Unioersitp College. ABERYSTWYTH. Lectures on Fruit Culture. BY MR. J. L. PICKARD. The ninth lecture was given on Friday evening before a capital audience. The chair was taken by Rev. George Eyre Evans, l'anybryn. Mr. Pickard said that Gooseberries were perhaps more generally known than any other variety of of small fruit. In allotments and cottage gardens where fruit is grown at all, gooseberries are almost certain to be represented, and if well managed they are. both a useful and profitable crop to grow. But in far too many cases the trees grown are either too old to bear good crops, or are of inferior varieties, or have been too badly managed to make them desir- able occupants of the garden. Young gooseberry trees may either be purchased from the local nursery man, or propagated by the grower himself. If cuttings of good varieties can be obtained the latter method is to be preferred, as there is not only an added pleasure in growing trees of ones own production, but better opportuni- ties are given of training the young trees in the earlier stages of their growth. The nurseryman is interested in getting his trees as large as he can in the shortest possible time, and the prices they realise do not repay him sufficiently to give the necessary attention to pruning and training that the young trees ought to receive. The result is tliat tht branches are overcrowded and too weak to produce first class fruit, and no amount of after attention will entirely remedy this early neglect. Gooseberry trees are most easily propagated from cuttings, and this is the method most generally adopted for their propagation. They are seldom grown in other than bush form, though they are both ornamental and fruitful when grown as espal- iers or in grid iron form and trained to wires or they may be confined to single stems, or trained in fan shape. In the two latter ways they are very suitable for training on walls. Trees so trained have two distinctly practical advantages the fruit is easily gathered, and the trees are more easily pruned. It is necessary to decide what form of trees are required before the cuttings are struck in the autumn, as those that are required for espaliers, &c., require rather different treatment to others that are intended for bushes. The shoots selected for cuttings should be firm, straight, clean C, shortjointed, as thick as a lead pencil, and about fifteen inches long when the top has been taken off. It is always advisable to cut two or three inches off the end of the cuttings as the buds are not so strong and well developed as those lower down the branch, and if left to form branches they would only result in failure. Prepare the cuttings by making a clean cut at the base, straight across and just below a leaf joint. Carefully re- move, with the point of a knife, all the buds and spines from the lower part of the cutting, leaving only three, or at the most four buds at the top. If tne buds are not removed from the lower part of the cuttings they will grow as suckers after the plant has become established. The result of this is a confusion of growths which cannot be con- verted into a satisfactory fruitful bush by any amount of after pruning. If the buds have been -properly removed it will insure a clear stem of several inches above the ground, a thing most desirable, if not imperative, in gooseberry trees. If it is intended to train the trees as cordens, i.e. with one upright stem, the buds should only be removed from that part of the cutting that will be inserted in the soil; if for espaliers, that is two or more horizontal stems, then only two buds should be left at about twelve inches from the ground. If for grid iron, or fan shape then five buds may be left. The cuttings, which should be taken in November, should be planted in lines, fifteen inches apart, and six inches apart in the lines. They should be planted firmly, and about five inches deep; this will leave several inches of clear stem between the ground and the lowest bud. The soil in which the cuttings are inserted should be of a sandy open nature, and free from stagnant water. If it is heavy it should be opened by the addition of burnt clay, old li-iie rubble, or burnt garden refuse. No manure should be added at tl- stnge. Care must be taken during the following spring and summer to keep the land perfectly free from weeds, by keeping the spaces between the rows of cuttings constantly stirred with the hoe to the depth of an inch or so. This admits air, and assists in pre- venting the loss of moisture by evaporation. If the operation of propagation has4 been "successfully accomplished the plants will be ready for the first attentions in training in July. All shoots that have made nine leaves or more should have their growing points pinched out, and if there are any side shoots growing from the main shoots, they Should have the points pinched out after making four leaves. This throws all the energy of the plant into ripening and strengthening the branches that remain, giving them a sound constitution for future fruit bearing. In the case of upright cordons only one main branch must be allowed to grow all other shoots that are formed ought to be pinched when they have made four leaves, these will then form fruiting spurs for the following year. For the other methods of training the main branches will require some support to which they can be tied in the desired shape; this is easily supplied by means of a few stakes and pieces of wire. At the end of the first year each rooted plant should be transplanted into nursery beds; land which has been cleared of late potatoes is suitable for this purpose. The plants will now require a space of two feet between each other. Before planting see that every broken root, and every strong root is carefully cut beyond the broken part. This encourages the formation of fibreous roots, and reduces the risk of the roots being attacked by mold and disease. They must in no case be planted deeper than they were previous to removal; if the roots have been chiefly formed at the base of the cutting they ought not to be planted so deeply as they were. A safe and advisable rule is to have the uppermost roots within two inches of the surface of the ground. In planting, spread out and pack every root carefully in tine soil and press it tirnU-yaoout. them by lightly treading, but not ramming hard as is sometimes advised. If a surface dressing of some such manure as peat. moss litter, or short stable manure can be given at once it will be very bene- ficial. Spread it two or three inches thick, a foot further than the roots extend. At this time any weak thin shoots that have been formed subsequent to the summer pinching should be cut off, shorten- ing the branch to the topmost dormant bud. Our young trees will now, if they have been well managed, be furnished with three main branches, in addition to several short ones which are in- tended for fruit spurs. During the following summer each of the main branches should be allowed to form three more, making nine in all. All other shoots that appear must have their points pinched out after they have made four leaves, and the main branches should be stopped during June then by the end of the second year from taking the cuttings we shall have a stock of clean, well ripened, sturdy trees ready to plant into their permanent quarters. If there is no vacant wall space on which to train the upright cordens, a fence can be easily made with a few stakes and wire, and more fine fruit can be obtained from a given space of ground tham any other way. The trees should be planted from nine inches to a foot apart. The chief points in their cultivation is to pinch all side shoots as they are formed in early summer, to mulch the roots with good manure, and to take off all the small badly shaped fruit as soon as it is large enough for cooking purposes, leaving only I y the largest fruit to ripen. Trained in this way they are easily protected from birds, and the fruit receives a larger amount of sunshine and air than it would if grown on bushes. Pruning gooseberry trees is seldom a pleasant employment; still it has to be done, and there are right ways and wrong ways of doing it. The task is much easier when commenced and carried through in the right way. The wrong method is frequently the most difficult of execution, and the most harmful to the tree, and its owner, and his pocket. The right way to proceed is first of all to cut away all branches that a,re too near the ground. They seldom bear any fine fruit, and they prevent a free circulation of air through the tree. Then remove all branches that touch or are crossing each other, and such as are overcrowding the tree. It will now be found that the trees do uot look so formidable, that the task of pruning is reduced in dimensions and difficulty, and that little more remains to be done. Of conrsc, if summer pinching has been adopted and intelligently carried out, there will be none of this rough pruning to do. What little pruning remaining to be done now consists in thinning out young shoots to four or five inches apart, cutting off the shoots at six to nine inches from their base, and catting the side shoots to within half an inch of their base to form spurs. This kind of pruning practically ensures heavy crops of fruit every year, and the fruit is gathered with little trouble or injury. Summer pinching is invaluable for goose- berry trees. The work is done at a time of the year when it can be carried out with comfort; the trees are directly benefited, and it saves much unpleasant work in winter. The trees require a iicavy mulching of farm yard manure each winter; it is best applied directly the pruning is finished in December or January then in April give one oz. of mineral superphosphate, half an oz. of sulphate of ammonia, and one oz. of Kainit, or four ozs. of wood ashes in place or Kainit, to each tree, scatter- L g on the farmyard manure, and either watering or allowing it to be washed in with the rain. latter case it would be well to mix it with ———————————— the manure by the aid of a, hoe or rake. Gooseberry I trees so treated become heavily laden- with fruit each year, provided the soi3 is good, and; the roots near the surface of the grouod are not mutilated with the spade- Whinham's Industry, Lancashire Lad, White- smith, and Warrington Red are good sorts for cottagers to grow for cooking asd preserving. For eating ripe early Sulphur and Red Champagne are two of the best; while Berry's Early Kent is one of the heaviest and most profitable croppers in cul- tivation. Red and white currants are not as a. rme so valuable a crop to grow as either gooseberries or black currants, still where room permits it is highly advisable to grow a few bushes of each variety. Their fruits make splendid jelly, and they are of great value when mixed with rasps- or other fruit for jam making or cooking purposes. The cultivation of white and red currants is practically the same, and they may be dealt with as one. The black currant is, however, of a totally different habit, and must be dealfe with and managed differently if success is to be assured. Currant trees are best propagated from cuttings in precisely the same way as was recommended for gooseberry trees choosing straight, clear. shoots of the current year's growth, about fifteen, inches long, and the thickness of a lead pencil. These shoots should in all cases be chosen from the top of the bush, where they have had the best ad- vantages of sun and air to ripen them. Unripe wood would give us young trees with a weak constitution, and we have no right to look for a high standard of success if we do not start with the healthiest and most vigorous trees it is possible to obtain. Red and white currants should have all the eyes rubbed out, with the exception of three or four at the top as in the case of gooseberries, and like them they ought to be ready for planting in their permenant quarters at the end of the second year. During this first two years of their life they ought to receive very special care in training, for if they are neglected in their earlier stages of their growth no after care can make them into the clean, shapely fruit bearing bashes we desire to grow. Red currants always bear their fruit on spurs that form at the base of all shoots that can be induced to grow from the main branches, therefore, in training the young trees care should be taken to leave the branches at such distances apart that they may have the full ad- vantages of sun and air. A well shaped currant bush will have seven to nine main branches. These are better when of nearly equal length and strength, and they will radiate from the main stem at about six inches from the ground, and equal distances apart from each other. The side shoots should never be allowed to become of undue length, but regularly pinched in summer in order that the summer sun and air may convert the useless and sappy wood into ripe fruitful wood. When the leaves have fallen in the autumn all side shoots should be shortened to within half-an-inch of the main branches to form compact fruit spurs, at the same time shortening the leading growths to within six or nine inches of. last years wood. This severe pruning will need to be carried out each winter, and the operation will be as rapid as it is simple. When the trees are managed in this way in respect to summer and winter pruning, and kept well manured in the way suggested for gooseberries, the branches are annually clothed inYlense masses of fruit. Where the garden adjoins the dwelling house of the owner, red currants could advantage- ously be trained in grid-iron form and grown up at the sides of the house. This would not only in many cases improve the appearance of the house, but would utilise what often otherwise would be wasted space, in the production of a useful and accommodating crop. For training in grid-iron shape the cutting must have all the eyes moved with the exception of two at the top, these to be at opposite sides of the shoot, and about nine inches above the surface of the ground. When the buds begin to grow, the shoots must be trained in an horizontal direction. This is best by attaching a five feet length of wire to a few stakes nine. inches high, the cutting to occupy a position at the centre of the wire, and the two shoots tied down to it in opposite directions. When the young shoots have reached the end of a wire they should be turned in an upward direction to form the outer branches of the grid-iron. Allow other four branches to grow from the two horizontal ones at a foot apart from each other, pinching back all other shoots to within four leaves of the main branch, and prune closer in winter as is done in the case of bushes. Currants so grown are easily protected by netting from birds, and it will hang until Christmas in a fresh and exceedingly luscious condition if the aspect is either north-west, north, or north-east. There is nothing extraordinary in having red currant tart to dinner on Christmas day, the fruit being gathered direct from the tree. Red and white currants are provided with a double set of roots, surface and anchor roots, there- fore care should be taken in preparing the ground for them. They delight in a free, rich, open soil, and they are fond of lime. It is a good plan to allow each tree a little lime every two years; it stimulates the growth, keeps the ground sweet, and assists in keeping down obnoxious grubs and other pests. The spade should never be used near the fruit trees we are discussing after they are planted any manure that is used should be applied at to the surface, and if it is objectionable to the sight it might be lightly covered with fresh soil. It should not be put on in such quantities as to risk excluding air from the roots, as air in the soil is just as necessary for fine crops of fruit as manure is. Potash is required in large quantities: this can be very well supplied in the form of wood ashes, and dug in at the time of planting. The black currant is everywhere a prime favour- ite, and we are not likely to suffer from an over- production of it at present. Not only is it one of the most popular fruits for jams, tarts, and puddings, but in cases of cold and illness it is most useful medicinally. Plentiful as they are in some years, and badly as they are usually grown, they always meet a ready sale at good prices. Cuttings such as are advised for red currants and goose- berries should be chosen, but it is unadvisable to remove any of the lower buds, because in this case we wish to encourage from the production of young growths from below the soil as black currant bears mostly upon well matured wood of the previous years growth. It is a fatal mistake to prune black currants in the same way as red currants are pruned; in a very few years the wood would be- come hard and knotty, the fruit would be small and sour, and finally- the trees would cease bearing altogether at the time when they ought to be giving us their heaviest crops of rich, ripe fruit. The secret of success then in the culture of black currants being the annual production of young wood and the removal of old and exhausted wood, it is obvious that proper pruning will entirely consist of judiciously making room for young wood by thinning out the old. Leave the young shoots five or six inches apart, and new branches from below the soil are to be encouraged, because they are renewing the tree constantly. If the young branches come up from the ground too thickly they ought to be pulled up, not cut off, when quite young in order that those remaining may have room to mature. The im- portance of obtaining thoroughly ripened wood cannot be over-estimated for the profitable pro- duction of fruit crops. Pruning is also an im- portant detail in fruit culture; if the main branches of gooseberry and currant bushes are too close together, producing a thicket of growths, and the canes of rasps crush against each other in the summer, no one has a right to expect good crops. The evil of over-crowding must be prevented by taking the ends off side shoots before mid-summer down to four or five leaves from the base, so that the sun and air can act on those leaves also young suckers should be drawn from raspberries and black currants till those that remain stand clear of each other, the leaves scarcely touching; then fruitfulness will be induced. Black currant growths must not be cut back like those of red and white currants, but simply thinned like rasberries, to let the sun shine amongst and between the growths. Another very important matter in obtaining heavy crops of fruit is manuring. If the same plant be grown year after year in the same soil it gradually impovrishes the ground. Heavy dress- ings of farmyard manure are essential to bush fruic growing in addition to the special manures already recommended, not only as a valuable source of plant food, but for conserving moisture in the soil. The condition of the mannre is also important. Many gardeners delight in manure that is in such a state of decomposition that it can be carved into slices with the spade. This is the worst possible condition it can be in for mulching fruit bushes or strawberries. It makes and keeps the soil colder than it otherwise would be,—and one of the objects in applying manure ought to be to raise the temperature of the soil,—and much of the nitrogen it contained, its most valuable in- gredients; is volatised and lost. The manure ought to be fairly fresh, at the most not more than half rotted, and contain a fair amount of straw or other litter. This, in the process of decomposition raises the temperature of the soil, and further, the nitrogen it contains is washed down to the plants roots as it is released from the other constituents of the manure. A good selection of varieties of currants would be :—Red—Red Dutch, Raby Castle, and Victoria. White—White Transparent, and White Dutch. Black—Lees Prolific, Ismays Prolific, Baldwins, and Black Naples. The last lecture of the course will be given next Friday evening, when "pests and diseases of fruit trees will be the subject.
A Sabbath schoolteacher who had been tellingthe story of David ended with-" And all this happened over three thousahd years ago." A little listener, her blue eyes opening wide with wonder, said, I after a moment's thought, "Oh, dear! •.vhat a memory you have got!
CHURCH CONFERENCE AT MACHYNLLETH. The arnti-il meetings of the Bangor Diocesan ConTerenc « were held at Machynlleth last week under the presidency of the Lord Bishop (Dr. Watkin Wiihams), who was accorded a warm and sincere welcome by the clergy- and laity alike. There was a large and representative number of delegates. Tae proceedings opened on Wednesday, when special' services were held- in the parish church. At the morning ceSebration of Holy Communion tsie celebrant was Canon Trevor, rector, who was-assisted by the Rev. R. H. Williams, Llanfaethlu, the Rev. Peter Jones, Llanddona, the Rev. James Will.a.ms, Dolgelley, and the Rev. D. T. Hughes, curate. The morning service at 11 o'clock was crowded. The preacher- was the e Bishop of the Diftcese. At noon thct Dowager Marchioness of Londonderry entertained a large party to luncheon at Plas Machynlleth. The ser- vice in the afternoon was in Welsh,, and the officiating minister was the Rev. Lleweiya Hughes, of Portmadoc. In the evening the church was again crowded, and the Rev. David Jones- of Aber- erch, preached. *• The business conference was held on Thursday, and all the gatherings were largely atteaded and evinced the keenest interest of the delegates. After the celebration of the Holy Conanunion at 8-30, the Conference set to work, and met at the Town Hall at 10-30 in the morning. # Among those present were the Lord Bishop of Bangor, who presided, Lord Henry Vane-Tempest, Col. E. Pryse-Jones, M.P., Mr. Humphrays-Owen, M.P., Sir Ellis Nanney, Archdeacon Pryoe, Lord Harlech, Mr. Lloyd Carter (Carnarvon),. Mr. O. Slaney Wynne, Mr. De Winton, etc. # Among those present at the luncheon were the Lord Bishop, Lord Harlech, Lord Henry Vane- Tempest, Lady Londonderry, Mrs. Williams of Bangor, Sir H. Ellis Naiiney, Sir Richard Martin, K.C.B., Col. E. Pryce-Joues, M.P., Mr. A. C. Humphreys-Owen, M.P., Mr. Lascelles, Mr. Hoult, Major Clifford Browne, Mr. Newton, Canon Trevor, Archdeacon Williams, Archdeacon Pryce, Canon Davies, Pwllheli; Major Bonsall, Mr. Sackville Phelps, Mr. Lloyd Griffith, Mr. Kinmaa, Mr. De Winton, Canon Roberts. Mr. Joseph Howell, Mr. D. E. R. Griffith, Dr. A. O. Davies, Mr. R. €. Anwvl, Mr. Kenyon, Mr. Gilbertson Pritchard,. Mr. E. Gillart, Mr. R. Gillart, Mr. Steel, Hon Hill Trevor, Rev. LI Hughes, Rev. James Williams, Rev Titus Lewis, Towyr: Dr. Kershaw, Aberdovey; Mr. Hugh C. Vincent, Rev. E. Jones, Llanidloes Rev. James Gillart, Mr. Trevor Hughes, Mrs. Trevor, Mr. Owen Slaney Wynne, Rev D. T. Hughes. # Mr. Humphreys-Owen, M.P., in proposing a vote of thanks to the Marchioness (D.) of Londonderry, and the good folks of the town and neighbourhood for their graceful and ungrudging hospitality in entertaining the Conference, paid a passing tribute to Canon Trevor, and said that, as to the hospitality of the inhabitants of Machynlleth, he happened to know that the place had distinguished itself in a peculiar manner in that respect. That institution, the County School, which was being well supported by all, was an excellent example of this. Canon Trevor, rector, having thanked Mr. Humphreys-Owen, M.P., and Sir Hugh Ellis Nanney for the kind way in which his name had been mentioned, referred to the great assistance and cheer he had received, and were it not for the hearty co-operation of all, and the willing help given to him cheerfully on all sides, he ventured to say that the Conference and the luncheon would not have been the great success it was. His Lordship, the Bishop, proposed the toast of Queen and Church," which, he remarked, had always been well received in Wales; and Lord Henry Vane-Tempest proposed The Lord Bishop of the Diocese." In supporting this toast Colonel Pryce Jones, M.P., made some pertinent remarks which we gladly record. Having dwelt on the recent awakening in the work of the Church, the Colonel said he was glad that they had men filling the highest offices in the Church who were typical Welshmen in language, sentiment, and sympathy. He viewed with the greatest satisfaction the better and wider feeling between Churchmen and Non- conformists. The Bishop gave a kind word for St. David's College. At present said His Lordship they were having very able young men from Lampeter College, and recently a Lampeter man gained 100 marks more than a student trained at Oxford. He asked the clergy of the whole Welsh Church to join in strengthening the hands of the present Principal of the College so as to enable him to accomplish what he deemed necessary for the well- being of the College. The Bishop's encouraging reference to the good work St. David's College met with a warm applause. After luncheon the Bishop, clergy, and delegates, that is the Conference, then adjourned to the Plas grounds, lent by the kind permission of Lady Londonderry, where the group was photographed by Mr. Benjamin Pearce, of Machynlleth. It is expected that the picture will be a very good one as the photographer is an expert. Lady Londonderry occupied the middle of the picture, supported by the Lord Bishop of Bangor on her left, and by Canon Trevor, rector of the parish, on her right. Mrs. Williams and Mrs. Trevor were close by. The Venerable Archdeacon Pryce was supported on his right by a venerable old man over eighty years, who had represented Abergynolwyn, for very many years as a delegate at the Conference. It was a striking and touching scene, and the photograph will make a valuable souvenir of the Conference. The afternoon meeting was more fully attended even than the morning. Mr. Kinman, of Dolgelley, and the Rev Ll. Hughes, Portmadoc, read papers on Definite Religious Instruction." After the papers, which do not call for any special mention, came some interesting discussion on the same subject, and one speaker, the Rev. E. O. Jones, M.A., vicar of Llanidloes, made things generally very lively for a quarter of an hour or more which raised the audience to a pitch of the highest excitement. The torrent of words poured out in a veritable cataract—but thewords were so arranged and uttered with such scathing sarcasm of tone that the audience on one occasion attempted to put a period to it by crying 14 shame" and order and, although the bell had sounded the flow of eloquence continued and Mr. Jones added and rounded his own period with a fine peroration. The sentences of the reverend gentleman were not at all to the liking of many present, and Mr. Jones was evidently giving vent to some pent up feeling or a strong conviction. The Bishop who was presiding seemed much annoyed when Mr. Jones said that the memory of the late Bishop of Bangor (Dr. Lloyd) had been slightingly passed over by all except the Bishop himself. It was a memorable speech and made the Town Hall buzz with animation. Mr. Jones's reputation as a public speaker needs no one's re- commendation hence the close attention which he always commands. His superb eloquence and withering scornful sarcasms were surely worthy of a greater and nobler subject. # After Mr. Jones's effort most of the other speak- ers were in comparison tame with the exception of the Bishop who referred to Mr. Jones's speech as un- kind and unfair. The Rev. E. B. Thomas, of Trawsfynydd, spoke admirably and to the point in Welsh on the same subject. After this there was a short interval-a lull, it was a blissful calm after a storm, for all retired to cool their ardour in a delightful cup of tea at the -Vane Hall where all the delegates assembled and made good the words of the Holy Writ by dwelling together in peace. In the evening at 7.30 there was a public devotional meeting in the Town Hall, but long before the time of opening the Hall was full, gallery and all, with a devout and respectable audience, the leading laity of the town and neigh- bourhood being all present—Nonconformists and Churchpeople alike. It was a spectacle that gladdened one's heart, and was full of good omen of the future. This meeting was conducted by the Rev Canon Trevor, M.A., the rector. He was sup- ported on his right by the Rev. D. T. Hughes, curate of the parish, and the Rev James Williams, M.A., the able and courteous secretary of the con- ference. The subject for the evening was "prayer" and the speakers were Rev. Llewelyn Williams, Brithdir, Dolgelley; Rev Canon Roberts, Llandaff Rev Peter Jones, Llanddona, Anglesey. Well- known Welsh hymns were sung in the intervals, and the fine audience sang lustily and sincerely. Mr. Howell organist of the Parish Church presided at the organ, while Mr. D. J. Davies superintendent of the Sunday School conducted. Canon Trevor delivered an excellent address before and after the meeting, and expressed his great joy at seeing such a number present, and the rapt attention with which they listened to the excellent address given. He especially thanked all Nonconformists and Churchpeople who had helped him so much, and so cheerful to entertain their visitors and to help him to make the conference such a success. Machynlleth had proved itself worthy in every way of the high honour conferred upon it, by having the first Diocesan Conference of the new Bishop of Bangor held there. 3Yr., W. S, DeWinton, of Gloucester, spoke in Ivoiiish arwl Mr. Lloyd Griffith of Hrfy'nead in Wefcfa on '"The Priesthood of the Laity: its privileges ami responsibilities." In the discussion which, followed the Rev. J. Rowlands, vicar of Aberdovey Mr, Lloyd Carter, Carnarvon J. Edwards; Dylife-; Archdeacon Pryce, and Sir Ellis Nanney took-part. The discussion was carried on in excellent spirit. The speakers expressed them- selves frankly, audi freely. The Rev. J. Rowi&nds, urged tber need erf better co-operation aneU Atr. Lloyd Castors the meed of more liberality. The laT members of the ChurcU., ift that diocesw would,, said Mr. Carter, if nusste known, briag: a blusfe to their cheeks. >I< In Mr..Ki firaesn'satfefeess on religious instruction with referent to the- changed condition of tjV educational system of the country, one almost' caught a vaip. ilngerng,. lyric cry of regret f) > tempora, 0 mares The other speakers, however, took a lI.ore masiiy and hopeful view of the subject. The Rev. Ll. R. Hughes, of Portmadoc, said that, personally, he supported the Intermediate Schools in Wales, but he admitted they were lacking in some good qualities. But it was the duty of the Church to try to-elfect a change in the religious tone of the schools,.and that would be done by supporting them, and not by leaving them to others who were not friendly to the Church to support them. Lord H^nrsy Vane Tempest instituted a favourable comparison between the results' of educational training in our own and other countries with salutary eSeet; The barometric pressure rose; views became even optimistic and things became even roseate and clear until the Rev. E. O. Jones, of Llanidloes came like a stormy petrel and broke the lialoyon spells of the discussion. Mr. Jones said that the new system of education in Wales was a Government system and the sooner they accepted it without any more grumbling the better would it be for the Church in Wales. This philosophic dictuffi1 ta-the credit of the Conference be it stated, met with general and enthusiastic approval. The question of the Constitution of the Con- ference was brongM, forward by Mr. Lloyd Carter. He pointed out. with-it seemed, general approval—that the delegates should be apportioned according to the number of Communicants, and not of the population. The Rev. J. Lewis. Conway; Rev. Watkin Davies, Llanfaehreth; Rev. T. J. Jones, Llanfair-is-faer; Sir Ellis Nanney, Col. Lloyd Evans, and Mr. E. A. Young were appointed representatives to the Central Council of Diocesan Conferences, and it was resolved That it be suggested to the Diocesan Conferences to discuss whether the two Houses of Convocation and the House of Laymen, should meet together from time to time to consult on matters affecting the Church." It was stated that if this were brought about it would have a very important bearing on the future of the Church and would enable her to speak with a united voice.
ST. DAVIDS COLLEGE, LAMPETER. MICHAELMA S ORDINATIONS. At a general ordination held by the Bishop of St. Asaph in his cathedral on Sunday the follow- ing gentlemen were ordained :— Deacons.—William Foster Jones, B.A., of St. David's College, Lampeter: and St. Michael's College, Abexdare; Owen Hughes, Licentiate in Divinity, St. David's College, Lampeter Richard Hughes, Licentiate in Divinity, St. David's College, Lampeter. Priests.—Albert Owen Evans, St. David's College Lampeter; David Michael Evans,B.A., St. David's College, Lampeter. His Lordship afterwards licensed Mr. William Foster Jones, B.A., to Minerva. The Lord Bishop of Llandaff held a general ordination in Llandaff Cathedral on Sunday morn- ing, when the following gentlemen were ordained Deacons.—Llewelyn Davies, B.A.. St. David's College, Lampeter, and St. Michaels College, Aber- dare Reginald Melville Davies, B.A., St. David's College, Lampeter, and Salisbury Theological Col- lege Henry Evans, Lie. Div., St. David's College, Lampeter: John Francis, B.A., St. David's College,. Lampeter Charles Lloyd Jones, B.A., St. David's College, Lampeter, and St. Michael's College,, Aberdare; Thos. Rhys Jones, B.A., St. David's. College, Lampeter; Lewis William Williams, B.A., St. David's College, Lampeter. By Letters Request from the Lord Bishop of St. David's: David Aeron Jenkins, B.A., Jesus College, Oxford, and B.A. St David's College, Lampeter; David Jones, B.A., St: David's College, Lampeter. and St. Michael's Col- lege, Aberdare. Priests.—Luther Evans, Lie. Div., St. David's College, Lampeter; Percy Griffiths, B.A., St. David's College, Lampeter; Jacob Hughes, Lie. Div., St. David's College, Lampeter David James, B.A., St. David's College, Lampeter; John Jones, B.Ai, St. David's Co!lege, Lampeter, and St. Michael's Col- lege, Aberdare; Richard Morgan, Lie. Div., St. Michael's College, Aberdare: Thos. John Richards, Lie. Div., St. David's College, Lampeter. The Bishop afterwards licensed the following curates :—Llewellyn Davies, B.A., to Rhymney Reginald Melville Davies, B.A to Llanishen with Lisvane; Henry Evans, Lic. Div., to Eglwysllan John Francis, B.A., to Tylorstown with Ferndale; Charles Lloyd Jones, B.A., to Treherbert: Thomas Rhys Jones, B.A., to Mountain Ash; Lewis Wm. Williams, B.A., to Penmaen.
The Engedi Calvinistic Methodist Church, Car- narvon, has unanimously decided to invite the Rev. E. J. Jones, M.A., minister of the Heywood-street Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, Cheetham Hill, Manchester, to undertake its pastoral charge in succession to the late Rev. Dr. John Hughes. A Church Congress meeting on the situation in Wales will be held on the evening of Wednesday, Oct. 11, in the Great Hall of the Church House, Great Smith-street. The meeting, presided over by the Lord Bishop of Llandaff, will be preceded by an organ recital and musical selections rendered by Welsh choirs. The preliminary programme of the sixtieth autumnal assembly of the Congregational Union, to be held in Bristol on October 16 to 20, has been issued. In addition to the items already made public, a children's mass meeting will be held in Broadmead Chapel, at which the speakers will be the Revs. Robert Berry (Whitworth), and George Martin (Upper Clapton), and the people's meeting (which will be the closing one), when the Revs. J. Morgan Gibbon and T. Eynon Davies, two well-known Welsh orators, will deliver addresses. There will also be a service in Welsh, when the Rev. Job Miles, of Aberystwyth, will preach. The attendance of members and delegates is expected to be unusually large, and arrangements have been made for the holding of overflow meetings if ne- cessary. ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES OF WALES. The ninth annual conference of the English churches attached to the Welsh Calvinistic Method- ist Connexion was held last week at Abergavenny, and there was a large attendance of delegates, com- prising representatives both from the churches and the presbyteries. There were several gatherings of a preliminary character on Tuesday evening, the principal feature being the conference sermon delivered by the Rev. D. Lloyd Jones, of Llandinarn. On Wednesday the Conference sat at 9.30 a.m. to hear the valedictory address of the retiring Presi- dent, the Rev. Edwin Williams, Vice-Principal of Trevecca College. In his opening remarks Pro- fessor Williams dwelt upon the value of the Con- ference, which, he said, bad now become a power of no mean dimensions. The recognition of the needs of the age was, be said, the duty of the Church of Christ. The danger of the present age was not active, positive unb lief so mueh as in- difference, the causes of which were various and subtle. The imminent peril was not hostility to Christianity, but estrangement from and indifference to it, and it was imperative that the Church should meet the age with sympathy and not with condemnation. One feature of the day prominent and often rudely self-asserting was the mania for muscular exercises and games. Surely that must be called a mania which so clearly and so widely corrupted legiti- mate exercise into an engrossing thraldom. The issues were far too grave to be trifled with, and demanded the careful attention not only of the Christian Church, but also of every true patriot. Was not mind giving way to muscle? And did not the prevailing mania bode ill for the future of the country ? No question ever called for greater- patience on the part of the Church, and every effort should be put forth to win the sympathy and con- fidence of the young people. The extension of the English language in Wales was another difficult problem. He had no sympathy with those who decried the Welsh language, and who fancied they manifested considerable culture by not tolerating the Welsh accent. On the other hand, he had no sympathy with those who staked their all upon Wellh^' One could imagine sometimes that if Welsh died out theology, hymnology, pulpit zeal, and the hwyl" would perish with it, and even religion itself would narrowly escape. Such per- fervid extravagances might momentary enthusiasm and rounds of applause. Verily they had their reward. Too much reckless indulgence in such exercises had taken place in the past, and to foster such was simply unpardonable (applause). Methodism started with the view n, of preserving the language but of saving the peopk Wales, of fostering not nationality but Chri-; Other results might also be secured, bui thi- was the prime purpose-to save the people. f
Business Notices. r ^JAKUiUAisteHlJKE CA IIIACIE OKh.S J. G. WILLIAMS, I'liAiTli \|. CARRIAGE BUILDER, I CHALYBEATE sTREET, (Near Railway Station,) ABERYSTWYTH. EW CARRIAGES"- of own Manufacture on hand, of Best .Material and Finest work- juanship throughout. Rubber Tyres fitted to all Vehicles if required. J. G .WILLIAMS invites inspection of works, which is the largest and best equipped in the county. PRIVATE ADDRESS—13V BAKER STREET. EMPORIUM, RPREGARON. IlEES JONES, IS now showing a large assortment of LADIES', MAIDS' and GIRLS' C O S T. U M E S IX ALL SIZES, IN THE LEADING SHADES, AND Ol¥ THE JQATEST <^TYLE% FROM I). UP FOR LADIES' SIZE. DAVID HOWELL, GENERAL DRAIERY ESTABLISHMENT, 33 35, GREAT DARKGATE ST., AND 2, M ARRET STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. w ELSH JPLANNELS AND II AWLS, CARPETS AND LINOLEUMS. W. R. JONES, WATCHMAKER, JEWrELLER, &Cy) 32, Great Darkgate Street, ABERYSTWYTH. A large Assortment of JEWELLERY, in Gold, Silver, and Pebbles, Suitable for Presents, &c., also LADIES' AND GENTS' GOLD AND SILVER WATCHES. SPECTACLES AND EYE-GLASSES TO SUIT ALL SIGHTS. A Good Assortment of WEDDING, KEEPER, and GEM RINGS. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. J. L. EVANS, C0MPIETE HOUSE FURNISHER CABINET MAKER & UPHOLSTEKER, tiREAT DARKGATE jg T R E E T A BERYSTWYTH. FURNITURE, FURNITURE, I FURNITURE DAVID WATKINS, WOBKSHOP SEA VIEW PLACE. PRIVATE ADDBBSS CUSTOM-HOUSE STREET. PAINTER, PLUMBER, PAPERHANGER, GLAZIER AND HOUSE DECORATOR. CHOICE ASSORTMENT OF PAPER- HANGINGS ALWAYS IN STOCK. SHEET LEAD PIPES, CISTERNS, &c., &c. HOLLIER'S COMMERCE HOUSE, RIDGE STREET & QUEEN STREET FOR FANCY GOODS AND CYCLING ACCESSORIES CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. A WEEK IN SOUTH WALES. On Friday and Saturday, Sept. 29th and 30th, CHEAP EXCURSION TICKETS Will be issued to NEWPORT (Mon.), DOWLAIS, EATH, MERTHYR, CARDIFF AND SWANSEA FORETIME AND FAKES SEE BILLS. GROCERS' EXHIBITION, AGRICULTURAL HALL, SEPTEMBER 30TH TO OCTOBER 7TH. Greater Britain Exhibition—Eail's Court, "Savage South Africa." ON MONDAY, OCTOBER 2ND, 1899. CHEAP EXCURSION TICKETS Will be issued to LONDON. FOR TIME AND FARES SEEE BILLS. BIRMINGHAM ONION FAIR SEPTEMBER 28TH, 29TH & 30TH. ON THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 28TH, CHEAP TICKETS WILL BE ISSUED TO BIRMINGHAM FOL-fares, etc., see bills. C. S. DEXXIS, General Manager Owestry, May, 1899. SUMMER EXCURSIONS CHEAP EXCURSIONS TO SCOTLAND ON FRIDAY NIGHTS, AUGUST 4,1 H AND 18TH, AND SEPTEMBER 1ST, 15TH, & 29TH, 1899, By the-direct route via Whitchurch, Crewe, Pres- ton, and Carlisle, will be run as under to *NEWTON STEWART, *STRANRAER, ♦WIGTOWN, WHITHORN, CARLISLE, MOFFAT, *DUMFRIES, *CASTLE DOUGLAS, *KIRKCUD- BRIGHT, EDINBURGH, j GLASGOW, Greenock, Gourock, Helensburgh, Row, Dumbarton, and Balloch. For train times, fares, etc., see handbills issued by the Company. CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY from all L. & N. W. and G..W. Stations in LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE-NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO "Birmingham, *Wolverhampton, *Walsall, Peter. borough, ""Leicester, ""Derby, *Burton-on-'l'rent, .Stafford, *Coventry, Manchester, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Dewsbury, Huddersfield Liverpool, Birkenhead, Wigan and Warrington FROM Oswestry, Llanymynech, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown, Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth' Dolgelley, Harlech, Portmadoc, Penrhyndeudraeth,' Criccieth, and Pwlheli, Similar tickets are issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley,' Hrtrlech, Penrhyndeudraeth, Portmadoc, Criccieth' and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. ♦Tickets to these Stations are not issued from Welshpool. Passengers return OR the Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. T H O U S A N D-MIL E TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the coupons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. The price of each is C5 5s Od 1,000 miles, and R2 17s 6d, 500 miles being about lid per mile. Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, to Mr W. H. Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates forauthorisingthe use of the tickets by purchasers' family, guests, or employees can be obtained, price 6d each book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNISS, General Manager. Oswestry, March 1899. -G' ->-= jt t Printing. POSTERS. HANDBILLS. CIRCULARS. PROGRAMMES. INVOICES. BILLHEADS. MEMORANDUMS. 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