Lectures on Fruit Culture. BY MR. J. L. PICKARD. The seventh lecture of the course was given on Friday evening. Mr. Jones, Llanbadarn, presiding. Mr. Pickard, quoting from a time honoured dog- geret said, He who plants pears, plants for his heirs, And no doubt, he said, there has been a great deal of truth in the saying. Pears are even yet re- garded as a precarious crop to grow. But fortu- nately their habits and requirements are becoming better understood than they have been in the past. Thanks to the trials and experiments of a few enthusiastic fruit growers pears may now be as successfully grown as any other hardy fruit, by anyone who will adopt up-to-date methods of cultivation, and few fruits are better worth grow- ing than choice dessert pears, or would give a better return for the care they require in growing. Pears are not as a rule so hardy in their wood as apples are, they grow until late in the season, consequently the wood has great difficulty of ripening in the autumn, and added to this is the fact that they flower earlier in the spring than apples do, and are even more liable to be damaged by late frosts. This teaches one of the first prin- ciples of pear culture—to give them all the cosy iinoks and corners in the garden where they can have all the advantages of bright sunshine, and at the same time be sheltered from the cold piercing winds of early spring. This is all the more needful, as the pistil, the female portion of the flower, is more tender than is the case in apples, and is more liable to be rendered sterile by cold winds and frost. The pear is naturally a deep rooting tree. often in suitable soils sending its roots fully six feet into the ground. I y I When the roots are at this depth the gardener has naturally very little control over them. The roots are attracted to the water level of the soil, this level varies in different soils, but it may as a rule be taken as being about six feet below the surface. Where we are cultivating pears we have to fight against water by providing a counter attraction for them nearer the surface. T"'oo 1 "1 fears would DO even worse subjects tban apples to grow on their own roots, they are invariably grafted on other roots, except in cases where new varieties are wished for. In this case seed is sown, and when the seedlings are a year old they are grafted upon established stocks in order to bring them earlier into bearing than they would if left on their own roots. Although the pear unites readily with several stocks, yet in actual practice we are restricted to the use of two, the pear seed- ling. and the Quince. The pear seedling is perhaps the best to use on a deep, dry. stony ground, as the r; els have natnrally:a downward tendency, but if we do not particularly wish to plant for our heirs, then the Quince stock should invariably be chosen. We do not get such big trees, but they are un- doubtedly the best for general purposes. All the advantages can be claimed for them that were claimed for Paradise stocks for apples. As a rule pears grown on quince stocks are more luscious, finer. more marketable, and earlier than the same varieties grown on pear seedlings, besides coming into bearing much sooner. Nearly all varieties of pears graft readily upon the quince, yet many varieties do not do well upon it if only ordinary methods of grafting are adopted. Where the trees have to be purchased a clear knowledge of what is required in this respect is of the utmost importance to the purchaser. Few nurserymen, and still fewer professional gardeners give any attention to the problems involved in budding and grafting. It is, as a rule, sufficient for the nurseryman if he can supply healthy young trees in the varieties, and on the stocks as ordered the after success or failure op the trees is none of his business, while the gardener can always fall back upon the situation, or the soil, or the weather as being unsuitable, to account for his want of success. The loss is not his, but his employers, and so long as the employer fares no worse than his friends and neighbours he is not disposed to grumble much. The Cottager or Amateur, however, cannot afford to neglect these problems. His crops must pay, or they are useless to him. In purchasing pear trees it is not sufficient to have a guarantee that they are grafted on quince stocks; the manner in which they are grafted is of equal importance. We are using the quince stock because it has less vigorous roots than the pear seedling, conseqi-eatly it is less robust in its growth. Our object in using it is to dwarf the variety of pear we graft or bud upon it. Supposing, then, we insert a graft of a strong constitutioned variety of pear upon this atock, it would be apt to over-rule the stock by its robust growth, and either canker or be broken off by high winds. Budding, and most styles of graft- I y ing are done in the side of the tree, and not at the top where it has been headed down. This makes the scion more liable to be broken or otherwise impaired when it over-rules the stock. Purchasers should always insist upon being supplied with treen that have been cleft grafted. The operation is very simple, and can be easily performed by those who wish to try. Cut the top of the stock off to within a couple of inches of the ground, making a level (not slanting) cut. If the stock is of moderate size, the blade of the grafting knife is placed on the top of the stock and pressed down, so as to form a cleft. It is allowed to remain, acting as a wedge or lever to keep the cleft open while the scion is being irfcerted, after which it is withdrawn, and the elasticity of the stock closing together keeps the scion in its place. Tie firmly, and protect from the weather by means of a hand- ful of clay. Even after this precaution is taken, many varieties of pears prove a failure. The only certain way of securing success is by double graft- ing. If we attempt to grow that choice pear, Pitmastons Duchess, on the quince it would be more than likely to fail; so we usean intermediary graft, choosing some hardy and vigorous variety for this purpose Josephine d'Malines or Beurre de Amanlis being usually the best variety to choose. This, grafted close to the ground on the quince, will soon rise into a stem, and after a year's growth this is cut down and grafted with the desired tender habited variety, It would well repay the extra cost if all the trees grown were double grafted. Double grafting will ultimately have a great effect upon pear culture in gardens. It seems always to make healthy and prolific trees. Take for instance those well known eating pears. Jargonelle and Gansels. Bergamot when double grafted, the union is so perfect, and the trees thus formed so healthy and fruitful that an acre of them would be a little fortune to an allot- ment gardener in fact nearly all choice pears become most fertile when double grafted on the proper kinds of stocks. When this scientific method of cultivating pears is fully understood their cultivation will become a great deal more popular than it has been in the past. Pears like a fairly open and a fairly rich soil; they revel in a fibrous loam if only the roots are under control. Fatter the pear, fatter the soil, is a rough but good guide to their requirements. Little pears are not so particular, still it pays to look well after them. The pear tree is fond of a little body in the soil, providing it is kept sweet asil open by the use of burnt clay, and generally the finer the quality of pear, the more clay can it do with. In planting make the holes deeper than was recommended for apple, in other ways the same method should be adopted. A good propor- tion of leaf mould may be used, to which has been added one and a half ounces of sulphate of ammonia and four ounces of bone meal for each åmn. Sulphate of ammonia has a greater attrac- for pears than other roots when it is mixed with leaf mould and burnt soil it does not so readily change into nitrates as it would do in ordinary soil,-so it remains an exceedingly great attraction for a long ti'ne in keeping the roots near the sur- face. It ought to be applied twice yearly to the snriace of the soil and raked in amongst growing pwars the first, application early in March, and the second as soon as the pears are formed. It should nevnr be use! in the autumn, or applied at a hca-vier rate than one and a half ounces to the square yard. In adti i n to tne varieties already mentioned «'jmberl'«=s (•"•periments, and a wide personal experience a"nears to teach that Beurre Superfin, lfc>on de Cornice, and Beurre de Amanlis are three of the best quality and most prolific varieties to Rrow, thou ;h Bon Cretian, Marie Louise, Beurre de Aujjon, t!i.' 'alter for damp situations and West VaBs, as w»-;i as many other choice varieties do well when > :y have proper attention. Where there is n a much chance of attention after plaafang i, il(i be better to choose such varieties as- Cr3.wf Swans Egg, Hessle, and Comte de Tjerny. T L 'ter is a splendid variety and not ,y- s -,i >rlv well known. It is perfectly hardy and well ar y vhere, only if the soil is +hin aud t it shoul i be grown in no other way ttHn (ioul, i fte(i on tin quince. N'-arly v r one who has now a collection of pears won i to exchange some of them for other sorts, i .rtunatelv the operation of grafting is. remarkabl v imple and ea- v with pear trees, and by tli- in-c ion of a few grafts, properly dis- tributed, a -i .• and perfect bearing head may be i obtained in l > or three years. Instead therefore of digging ii- and throwing cut such varieties as do not- hW1 ,I)rl pears, and leaving undesirable Tacunnies v they stood, they are readily t very best. The first to do after having secured the scions, is t > prepare the tree for redrafting by trimming 1" branches and cutting out any not wanted wit hey happen to be too thick. Then oei them "f in March so as to form a regular pyramid, by leaving the bottom ones longest ar.i gradually tapering to the top. If the branches are small they may be whip grafted, but usually they will be much too large for this method and will require cleft or crown grafting. In three years they will be as abundant bearers and as perfect trees as those which have not been thus changed. We shall now be obliged to leave the subject of pears, in order to discuss other popular fruits before the course of lectures is completed, and must now turn our attention to plums. Plums will grow on a wider range of soil than almost any otheir fruit tree; in fact, where corn will grow, there will plums grow also and no tree lends itself so readily to the student in fruit culture as the plum, exhibiting as it does in a marked degree all the requirements and changes that take place in the formation of fruit from the realisation of the flower right on to the ripening of the fruit. These changes, which are characteristic of all fruits, ought to be thoroughly understood by all who wish to cultivate fruit successfully. So long as we remain in igiieffaiiee of what is going on inside a plant, we are forced to work blindly. It is quite true that experience has taught us some of the principles that govern plant life, but in recent years scientists haive made giant strides in dis- covering and giving us absolutely certain knowledge of some of most essential principles of horticulture and when we work according to the knowledge they have given us we work by the light of reason, and are much more likely to be successful than we should be if we continued creeping along in the darkness of uncertainty, or in total ignorance of the habits and requirements of the plants we are trving to grow. It will be remembered that before fruit can begin to grow pollen has to be conveyed from the stamens to the stigma, just at the time when it is receptive, that is, fully developed and covered with a gummy or viscid secretion, the use of which appears to be to retain the pollen when applied and to favour or promote the act of fertil- ization. The pollen throws out a tube which grows down through the pistil to the embryo seed which is contained in the ovary. We do not grow apples and plums for seed, but nature grows them entirely for seed, so by being careful to see that the seeds have the best possible opportunities for fertilization we are repaid for our trouble by the fleshy sub- stances which cover the seeds. There are five distinct changes undergone in the production of fruit, each of which changes should be understood, and have the careful attention of the cultivator. Put briefly, they are, the process and act of fertilisation, the first swel- ling period, the stoning period, the second swelling period, and ripening. The pollen in the act of growing down the pistil stimulates the ovary and its surroundings to growth. This we termfthe first swelling period. When fruit begins to swell a lot of food is used up very rapidly, therefore we must see to it being supplied. If the crop be a heavy one we could with advantage give one and a half ounces of sulphate of ammonia, and the same quantity of mineral superphosphate to each square yard of land occupied by the roots. When plums have reached about half the size we expect them to grow they suddenly stop growing, and often a large proportion of them drop off. Exactly the same thing occurs in other fruits, but we are now taking plums as being typical of the rest. This is the stoning period, and a very critical period it is too. The stoppage of growth arises from several causes, each one of which ought to be understood and provided against by the cultivator. If the flower had not been properly fertilized, if there had only been just sufficient pollen to stimulate the swelling of the ovary without fertilizing the seed, then there would be no stone formed inside the fruit, it is therefore an abortive fruit and drops off the tree at this period. If the soil in which the tree is growing gets dry at this time there will not be sufficient food material held in solution in the soil for the sudden increase of work the plant has to do. There is an enormous waste of food in seed. but as we cannot get fruit without seeds we have to pro- vide for this waste by supplying sufficient food material, and seeing that it is in a suitable con- dition for absorption by the plants' roots. If we do not supply it, part of the substance of the tree gets used up. This weakens the tree, it gets into low water, and the swelling of the fruit comes to a standstill. This is very marked in the case of plums. Therefore having given the manures as recommended we ought to give the soil a thorough soaking of water. This would prevent any serious stoppage of swelling at the stoning period. At this time we must begin to think about our plums ripening; we want them to be as large and as heavy as we can possibly get them, and we have so far done our best to get them large, but we also want them highly coloured and deliciously flavoured, and worth the highest market prices. In order to secure this we must supply half-an-ounce of sulphate of iron and half-an-ounce of sulphate of potash to each yard of land, and water it well in, not later than the stoning period. We may then safely leave the rest to the sun and air,, knowing that we have done our best to- secure success. In a few rare cases it may be necessary to thin out the fruit a little if too many have set, but as a rule where we supply sufficient food and moisture the trees can carry heavy crops of fruit without injury to themselves. We have no really good dwarfing stocks for plums. They are usually grafted upon plum seedlings, though other stocks are occasionally used; amongst others the following may be named. The Myrobalan, which grows wild in this neighbourhood, the Muscle, the Mirabelle, the St. Julian and others. The St. Julian is by far the best for high class plums. It grows healthy trees, and we can, by good management, keep its roots fairly near the surface. The plum, like most of our common fruits, has been cultivated during a lengthy period, and has during that time given rise to numerous races and varieties. Thus we have at least a dozen well marked forms of the greengage, some large, others small, some highly coloured, others with transparent flesh, or subject to other variations; and these form a tolerably well marked and permanent race. The Damsons again are a distinct group, and the large fruited red or yellow Magnum Bonums are also distinct. We have a wide choice of varieties, amongst the ordinary plums. The Victoria is a general favourite, and deservedly so, still it is not the only good variety grown. The Czar is a splendid plum and not nearly sufficiently known. It is a very large early plum, ripening early in August; it is rich and good, and is very productive and will prove valuable to all planlers. Ponels Seedling, Black Diamonds, Sultan, Monarch, Early Rovers, and many others would prove highly remunerative in the small garden, if well grown. Both Greengages and Damsons are very variable in size and colour and quality. Gatheries Striped Gage, and the transparent Greengage being very beautiful and distinct forms of the one, while Crittendensprolific can, from personal acquaintance, be recommended as the very best of the Damsons. Its free bearing character, and its qualities as a fruit have been well attested. Coes golden drop is one of the most delicious flavoured plums grown. To have it in perfection however it should be grown against a south wall, as the more sun a tree gets, more sugar and fragrance is there in the fruit. All plums are exceedingly fond of a little lime in the soil in which they are grown, and it improves the quality of their fruit. Lime rubble may be used if available, but if quicklime be used apply it at the rate of a pound and a half to the square yard in ther autumn, and fork it lightly in. Pears and plums require as much care in planting and pruning and summer pinching as apples do, and the same general methods of cultivation should be adopted. A capital discussion followed the lecture, and a vote of thanks to Mr. Jones for presiding concluded the meeting. Mr. Pickard gave the following question to the members of the class—" Describe the process of planting a pear tree." There was again a good attendance.
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ALLOTMENT GARDENS. Sm.-I noticed with pleasure the letter of a "Workingman" in the issue of the 7th inst. of your popular paper. The opinion appears to be general that al.otment gardens ought to be provided for those in the town who are wishful to avail themselves of them, and I am sure the members of the Paxton Society (many of them members of the Town Council) will only too gladly interest themselves in any way they can to secure such gardens. I must point out however that the age in which we live is an intensely practical one, and there is. no doubt, that the first question the Town Council will ask is, how many people want these gardens. Now, if all those who wish for an allotment garden will send me a postcard addressed J. L. PICKARD, U.C.W., or to Mr. SAER, Board Schools. and state the size of the plot of land they would like to have, proper and influential repr(-s(,ntati, a will be made to the Town Council through the Paxton Society. I must urge that no time should be lost in replying as the present is a very opportune time for bringing the matter forward owing to the fact that almost every one in Aberystwyth is at present more or less interested in gardening, and the winter is fast approaching when the first operations in a new garden ought to commence. Your obedient servant, J. L. PICKARD. CARDIGANSHIRE COUNTY ROADS. SIR,-IVill you allow rue to draw attention to a matter which should not be allowed to escape notice. At the last meeting of the Cardigan County Coun-eil it was resolved to send an order for about 1000 tons of stone at a cost of £ 250 to Minffordd in North Wales. Surely, there must be want of wisdom, foresight, and economy in this? Is there not stone at Ystradmeurig And all! along our rock-bound coast, are there notgoo(I roadstones to be had at a small cost, not to "pcak of Hafan Quarries,, which have been sodding consignments of paving to the English towns** and which should have been secured to the County years ago. Again, we have been sending orders for iron bridges to. distant places and paying large sums to firms oat-side our limits, when our own workmen, who might be profitably employed in building these bridges, have to leave home to find labour. I venture therefore to appeal to your aid iinthis matter, for, if our County cannot produce staues sufficient in quantity, and quality for its bridges and its roads, it can. produce nothing. If there is one thing Cardiganshire abounds in, it is stone. What if we lived 'n the sandy soils of Berkshire and Sussex 1 How glad would they be of an excellent material, but for us to go away from home to fetch stones, 1 think YOll will agree, is unneces sarv and wasteful extravagance.—Yours truly, C.C.
THE IRON BRIDGE AT DEVIL'S BRIDGE. SIR,—It is arrogantly boasted that the age we live in is a wonderful age (a statement, I believe, commonly admitted-to be true) that it is, incom- parably superior to any previous age in the world's history and this superiority is most obvious in the progress made in education and culture. Can it be that, as a result of this progress, men. become barbarous in their taste, and devoid of any sense of what is beautiful, and harmonious ? or is it a necesfiary sequence of election to any council or committee that men are bereft absolutely of such feelings as moved their fathers to great efforts to copy what was beautiful, and to beautify what was mean and ugly ? From what has recently been done in our neighbourhood; and from what it is said is to be done soon; we fear an affirmative answer to the above questions cannot be avoided. In that beautiful and charming spot, known as Ponterwyd, there once stood, close to each other, two bridges made of stone. The lower of the two, over which the high road passed became somewhat impaired, and our County Council--or the Roads Committee appointed by it--condemned it as un- worthy of the confidence generally placed in a county bridge. Wherefore with the assistance of dynamite,, the bridge was demolished and the erection of a new one was begun with enthusiasm and much fanfare which led us, the dwellers in the district, to look for, at least a structure that would be in harmony with its surroundings. Alas sir, the structure is ugly beyond stifferance: and anything more unsightly it is difficult to con- ceive. An iron bridge at Ponterwyd It stands to-day, and will stand for many years to come, boldly attesting the stupidity and barbarousne)is of those concerned in its planning and building. The bridge at Devil's Bridge has been con- demned .and the report abroad is that it also is to be demolished soon, and replaced by a structure similar to that at Ponterwyd. I suppose it is of no great use for me to protest against an iron bridge at Devil's Bridge but I consider it your duty, as a journalist who loves Wales and its beautiful places, to make known this intended desecration of Devil's Bridge; for there are men and women in this county who are true lovers of nature and its beauties, and have influence which they ought to use to prevent the commission of this outrage on an incomparable spot. The English capitalist has been found to be impervious to pleading for beautiful scenery. If Welsh County Councillors become like him, what will happen to those that are less sordid 1 BLODEFYN Y GRUG. 0 Fryniau Goginan.
Board of Guardians. A POETICAL APPLICATION. At the tortnigntly meeting ot the above Board on Monday there were present:—Mr. D. Morgan (chair- man), Mr. Miller (vice-chairman), Revs. T. A Penry and J. Davies, Messrs. G. Fossett Roberts, T. E. Salmon, James Jones, Llanbadarn Lower; Richard Jones, Llanbadarn Upper E. J. Evans, Llangwyr- yfon; T. Powell, Llanfihangel Upper; Evan Jenkins, Lewis Richards, Cwmrheidol; Thomas Jenkins andyVrn. Morris, Cyfoethybrenin; Richard Jenkins, Llwyncynfelin; David Edwards, Llanilar; Evan Lewis, Llan Haminiog; John Jones, Llan Mefenydd; Thomas James, Trefeirig; Rd. Thomas, Tirymynach. and Evan Simon, Uchayndre; with the Clerk (Mr. Hugh Hughes), and the Assistant Clerk (Mr. D. Davies). PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS. A letter was read from the Local Government Board adverting to the Board's letter of the 24th June last with reference to matters referred to by their Inspector, Mr. Bircham, in his report upon the Aberystwyth Union Workhouse, after his visit on the 18th April last and to enquire what was being done in regard to those matters. Mr. Salmon moved that a reply be sent to the effect that the matter was under the consideration of the Board, and would be attended to in due eourse.-Carried. FOR THE INMATES. A vote of thanks was passed to Lieut. Stephens, Aberystwyth, for sending parcels of papers, &c., for the use of the Inmates on two occasions. STATISTICS. Aberystwyth district (Mr. Thomas Vaughan): number of paupers in receipt of relief, 154, as compared with 167 during the corresponding period of last year; relief paid, £ 46 16s. Od., as against C44 18s. 6d. Geneurglyn (Mr. J. J. Hughes) 179 against 191, and ZSO 12s. against E51. Rheidol (Mr. J. Morgan): 131 against 136, and £42 7s. against £44 7s. A POETICAL APPLICATION. The following letter was read from Mr. Joseph Morgan, Relieving Officer for the Rheidol district: —In consequence of the re-arrangement of the relief districts whereby the township of Trefeurig is taken from the Geneurglyn district and added to the Rheidol district in lieu of Llanbadarn Lower, which is added to the Aberystwyth district, and none being added to the Geneurglyn district, I beg to ask you to re-arrange the salaries as well. My duties are now considerably more, and since the township taken away have only four paupers, while the township added to mine has over thirty paupers, the area of Trefeurig is double that of Llanbadarn Lower, besides being mountalpous and inaccessible. Trefeurig is the Alpine parish of the County (laughter),—comprising the elevated range of Plynlimmon, and nestling in its bosom a few weeks could be found a pauper that had survived over eighty winters (laughter). The area and population of the three districts of the Union according to the new arrangement, are as follows: -Aberystwyth, 31,565 acres, with 10,452 popula- tion Geneurglyn, 37,834 acres, 5877 population; Rheidol, 67,459 acres, 5,342 population. I agreed to have Trefeurig added to my district with no other object but to enable my colleagues to be appointed vaccination officers of their respective districts, whereby they received between them the handsome remuneration of over R20 a yealf. Had I displayed the same selfishness towards my colleagues as is now shown to me I had simply to say No" and the whole scheme would be frus- trated (laughter). But as I had adopted the golden rule, to do unto others as I would that others I should do unto me," I could not gather the in- human courage to throw the cup away from the lips of my co-officers after they had almost tasted its contents (much laughter). Having failed as officers to settle mutually the re- muneration I ought to have for the additional duties imposed on me I have no option as the last resort but to ask you, gentlemen, to step in and do justice between-I hesitate to say—man and man (laughter). All I ask yon to do is what is fair and equitable. Living as I do in an incon- venient place for myself to work the district I do not expect you to consult my convenience, but simply to compare the two districts (Geneurglyn and Rheidol) independent of the officers assuming that each of us lives in the centre, and whatever your decision will be I shall submit to and abide hv if J Mr. Salmon moved that the application be re- ferred to the Finance Committee. Rev. T. A Penry thought the matter should be considered by members who are acquainted with the district in question. Mr. E. J. Evans seconded Mr. Salmon's motion, and said he thought it would only be reasonable that a rearrangement of the salaries should be made, as, according to Mr. Morgans's letter, there was a considerable amount of trouble experienced. Rev. T. A. Penry asked if Mr. Morgan was the Registrar of births and deaths for Trefeurig, and the reply was in the affirmative, the assistant clerk stating that he attended for this purpose once a week. It was eventually resolved that the Finance Committee should consider the matter in con- junction with members representing the district in question. THE BOARDING OUT QUESTION AND BURIAL OF PAUPERS. The Clerk, alluding to the recent audit, said the question of boarding out orphan children was mooted by the auditor. There were a number of children in that Union who were not placed under the Boarding House Committtee, but lived with their brothers and sisters and other relations, being thus boarded out at a lower rate of cost than those who were boarded out through the Committee. The auditor required that these children should all be placed under the Boarding Kause Committee Oienr, hear). One very good reason for that was I hat the committee <&uM visit these eases regularly and see that t'-ae children were properly taken care of and brought up. The Auditor insisted on the charge. He (Mr. -3ughes) told him the reason why the Guardians had not so placed them was because they were having them main- tained uow at a cheaper rate than they would if they boarded them out under the ;:ünlmittee, but he (the Auditor) said the other id-vaatages over- weighted that reason. The question as to the burial of paupers also cropped ap. Some little triable was experienced some tir>e ago in the case of Margaret Williams, Llanbadarn-. which was got over, but the Auditor looked int 5 the orders very carefully and discovered that the relieving officers had no authority to order a coffin or pay the expenses of the burial of paupers, unless they had special authority from the Board hi each case, and to get over that difficulty lie (the Auditor) sug- gested that the Board should pass- a general resolu- tion authorising relieving officers to order the coffin, and bury paupers whenever, an application was made to them. Mr. Hugh js. added that the, I audit passed off satisfactorily. ,A.' r. Jaiiies Jones remarked that he thought the Relieving Officers always had this authority. The Clerk: No, they are now authorised by the Board in each case. Mr. Salmon: Supposing a pauper wants burying, between the Board meetings, could a relieving officer refuse to bury that pauper? The Clerk: Yes, he could, but of course they might, go to the overseers, who aould order a coffin. Rev. T, A. Penry gave notice- of a resolution. as suggested by the Clerk. Mr. E. J. Evans, referring to the boarr Brig-out question, so that he was very glad it had come up. and that a higher authority than himself had spoken on the matter. Some time ago he gare notice of a resolution on this matter, but Mr. Penry brought in an amendment, and promised; to bring the matter forward. Rev. T. A. Penry: I never promised anything. Mr. Evans: I give notice that I shall move a resolution on this matter at the next meeting. ABERYSTWYTH AND ITS PAUPERS. Rev. T. A. Penry urged that it was time the list of paupers in the various districts should be revised. It was done every six months. When the Aberystwyth Guardians looked through their list on a former occasion and presented their report to the Board, some objected to the decision then come to. and he should like to ascertain the wishes of the Board with regard to the matter at present. Mr. Vauglian, the relieving officer for the Aber- ystwyth District, in reply to a question, said the number of paupers was 80. Rev. T. A. Penry said if the Board would agree to the town guardians going over the list and pre- senting a report it would be a great saving of time, but if they thought there might be any favouritism, then they had bettar go through the whole eighty one by one and have a long sitting at the next Board meeting. Mr. Miller thought the matter should be left in the hands of the town guardians,, who were sent there by the ratepayers and were to, be trusted to do their duty. Mr. James Jones mentioned that there was one pauper living in Portland street, which he said did not look welL" Mr. Salmon. That's a pauper just come from the country (laughter). Mr. Jones said that made no difference, and sug- gested that the town guardians should take the four wards and so consider them in batches. There were,, he added, some paupers in Aberyst- wyth to whom he should feel inclined to stop relief. Rev. T.. A. Penry agreed that they could take one ward at a., time, and present the list to the- Board.. Mr. Salmon irformed lYb. James Jones that there were hoases in Portland-street which were no larger than in Cambrian-street, although they might appear a little more respectable. The Guardians at Aberystwyth were always very care- ful they considered their pauper cases better than the County Guardians considered theirs (laughter.) Mr. Fossett Roberts, remarked that the list on the last occasion was gone through very carefully, and there was no favour shown in any one case. The case Mr. Jones referred to was decided on its merits. It was agreed to leave the matter in the hands of the Town Guardians. MASTER'S ASSISTANT. Mr. Salmon, pursuant to notice, moved that the salary of Thomas Hughes, Assistant to the master, be increased from 18s. to 21s. a week. He urged that they would only be giving what was reason- able and fair, having regard to the nature of the applicant's work which proved to be heavier than he was led to believe when appointed. He worked the whole day on Sunday, and had done his work well. Mr. Simon seconded the proposition, laying emphasis on the fact that the man had to work seven days a week, and adding that the garden, which was under his supervision, was a credit to him, being better than it had ever been before. Rev. T. A. Penry said he agreed with Mr. Salmon that the salary should be increased, but the state- ment that had been made that the applicant did not know the character of his work when appointed was not correct. They advertised for a man at 18s. a week, and now, after he had been with them only two months, they had an application for a rise. It was a very bad policy. If they advertised for a man at 21s. a week they would have had a larger choice, although there was no fault to be found with the way Mr. Hughes carried out his duties. He knew some who would have applied if they knew the Board intended giving 21s. At the same, time, 18s, for a man who was there week days and and Sundays, who had a family to keep, and was precluded from any association with his home, was small, but as an expression of their disapproval of the way the matter had been brought on, he moved as an amendment that the matter be postponed for three months. Mr. Jones said one of the applicants mentioned 21s., and was excluded for that reason. Mr. Salmon said the applicant was given to understand at the time that the salary would soon be increased, if he got on well, and the man had been there nearly three months. Mr. E. R. Evans said he should like to endorse what Mr. Penry had said. Mr. Salmon That means letting it go altogether (Rev. T. A. Penry: No, no.) Mr. Salmon It means letting it lie on the table. Upon a show of hands Mr. Salmon's motion was lost, only three voting for it, viz., Messrs. Salmon, Simon and Miller.
The Rev. J. Daniel Evans was inducted on Friday evening to the pastorate of the Welsh Presbyterian Church at Garston, Liverpool. The Presbyterian Church of Canada has decided to raise a sum of not less than E200,000 during the next two years for extending the work in the Dominion. The English Congregational churches at Berriew and Cefnfaenor, Montgomeryshire, have sent a unanimous invitation to Mr. Joseph Davies, a student of the Brecon Memorial College, to under- take their pastoral charge. The Rev. H. E. Griffiths, assistant master at the Bala College Preparatory School of the Calvinistic Methodists, has received a unanimous invitation to become the pastor of the Niva Calvinistic Methodist Church, Oswestry, which he intends to accept. Mr. Albert Spicer, M.P., who is as active in the religicus as in the political sphere, is now on his way to Boston, U.S.A., as one of the British dele- gates to the Second International Congregational Council, where he is to read a paper on The Church on Social Reforms." The Sunday School Union is now engaged in promoting the establishment of a training College for Sunday School teachers, in which teachers will be able to study the principles ana art or leacmng anu men proceou to simple or more advanced Biblical studies. A diploma is to be awarded to those who take the whole of the arranged courses. The Gymanfa, or special annual services, of the Welsh Congregationalists of Liverpool and Birken- head took place on Friday, Saturday and Sunday. In connection with the Gymanfa and Gyfeillach Gvffredinol, which may be described as an aggregate meeting of the members of the various churches of the district, at which some popular questions of the day affecting matters of religion are discussed, was held, as usual, in Great George- street Chapel on Saturday night. It was well attended, and was presided over by the Rev. S. Roberts, minister of the Congregational Church at Seacombe. The subject for consideration was Our duties, as Nonconformists, in our relationship to (1) the ritualistic spirit of the age, (2) the present aspect of the Temperance question, (3) the religious teaching of the children, and (4) the attacks made on the observance of the Sabbath."
NANTWICH CHEESE FAIR. The usual monthly fair was held at Nantwich last Thursday. There was a pitch of fifty tons, and the demand very brisk, the best lots being taken up quickly at prices ranging from 30s. to 66s. One or two lots made higher prices. The medium grades found ready sale from 50s. to 57s, and the lower grades down to 45s.
Business Notices. So '!f:7!1I'1' CARDIGANSHIRE CARRIAGE ORK3- J. G. WILLIAMS, PRACTICAL CARRIAGE BUILDER, CHALYBEATE STREET, (Near Railway Station,) ABERYSTWYTH. NEW CARRIAGES of own Manufacture on hand, of Best Material, and Finest work- manship throughout. Rubber. Tyres fitted to all Vehicles II required. J. G. WILLIAMS invites inspection of works, which is the largest and best equipped in the county. PRIVATE ADDRESS-13, BAKER STREET. "j^MPORIUM,. TREGARON. BEES, JONES, IS now showing a large assortment of LADIES', MAIDS' and GIRLS' COSTUMES IN ALL SIZES, IX THE LEADING SHADES, AND OF THE ATEST jgTYLES, FROM J gD. UP FOR LADIES' SIZE. DAVID HOWELL, GfuERAL DRAPERY ESTABLISHMENT, 334 35, GREIT DABKGATE- ST" AND 2, M ARKET ^TREET, ABERYSTWYTH. WELSH FLA-NINELS AND SHAWLEl, CARPETS AND LINOLEUMS. W. R. JONES, WATCHMAKER, v JEWELLER, &c„ 32, Great Darkgate Street, ABERYSTWYTH. A large Assortment of JEWELLERY, in Gold, Silver, and Pebbles, Suitable for Presents, &c., also LADIES' AND GENTS' GOLD AND SILVER WATCHES. SPECTACLES AND EYE-GLASSES TO SUIT ALL SIGHTS. A Good Assortment of WEDDING, KEEPER, and GEM RINGS. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. J. L. EVANS, COIPLETE HOUSE FURNISHER CABINET MAKER & UPHOLSTEKER, REAT JJARKGATE gTREET j J^BERYSTWYTH. FURNITURE, FURNITURE, FURNITURE DAVID WATKINS, WOBKSHOP SEA VIEW PLACE. PRIVATE ADDEESS CUSTOM-HOUSE STREET, PAINTER, PLUMBER, PAPERHANGER, GLAZIER AND HOUSE DECORATOR. CHOICE ASSORTMENT OF PAPER- HANGINGS ALWAYS IN STOCK. SHEET LEAD PIPES, CISTERNS, &c., &c. I-IOLLIER'S COMMERCE HOUSE, BRIDGE STREET & QUEEN STREET FOR FANCY GOODS AND CYCLING ACCESSORIES CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. OSWESTRY DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL SHOW AT OSWESTRY. Horse Leaping, &c. THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 21ST, 1899. j ON THE ABOVE DATE CHEAP DAY RETURN TICKETS WILL BE ISSUED TO OSWESTRY For fares, etc., see bills. SUMMER EXCURSIONS CHEAP EXCURSIONS TO SCOTLAND ON FRIDAY NIGHTS, AUGUST 4TH AND 18TH, AND SEPTEMBER 1ST, 15TH, & 29TH, 1899: By the direct route via Whitchurch, Crewe, Pres- ton, and Carlisle, will be run as under to *NEWTON STEWART, *STRANRAER. ♦WIGTOWN, WHITHORN, CARLISLE, MOFFAT, ^DUMFRIES *CASTLE DOUGLAS. *KIRKF!TTD- BRIGHT, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, Greenock, Gourock, Helensburgh, Row, Dumbarton, and Balloch. For train times, fares, etc., see handbills issued by the Company. WEEKLY AND FORTNIGHTLY EXCURSIONS. Commencing Wednesday, May 24th, and every Wednesday in June, July and August, Cheap Weekly and Fortnightly Tickets will be issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn Dolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Portmadoc, Cricc- ieth, Pwllheli, Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Rhayader, Builth Wells, Newtown, Montgomery, Oswestry, Ellesmere and Wrexham, to London (Euston and Paddington), available for the return on the following Wednesday or Wednesday week. Similar Tickets will be issued from London dur- ing the same period, available for return on the following Monday, Wednesday, Monday week or Wednesday week. Owestiy, May, 189b.S' DENMS' Ge°eral ManSger CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY from all L. & N. W. and G. W. Stations in LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO ♦Birmingham, ^Wolverhampton, '"Walsall, Peter- borough, *Leicester, Derby, *Burton-on-Trent, •Stafford, *Coventry, Manchester, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Liverpool, Birkenhead, Wigan and Warrington FROM Osweetry, Llanymynech, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown, Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth Dolgelley, Harlech, Portmadoc, Penrhyndeudraeth, Criccieth, and Pwlheli, Simitar tickets are issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Penrhyndeudraeth, Portmadoc, Criccieth, and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. Tickets to these Stations are not issued from Welshpool. Passengers return on the Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. THOUSAND-MILE TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the conpons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. The price of each is C5 5s Od 1.000 miles, and £ 2 17s 6d, 500 miles being about lid per mile. Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, to Mr W.H.Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates for authorising the use of the tickets by purchasers' family, guests, oremployeescanbeobtained,price 6deach book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNISS, General Manager. Oswestry, March 1899. "A,');G\c;g-4IrU- I VA pi lfl'ting + POSTERS. HANDBILLS. CIRCULARS. PROGRAMMES. INVOICES. BILLHEADS. MEMORANDUMS. B LSI iN ESS CARDS. TIME SHEETS. RECEIPT BOOKS. DELIVERY BOOKS. "Clx iadsb Gazette" Office, BRIDGE SiiiEET & GRAY'S IW RD.. ABERYSTWYTH. List of some of the principal, places where €!)e Wlsb Gazette'* is sold: ABERYSTWYTH. ABERAYJIOX. ABERDOVEY. ABERGYXOLWYN. ABERELEFENNY. ABERARTH. ARTHO(L. BALA. BARMOUTH. BLAENAU FESTINIOG BROXANT. BLAEXPEXNAL. BORTH. BOW J STREET BANGOR. CARDIGAN. CARMARTHEN. CARNARVON. CEMMES. CELLAN. CILCENNIN. CROSS INN.. CoRRIS. CORWEN. CRICCIETHU CWMYSIWYTH. CRIBYN. DOLGEI,IJ?LY. DINAS MAWBDWY. DERRY ORMOND. DEVIL'S BRIDGE. DR £ FACH;. DIHEWYD. DYFFRYN. EGLWYSFACH. GOGINAN. HARLECH. LAMPETER. LLANBADARN FAWR. LLANFIHANGEL. LLANFARIAN. LLANWNEN. LLANWENOO. LLANARTH. LLANDDEWI. LLANGEITHO. LLEDROD. LLANILAR. LLANON. LLANBEDR. LLANGYBI. LLANYBYTHER. LLANDYSSUL. LLANBRYNMAIR. LLAXRHYSTYD. LLANUWCHLLYN. LLWYNGWRIL. MACHYNLLETH. MINFFORDD NEWCASTLE EMLYN. NEWQUAY. PENNAL. PONT LLANIO. PONTRHYDFENDIGAID. PONTRIIYDYGROES. PENRHYNDEUDRAETH. PORTMADOC. PENLLWYN. PONTERWYD. PENRHYNCOCH. PENPARKE. PWLLHELI. RHYDLEWIS. RHYDFYDR. TALYBONT. TREGARON. TALSARN. TALSARNAU. TOWYN. TREFEIRIG. YSTRAD. YSPYTTY YSTWYTH LONDON. LIVERPOOL. LLANDILO. LLANDRINDOD WELLS. MANCHESTER. PONTYPRIDD ADVERTISING CO'S BoolC- STALL. PORTH. PONTYCYMNER.