many other sources were mentioned at the meeting. The Parish Coun- cil considered this matter very important, and were of opinion that it was necessary to, call a Parish Meeting, and place the matter clearly be-. fore the iiatepayers in order to have their opinion. The said Parish Meeting was to be held on Tues- day, January 15, and the officials of the District Council' would be informed of the date fixed for the purpose of examining the sources, so as to enable them to make a report on the matter. A biill for Z42 odd having been presented by Messrs.Bowen and Jones for expenses in connection with the recent inquiry regarding the Dyffryn J water s-upply, the Council decided to, offer £40 in settlement of the account. RECOVERY OF COSTS.. The- Clerk reported that the Council had decided J to take proceedings against Mr C. E. J. Owen, iHengwrtucha, for non-compliance with notices: to have the farmhouse of Esgeiriau put in a proper sanitary condition. Since proceedings had been instituted he bad been informed by Mr Griffith, agent, that the work had now been taken in hand, and he (the Clerk) wished to know whether he :was to continue the proceedings. On the motion of Mr Cadwaladr Roberts,, it was (decided to withdraw, the proceedings, but jo, apply ,to Mr Owen for the paynent of: the costs iia- earred. Mr Cadwaladr, Roberts enquired whether the costs in the case of Sir Richard Wyat respecting Garthisaf had baen paid. The Clerk replied in the negative, and-the Coun- cil then decided to apply far the payiaent of the costs in this c<e also. Mr John Roberts said there were several other instances whore buildings had beea condemned, and as they had taken proceedings in some cases he thought they should treat all aSke. He pro- posed that the inspectar and the medical officer draw out a list of all such,cases and. present it to the next meeting. Mr Cadwaladr Roberts-, concurred with the previous speaker, and thought the- inspector should pay particular attention to the matter. Mr Richard Jones called attention to the condition of a fana.called Berhl wyo, where the inspector had laid a d4-ain, which caused water to percolate into the house. Mr John Roberts' resolution was carried unanim- ously, and it was also decided that the inspector's attention be specially called to the case of Bertlilwyd. DIN AS ilAWDDWY IMPROVEMENTS. A letter was. read from the executors of the late Sir William Roberts, London, stating that the projected sanitary improvements at Dinas Mawddwy by Sir William were being carried out, and would soon be completed. MEDICAL OFFICER'S REPORT. Dr Hugh Jones, the medical officer, reported that on the 21st December he examined the source of the proposed new water supply for Bontddu. The water is to be taken from a small stream which runs through wild mountainous ground. There is no available land above the intake, and there are no dwellings or buildings within the watershed. The surroundings of the source were, therefore, free from any organic pollution beyond that which must result from pasturage, which was almost nil. It would be wise, however, to make some provision to prevent sheep dipping in the stream above the intake. On January 3rd he accompanied several members of the Council to Llwyngwriland examined a very similar source to that of the above, the surroundings of which were also free from any obvious pollution. In both cases the water should be submitted to careful analysis in order to ascertain whether the chemical composition of the water was such as to make it suitable for domestic purposes. It should also be borne in mind that upland surface water was frequently heavily charged with peat or earthy matter, and in tliose cases a subsidence reservoir was desirable. FINANCES. Mr Meyrick Roberts made a statement as to the financial position of the Council. Arrears were due by the different parishes as follows :-Llanegryn £ 3 13s 8d; Llangelynin, £28 lis; Talyllyn, £ 15; total, £46 4s 8d. Talyllyn ha'd, however, since paid P-10. The balance at the bank amounted to £ 175 5s 2d, and the bills that day amounted to zE95 8s lid, leaving a balance of £79 16s 3d. The statement was unanimously accepted. HIGHWAY BOARD. A meeting of the Highway Board was held subsequent to the meeting of the Rural District Council, Mr John Evin, Barmouth, again pre- siding. The Surveyor (Mr William Williams) submitted his monthly report, in which he com- plained that damage had been done to the road near Ty Ucha, Llanfachreth, caused by hauling timber over it.—The Clerk was instructed to write to Mr Thomas Edwards, and also to Mr Williams, timber merchant, Dolgelley, drawing their attention to the condition of the road, and requesting them to reinstate it to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. t -At the previous meeting the Council directed the Clerk to furnish the Glasdir Mining Company with the amount expended on the road leading from the Glasdir Mines to Llanelltyd, over which they used a traction engine, and to request them to con- tribute a certain sum towards the extra expense incurred. A reply had now been received from Mr John Bevan, the manage", stating that he was unaware of any actual liability on the part of the Company to keep the road in repair. The Company had, from 1896 to June last, voluntarily expended over Z580 in labour and material in improving the condition of the road, as they had been hauling heavy machinery, etc., over it. Whilst the Com- pany denied responsibility, he would be glad to meet a member of the Board so as to be put fully in possession of the Board's views, as it was his desire to do what was right and fair in the matter. Messrs Robert Hughes (junr.), Howell Pugh and I Richard Jones were appointed to meet Mr Bevan and explain the Board's position.—Mr A. R. Cox, agent for the Nannau Estate, wrote on behalf of Miss Vaughan, who is now the owner of Plas-yn- brithdir, drawing attention to the damage being done to her property by the men at present working on the road there.—Messrs John Edwards and John Roberts were appointed to visit the place, and report to the next meeting. A SONG OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. (On the occasion of the extension of time at public houses on New Year's Day). Drink out the century severe, Drink in an age more free and gay; Drink out the joyless U.K.A. And temperance reform austere. Drink out the old teetotal cause, Drink in the Cecil's new regime; Drink in, drink in. the drunkard's dream Of more indulgent liquor laws. Drink out Sir Wilfrid's long crusade, A nation's shame, a Cecil's sport; Drink out the foolish Peel report, Drink in the golden new Free Trade. Drink out all beverages thin, The sign of these degenerate times Drink out Sir Wilfrid's sober rhymes, But drink the fuller minstrel in. -Punch.
THE MARKETS. ABERYSTWYTH-MONDAY. Wheat, 5s Od to 6s Od per 651bs barley43s 6d to 3s 9d oats, white, 2s 9d to 3s Od; oats, black, 2s 6d to 2s 9d; eggs lis to 12s butter, salt, lOd to lid per lb; ditto fresh, lid to Is per lb fowls, 3s Od to 3s 9tl per couple chickens, 3s 6d ducks, 5s 6d to 6s per couple; Geese, 10s to 12s per couple; turkeys 14s to 16s per couple; -.potatoes, 3Z;F gd to 4s Od per cwt. BUTTER. 11' CARMARBEX.T Saturday.—The quantityof fresh i,jmade cask butter has falleu off. Severaf lots of jverv good fall-made were offered for sale aad sold !at last week's full prices. Quotations Fresh cask, Is to Is 2d per lb lattermath, lid to Utd (per lb. METAL. LONDOV, Monday.—Spelter R19 5s to £19 12s 63. Lead-s&ft foreign, P,17 2s 6d to ZIS 2s 6d English ditto. C17 78 6d to £18 7s 6d. DEAD MEAT. -CONDOIIC, Sat-drday.-Not much fresh meat to hand but. trade closed slowly. English beef, 3sTO0to 4s Zd Scotch sides, 3s lOd to 4s Od; shorte, 4s Od to' 4s 4d American, 3s 3d to 3s 10d: iuferior, 2s 0d to 2s 3d British mutton. 14s 2d to 4s 8d: foreign, 3s 4Zd to 4s Od; veal, 3s 8d to 4s 6d pork,. 3s 6d to 4s 6d per 81b. POTATOES. London, Saturday.—Good supplies, and trade steady at the following prices :-Puritans, 90s up- to-dates, 80s to 100s; Windsor Castles, 80s to 90s; magnums, 75s to 80s per ton Dutch, rounds, 2s 6d to 2B 9d; Belgian, rounds, 2s 9d to li Od; ditto magawms, 3s to 3s 3d per bag. HAY AND STRAW. liaadon, Saturday.—Good supplies, but trade ruled quiet at unchanged prices. Quotations:— Best clover, 85s to 100s; inferior, 80s to 85s; specially picked hay, 92s 6d; good ditto, 80s to 87s i5d; inferior, 50s. to 60s; i-nixt-ure an-d sanfoin, 70s to 90s; straw, 25s to 36s per loadj CORN. Cardiff, Saturday.—English and fbreign wheat firmly held at last week's- full rates. Flour firm at advancing rates. Bfeans and peas firm and unchanged. Oats and' barley in good demand. Market closed firmer. Gloucester, Saturday.—English^ Wheat—reds, 3s 7rl to Os Od; whites, 3s 7id to Os Ofl., Foreign wheat, Russians 31s to 31s 3d; Plates, 30s 6d to 31s 3d; Tismanians, 32s Od; Californian, 80s 9d to 31s Grinding barley 18s 6d to 19s Ofl'per qr. Round maize, 23s 9d to 24s 9d.
_.:s.. OLD FALSE TEETH; BOUGHT
_s.. OLD FALSE TEETH; BOUGHT Many ladies and gentlemerbhave by them old or disused false teeth, which might as well be turned into money. Messrs. R. D. B. Fraser, of Princes Street, Ipswich (established, since 1833), biiy old, false teeth. If you send ,Qu:rr teeth to them they will remit you by return pps»/the utmost value; or, if preferred, they will ma&a you the best offer, and hold the teeth over foríyoul1 reply. If reference necessary, apply to Messrs. Bacon & Co., Bankers Ipswich.
Public Notices. I&YMUNA i 30M P. Cboraas PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTS A BE R Y STW YiT H, ALW SYLW Y CYHOEDD AT EI. STOC HELAETH 0 BOB MATH 0 I)woddau n)cddpginiactbol CEIR GANDDO Y I MATHAU GOREU AM Y PRISIAU RHATAF. J. P. Thomas ABERYSTWYTH. Business Notices.. WILLIAM PROBIN. FLite the RELIANCE HOUSEDPPO Market MVA AND 15, PIER STREET, Working Watchmaker, Lapidary, and Jeweller. Purchaser of -Brilliants, Old Gold and Silver, Modern and Antique Plate. CASTLE HOU-S. Eq ABERAYRON. John Hugh Jones, The oldest* established Draper in Aberayron. LARGE STOCK OF, DBAPEEY OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. FOR WEL.SH MATERIALS, Of all description unsurpassed in the Town MODERN SHOWROOMS. Ladies and Gentlemen are respectfully requested to visit the above Establishment. They will. be, surprised at the variety of the Stock. FOR REAL WELSH FLANNEL [AND WOOLT.EN GOODS GO, J. & E. EVANS, « k.n krai. drapers; AND • MILLINERS, — 40 — GREAT DAMGATE STREET ^liKS Y S T \V Y T'H I r F. BENNISON, FISHMONGER! AND FRUITERER, LISBURNE HOUSE, TERRACE ROAD. FRESH FISH DAILY FRESH FISH DAILY CAUGHT BY OUR OWN BOAT IN THE BAY. Albatross and Plover. FRESH SALMOIN FROM THE TEIFY, SEVERN, AND OTHER RIYERS. ICE always on hand. Homers' Clotted Cream and Cream Cheese. Fruit and Vegetables fresh daily BENNTSOX'S .J.. '1" J NEW AND COMMODIOUS POSTING ESTABLISHMENT, PORTLAND STREET, ABERYSTWYTH.. CHAR-A-BANCS leaves Lisburne House, Terrace-road, at 10.15a.m. Daily for Devil's Bridge, Plynlimon, Llyfnant Valley, and other places of interest; also AFTERNOON DRIVES. Excursions made to Hafod, Taliesin's Grave, Monk's Cave, &c., &c. SPECIAL TERMS FOR PRIVATE PARTIES. Landaus, Victorias Waggonettes, Phajtons, Dog- carts, Irish Jaunting Car, Governess Cars, and Donkey Carriage for Children always on Hire. COMMODIOUS B1CYCLB STORES. THE ROCK FOUNDRY MACHYNLLETH (Established 1869), JJAS JgEEN J^E-OPENED And Business Carried on as usual. r 1 RENDERING our best thanks to our Customers Friends for their patronage in the past and soliciting same and their recommendation for the future. BALDWYN M. DAVIES- JOHN LLOYD & SONS, TOWN CRIERS," BILL POSTERS AND DISTRIBUTORS, HAVE the largest number of most prominent Posting Stations in all parts of Aberystwyth and District. Having lately purchased the business and stations of Aberystwyth Advertising and General Bill Posting Stations, they are able to take large contracts of every description. Over 100 Stations in the Town and District. Official Bill Posters to the Town and County Coun- cils, G.W.R. Co., Cambrian Railway Co., all the Auctioneers of the Town and District, and other Public Bodie Ok "Wlsb Gazette" IS ON SALE IN LONDON AT Messrs. W. H. EVERETT & SONS, Bell's Buildings, Salisbury Square. LONDON, E.C. Mr. W. H. ROBERTS, Bookseller, 10, Cecil Court, Charing Cross. BY POST cq. fid. A YEAR. TAILORING ESTABLISHMENT, 13 ]PIEI1 J§TEEET' ^BERYSTWYTH DAVID JAMES. Suitings, Coatings, Trouserings, &c., in the best fashion and at reasonable prices. Cricketing aud Boating Suits made to order on be Shortest otice. THE 44 Welsh = Gazette" Being the only bilingual paper in the District it offers Unique. Advantages. to ■ Advertisers List of some of the principal j places where 1 Cl>e oteisl) Gazette" is sold: ABERYSTWYTH. ABERAYROX. ABERDOVEY. ABERGYNOLWYN. ABERLLEFENNY. ABSRARTH. ARXHOG. BA.LA. BARMOUTH. BLAENAU FESTLNIOG. BRONANT. BLAENPENNAL. ORTH. Bovr STREET BAXGOR. CARDIGAN. CARMARTHEN. CARNARVON CEMMES. CELLAN. CILCENNIN. CROSS INN" CORRIS. CORWEN. CRICCIBTH. CWMYSTWYTH. CRIBYN. DoLGESiLEY. DINAS MAWDDWY DERRY ORMOXD. DEVIL'S BRIDGE. DREJFACH. DIBEWYD. DYFFRYN. EGLWYSFACH. FESTINIOG. GOGINAN. HARLECH. LAMPETER. LLANAFAN. LL AN BAD Alts FAWB. LLANDILO. LLANFIHANGEL. LLANFARIAN. LLANGWYRFON. LLANWNEN. LLANWENOG. LLANARTH. LLANDDEWI. LLANGEITHO. LLEDROD. LLAXILAR. LLANON. LLAWBEDR. LLANGYBI. LLANYBYTHER. LLANDYSSUL. LLANBRYNMAIR. LLANRHYSTYD ROAD. LLANRHYSTYD. LLAXUWCHLLYN. LLWYNGWRIL. MACHYNLLETH. MINFFORDD NBWTOWN. NEWCASTLE EMLYN. NEWQUAY. PENNAL. PONT LLANIO. PONTRHYDFENDIGAID. PONTRHYDYGROES. PHNEHYNDEUDRAETH POBTMADOC. PSNLLWYN. PONTERWYD. PENRHYNCOCH. PHNPARKE. PWLLHELI. RHYDLEWIS. RHYDFYDR. TALTBONT. TBBOARON. TAXJESIN. TALQARREG. TALSARN. TALSARNAU. TOWYN. TREFEIRIG. WELSHPOOL. YSTRAD. YSPYTTY YSTSVJTH LONDON. LIVERPOOL. LLANDIM). LLANDRINDOD WELLS. LLWYNPIA. MANCHESTER. MERTHYR TYDVIL. PONTYPRIDD ADVERTISING BOOR STALL. PORTH. PONTYCYMNER TREORCKY.