Lectures on Fruit Culture. BY MR. J. L. PICKARD. The sixth lecture was given on Friday evening when Mr. D. C. Roberts, the Mayor, presided over a good audience. In the course of his opening remarks he said that he was glad1 the gardening peopte of the neighbourhood were taking such a .keen interest in this course of lectures. There were, he said, two great reasons why cottagers and gardeners should make the best use of the lectures. The first was the special advantages which Aber- ystwyth offered as 3, remunerative market, for fruit and other garden produce. During the summer tb«re is a large influx of visitors into the town who r-eqaire a large quantity of fruit and vegetables, and who are prepared to pay a good price for them p if the quality is only good enough. There appeared to him no reason why all the necessary produce should not be grown in the immediate neighbour- hood unfortunately it is not so. grown, and we have to depend upon our friends the foreigner to sHpply the deficiency. The second reason why more Interest should be shown in gardening was, that, owing to the splendid climate of this district garden prdv.cc could be grown very successfully. The College, he said, had recently added gardening as a special department of the agricultural work of the institution and he strongly urged the people of Llanbadarn and all the surrounding villages as well as those further away in the county of Car- diganshire and in the other five counties (Merion- ethshire, Montgomeryshire, Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire and Radnorshire) affiliated with the College to apply to the Registrar of the College, or to the clerk of their respective counties for a course of lectures on fruit growing or any other branch of gardening. Mr. Pickard would then be sent to give the lectures, and assist them by his advice and experience in getting the best possible return from their gardens. In conclusion he urged those who had gardens to make the best possible use of them, by making use of the best materials, by growing the most profitable crops, and by making a. special effort to make the best use of those who had special experience or special knowledge of the crop." they wished to grow (applause). Mr. Pickard said that we have previously con- sidered the preparation of the ground, the prepara- tion of the tree, and the process of planting, and now it is necessary to consider the routine work of cultivation. There is very little use in adopting special methods of propagation and planting if the tree." are afterwards left to take their chance. "Nature lu-i'self leaves nothing to chance, but pro- vides for every contingency. Wherever there is a poisonous plant there also will be found the antidote growing side by side with it. Green peas and mint arc intimately associated in their habitalt. Where the vine flourishes the cork tree flourishes al,i-in order to supply corks for the wine bottles. And where tart apples are plentiful apple tarts are abundant. We are so accustomed to this befcerieient providence of nature that we get to m«.ke a selection of the plants we wish to grow, then stick them into the ground and leave them to mat-ur(--or chance. This should not be. Even the meanest of our plants require unremitting care and attention if we are to enjoy them to the full, ami this is especially true of all our fruits. Unless every detail is rationally attended to something is sure to go wrong, and it is easier to prevent these defects than it is to remedy them after they are developed. One of the things that calls for a special amount of intelligent care is pruning. Some- times our trees are growing too energetically; they produce more wood than can be ripened; our first impulse is to cut away some of the branches and ■horten the remainder because we think there are too many on the tree. Now a moments reflection will show us that it is wrong to begin with the branches to stop this energy. Where trees are making too much top growth it argues that they have too much root energy, that thick roots have developed and found their way into the subsoil where they find too much moisture and too much nitrogen, and we can only prevent this excessive growth by cutting off some of the roots. Fruit 9 treea are only too often completely ruined by injudicious pruning. Long thick growths are cut 'hack year after year with the result that the trees become like thick-set hedges, a dense mass of youmj shoots that are totally useless for fruit pro- duction. Young trees that are planted in rich genial soil are very liable to make excessive top growth. Directly this tendency exhibits itself we ought to lift the trees, cut off all the long roots, arm replant exactly in the same way that we should do with trees purchased from the nursery. Trees of a weakly growths or those bearing a heavy crop of fruit should not be lifted. In the latter case the ffruit crop is a sufficient check in most cases, but where the crop is only light, or where there is no fruit, at all it is generally advisable to root prune -young trees every second or third year. The effect of root pruning is to diminish the energy of the tree and bring it into bearing sooner than it would be under ordinary conditions. If the trees are too big TO lift. then we may chop off some of the roots with the spade. The simplest way is to dig a trench round the tree to a sufficient depth for the purpose then chop in an upward direction so that the point of the cuts may be on the upper side of the roots. This operation should be carried out before the leaves begin to fall, say about the end of August or early in September, there is then time for the roots ft heal before frost comes. In transplanting or root pruning we have three objects to be gained, namely, the regulation of energy, an increase of fibreous roots, and keeping the roots near the sur- face. Where we have long thick roots which runs deeply into the ground we shall get little or no fruit, especially upon young trees. This is owing to the fact that nitrogen, the stuff that looks after the wood and leaves, is soluble in the ground and is, by the action of rain, washed to a lower depth in the ground than is either potash or phos- pbatCt the substances whose functions are to look aftr the productions of flowers and fruit; there- fore our care should be to keep the roots where they will have the least difficulty in obtaining these fruit producing materials. Every actively growing piece of rootlet or fibre, small, is capable of taking up its full atoare of these food substances, so that if by good management we can get a mass of fibreous roots near the surface, and supply them with a sufficient quantity of suitable food, good and regular crops are sure to ensue, providing we do not spoil the •hariees by faulty or negligent pruning, and after a tree has been newly transplanted more than ordinary care is required in pruning the branches. In transplanting or root pruning we have taken off some of the roots and crippled their power for the time being of absorbing food, we have in fact diminished its income both from the air and from the soil, because a plant can only use carbon di- oxide from the air in proportion to the mineral matter absorbed from the soil. In a perfectly balanced tree every part gets its due proportion of income. If a certain branch gels 10 per cent of this income in a good year it would get the same proportion in a bad year. If we have a perfect tree manufacturing fifty pounds of fuod material, it will be equally distributed all wr the tree. A branch receives, say five pounds of this material, if by root pruning we reduce the treea income to thirty pounds, then the branch would only receive three pounds. If the branch has nine buds which would have to be nourished if allowed to grow, and if five pounds of food material was just sufficient to nourish them, then three pounds would be too little, so we must lighten the burden and reduce the necessary expenditure of pruning. If the branch does not receive ^uffifient support for its family of nine buds, then it becomes our business to relieve it of some amount of its responsibility by cutting away worm- of the buds. As in the domestic family circle, so in the family of the branch, the youngest ani weakest members ;tr(- the mother's favourites. If we do not cut these away we shall get the new branches growing on the weakest part of the old branch, while the older and better matured buds near the base of the old branch are left to starve, and consequently they CRT) not even attempt to grow. Any thin weak branches that are on the newly transplanted tree should be cut back to one or two buds, leaving from six to twelve buds on stronger branches, leaving most buds on the strongest branches. In the ordinary routine of pruning there are two things essential if the operation is to be properly ,Ione-a sharp knife, and a correct notion of what to clo with it. When a branch is cut off it must be e and clean, and always remember that many' of the diseases of the trees are caused by wounds. If It Haw is used it is best to go over the rough, edges with a knife afterwards in order to facilitate the process of healing. A very bad case, yet one 9 that often happens, is to let a branch fall when it is nearly sawn through and drag away a piece of the remaining branch. This should always be avoided. The prime considerations that should influence us in pruning are, first, directing the energies of the tree, and second, directing the position of the branches in order that we may get the-highest benefit from the influences of air and sunlight. If we are growing bush shaped trees we sflould endeavour to keep the centre open, and if pyramids then get, one upright main stem with brinches radiating from it at distances of eighteen inches* or so. Never begin to prune when you are preM.ed for time, or when the weather is very cold. or mistakes are sure to ensue. Look carefully round the tree and definitely decide what is to be beiV.iv a single cut is made. Then begin by removing any branches that are too near the ground, or are too overshaded to be fruitful. Next out away all branches that are interlacing or crossirsg each other, as the friction caused; by the wind -i- sure to damage tile bark wherever they touch. If it li thought th-it too much weod still remain. the shape of the tree can receive tlit-, next attention. If one side is heavier than ths other then cutaway one or two of the least desirable branches from the heavy side, and finish aS the operation by shortening the- new growths, always bearingmind the rule of pruning weak branches hard, and stronger branches slightly. We must be careful nat to get too much growth into the contre of the tree. If we want the trees to spread we.cut just above a. bud looking towards the outside. Dont cut too closely to the -)ud, or slope the cut too much or the bud will be weakened, but on the other baiid dont cut too far above the bud or a. snag will be left. which will die bac to the blld or perhaps farther. This hot oriy looks unsightly but it spoils tae shape of the tree. When a snag is left the primary bud grows at right angles to it, iastead of following the original direction of the branch as. it would do if no snag had been left.. Z, In the course of these lectures it has again and again been stated that r.aless the wood be thoroughly ripened and matured during the summer there can be no hope of fruit in the following year. But, even after getting thoroughly ripened wood it is by no means certain that a crop will follow. The production of fruit is a very complicated process: unless every detail be favourable the result will often be failure. Even after we have managed to g.et the control of the tree and its food supply into our hands, there are other influences that may step in and partially or wholly rob us of success. The present season furnishes, us with a good (or bad) example of this. In the early spring there were nearly everywhere splendid displays of blossom, the result of last year's favourable climatic conditions, yet plum crops are nearly a total failure this year, while both pears and apples are very scarce indeed. How often one hears the. expression: My trees wew white over with blossom, but the frost has killed it all. Frost, in this respect often receives blame for much more than it is responsible for. Very often the reason of a poor set" of fruit is that the flowers have not been fertilised. In late cold springs the flowers of apples and pears and plums open out before bees begin to work, when this happens there is nothing to carry the pollen from flower to flower. It will be well if we look into this matter rather closely as fertilization has an important bearing upon fruit cultivation. Flowers upon a plant are intended to sub.-erve the purposes of reproduction. If we carefully examine a flower of the apple tree we shall find that it consists of four whorls or series of organs. The two outer ones are merely 11 y coverings, while the two inner ones form th essen- tial organs. Commencing at. the exterior, the outer coat is known as the calyx, each division of which it is made up in a sepal. The next whorl is the corolla, and each seperate part of it a petal. These two whorls are not at all indispensable to the formation of fruit, indeed in some flowers they are altogether absent. It is the two inner, series of organs that arc- absolutely necessary for the produc- tion of fruit. The outermost whorl of the essential organs is the andreriicium—the male organs—con- sisting of several stamens, whilst ia the centre there is the pistil, -ar as it is technically called, the gynmciuni-tlie female portion of the flower. At the base of the pistil is the ovary, and before the ovary can produce seeds it must be fertilized, that it must be impregnated with the male clement pollen, and Nature has made very complete arrangements to secure this being done. The pollen ir. produced by the stamens. It is that yellow powdery stuff which is noticeable inside most flowers. If the pistil was ready to receive the pollon of its own flower at the time it was being shed, nearly all the flowers would be fertilized, and there would be need for us to trouble our heads about the matter. But as a rule it is not. The pollen of any particular flower is usually shed a day or two before the stigma, the extreme apex of the pistil is ready to receive it. Nature wishes each individual flower to be fertilized with some other flower, indeed many flowers are quite sterile to their own pollon. To secure this end, flowers are provided with a nectary or honey gland which bees and other insects visit in order to extract the honey. In their visits from flower to flower their wings and bodies get covered with pollen, some of this touches and adheres to such stigma as are ready to receive it, and thus that great object of nature, cross-fertilization is secured. If it happens to be cold wet weather just at the flowering period the bees stay at home, conse- quently there are no pollon distributors, and no fruit then frost receives the blame. Anything we can do to retard the flowering period will give the bees a better chance to work amongst the flowers when they do open. Root pruning delays this period, so also does mulching the trees heavily with rotten farm-yard manure if it is applied in February and allowed to remain until the fruit is set. It keeps the soil beneath it cold, and thus prevents the roots starting into action so early as they otherwise would do. It is a good plan to apply a dressing of lime after the mulch is removed, to prevent any sour effects from the use of the manure. Directly the embryo fruit begins to swell, the trees ought to have a dressing of Sulphate of Ammonia. Apply it at the rate of loz. to every square yard of land occupied by the roots. If the crop is a heavy one this dose may profitably be doubled, as it will make the tree work hard and swell up a heavy crop of perfectly formed fruits, if only we have previously supplied the requisite amount of potash and phosphate. These may be applied in the autumn, and should consist of 2 parts Kinit, 3 parts mineral super, and i part baking soda. Allow four ounces of the mix- ture per square yard and work it into the upper- most three inches of soil. When trees are allowed to carry a heavy crop of fruit without an adequate amount of manure, the food material of the tree itself is drawn upon, with the result that the tree is weakened, and will be totally unable to bear fruit the following year. This is one great reason why so many trees only carry a crop once every two or three years. And now as to the best varieties of apples to grow. There are so many excellent varieties in cultivation that it is much easier to name a hun- dred of the best than it is to reduce the selection to a dozen or two. The following are, however, given with the confidence resulting from long and intimate experience amongst large and varied col- lections. For kitchen use Peasgood's Nonsuch must take first place in that it is the largest and brightest and best shaped of them all. Lord Gros- venor and Lord Suffield may be bracketed together for cropping and earliness and usefulness, with a preference for the former in that it is not so subject to canker. Lane's, Prince Albert is a splendid variety in all situations, and the same may be said about Cox's Pomona, and that splendid, apple, Annie Elizabeth. Lord Derby and Warners King are two heavy apples and enormous croppers, but they are rather too coarse for exhibition. A better apple for this purpose would be Bismark these together with Court Pendu Plat, Loddington Pippin, and Tylers Kernel for keeping aples would make up a profitable collection, while for dessert the following is an extremely choice selection: Cox's Orange Pippin, Worcestershire Pearmain, Glad. stone Cockle Pippin, Irish Peach, Devonshire Quar- renden, Eve, Lady Sudeley, Fearns Pippin, Ribston Pippin, Beauty of Bath, Egremont Russet, and King of the Pippins. An important principle in fruit growing that we must not overlook is summer-pinching. We have already talked about it, but the fact must be emphasised that the operation is of very little service unless it is performed at the proper time. Probably not one professional gardener in every hundred is aware of the fact that these buds have to be formed during the month of June. They of course know that if there are no fruit buds in the autumn there will be no fruit in the following summer, but few indeed realise that they must be formed so early in the year as June. If there are no fruit buds formed during this month there can be no hope of fruit in the following year. They are first formed as leaf buds, but if they receive an I adequate amount of sunshine and air in this month these leaf buds are fed up and changed into flower buds. The food that would otherwise have been spent in elongating a useless part of the branch will, if early summer pinching is adopted be stored up in the bud and in the branch near the bud, ready for the trees supreme effort in carrying a heavy crop of fruit. Thus it follows that however genial a spring may be, there will no blossom if sunshine and air had not free access to the branch during the preceding June, and if there be no blossom there will be no apples in the summer. When there are apples in August and September it is certain that they owe their origin to the sun- shine of the June thirteen or fourteen months before. When this fact becomes realised summer pinching will be a great deal more practiced by gardeners than it has been in the past. Although the future flower buds are formed in June, and the storing up of food in our trees ought to be encouraged to begin early in the month, yet the work has by no means been finished then. July and August are two of the hottest months of the year, indeed the three months form one period, a period of heat, sunshine and rain, during which vegetation is more actively at work than at any other time. Then it puts on its maturity, its man- hood, its womanhood. In April and May it was youth, courtship and marriage, the flowers were the bridal vestments, but in July and August the children are to bring up, and what a mighty labour it is. Who has not in these latter days of August stood amazed before a laden tree, with the fruit hanging down the branches to the ground, and more amazed still when after slight reflection it is realised that the load has been fabricated by the leaves under the influence of the sun and rain of the past three months. Ought we to grudge the slight amount of care and trouble, and attention that is necessary in assisting nature to give us bountifully of her best. Ought, we not rather to use the best efforts of our observation and intelligence in assisting the I mighty forces that are pit work for our benefit. The forces of sunshine, of rain, of air all combine to make our small gardens not only a source of j- profit, but also if we well it,. sue of the most j satisfying pleasures ef our life: Mr. Weller proposed, and-Mr. Askew seconded a wte of thanks to the Chairman for presiding, and in reptying the mayor yhat although he kncw ?ery little about apples^yet lIc had learnt sufficient while listening to this most interesting lecture to know that there was a great deal to be Itarnf bv those who intended to intelligently take ap fruit growing, and he again urged' thm-e outs-Mo the immediate neighbourhood* to apply to the- College hn Mr. Pickards service-, in their own-villages.
LLANBADARN PETTY SESSIONS. Be&tre- J. G. W. Bonsall Esq. (in, the- iehaii) and other magistrates. MINING PROSECUTION. Tile Newcastell Mines (LtÜ.) Ponterwvd, and their, agent, Mr. H. W. 1 raneis, were summoned at the insance of Mr. O. It Jones. IÆ. M_ Inspector of for having neglected to have the entrance to the working shaft at Newcastell Mine. Ponterwvd, properly fenced on 31st of May,, also for neglecting to have the Mine provided with an adequate amount of ventilation. —Mr.. A. J. Hughes pro- secuted on behalf of the Home Office,, and Mr. W. P. Ovren defended. The second charge was- heardifrst. Mr. Hughes called Mr. Jones, the Inspector, who explained the state of the provision for ventilating the Mine. He visited the mine on March 20th., and again in August and September 1898, and in May 1899. The then agent, Capt Johib. Owen. admitted to him that the ventilation was bad. In May last Captain Francis, who had then just been appointed agent, admitted that the ventilation was bad, and stated that a fan was going to bt*. fitted. Replying to Mr. Owen, the witness stated that he was shown the fan. He could not say that it was not fitted up within four days. He had known Capt. Francis and had always found him very care- fid. but it was great negligence on the part of some one to allow debris to accumulate at the heading which prevented the free passage of the air.—Mr. Owen That was before Gapt Francis' time.—The Inspector then gave evidence on the first charge, and explained the unprotected state of the mine. Cross-examined by M, Owen the witness stated that this offence also took place before Captain Francis was appointed ;:c.gen t. Mr. Owen, on behalf of Mr. Francis, admitted a technical offence/ bu^ said the mine previously was in the hands of a. captain who disregarded absolutely the suggestions of the Inspector on more than one occasion. The office <-f the Company was. at Newcastle-on-Tyne,.and having regard to that,! repeated complaints they were bound to discharge Capt. Owen and appointed Capt. Francis on, April 26th. Captain Francis had for 20 years been. a mining captain and had never been summoned, or had any complaint against him. Mr. Jones had stated that. he did not believe that any of these- acts were the result of any negligence whatever oa the part of Capt. Francis, and he asked the magis- trates to dismiss the case against him. TheChairman, after consulting with his colleagues said they had decided to tine the Company £5 for each offence and costs, and they hoped that would be a warning to them. The sumsaons against Mr. Francis would be dismissed. BLASTING AT CRAIGLAIS QUARRY. Roderick C. Richards, Penglais, gentlemaa, and Thomas Griffiths, Nortligate-street, Aberystwyth, quarry agent, were summoned by Mr. O. R. Jones, H.M. Inspector of Mines, for having neglected to keep copies of rules 13 as to signals for blasting at the office and adjacent places at Penglais Quarry on on June 22nd, and further with having kept ex- plosives loose in a canvas bag at Craiglaiis Quarry on June 22mL Mr. A. J. Hughes appeared to prosecute and Mr. W. Davies defended. Mr. Hughes, taking the first charge, pointed out the situation of the quarry and how much it was frequented by visitors to Aberystwyth. As quarry- ing operations necessitated blasting it was essential that persons be warned, and that the public should understand the objects of the signals used. With reference to the second offence, detonators were kept in the same box as some dynamite. The Inspector stated that when he visited the mine he found detonators in a loose box along with dynamite. He also found that the rules with regard to signalling for blasting were not observed. Griffiths made the excuse that he did not under- stand the rules because- they were in English. Welsh copies of the rules were sent a few days afterwards. He visited the mine again on June 22nd when he found the dynamite with the de- tonators in a box, and six pounds of powder under a stone in the quarry instead of in a locked box as required. The rales with regard to warning the public were still not carried out. Replying to the Bench the Inspector said he had seen stones hurled right down on the beach, which was much fre- quented. Cross-examined by Mr. Davies, witness said Griffiths was working a few yards away from th bag of powder and might have been using the powder in the bag, but the box was convenient. Mr. Davies, in defence, said if the Inspector had remained a little longer he would have seen all the gunpowder used. After the Welsh copy of the rules was received, steps were immediately taken to have the necessary notices put up, but some difficulty was experienced in finding a painter. The notices were, however, put up long before the summonses were received, and he contended that due care bad been exercised in carrying out the regulations. Although in the same box he was z! given to understand the dynamite and the detonators were kept in separate compartments. The detonators were kept in tin boxes. Mr. Hughes said if the detonators were in sight people would know the danger, but if they were covered they might drop something on them. The Chairman, having consulted with his colleagues, announced that the Bench had decided to fine Griffiths 10s. and costs in each case, and Richards 50s. and costs, including solicitor's fee in each case. DONKEYS ASTRAY. John Jones, Tymawr, Llanbadarn, carriage proprietor, was summoned for allowing three donkeys to stray on the highway at Caergog Terrace, Llanbadarn fawr. Mr. Thomas Rowlands said that at 11-30 on Saturday night he saw three donkeys at the place named. He impounded them and took them to the Farmers' Arms. The defendant pleaded that he was unable to lock the gate of his field owing to there being a right of way there, and when the gate was left open by some one the donkeys strayed. P.C. Rowlands said the defendant was usually very careful with his donkeys. Sir James Szlumper: But they like to walk on the roads (laughter). Defendant was fined 2s. 6d,, including costs. t.
Llanbadarn Licensing Sessions. The annual licensing sessions for Llanbadarn were held on Thursday. The Magistrates present were J. G. W. Bonsall, Esq. (in the chair). Sir James Szlumper, Major Bonsall, Capt. Bonsall, B. E. Morgan, Nicholas Bray, Thomas Griffiths, and Thomas James, Esqrs. SUPERINTENDENT PHILLIPS' REPORT. Superintendent PhiUips in his annual report stated that the number of public houses with- in the Petty Sessional Division of Lower Geneu'rglyn were comprised of five seven day and eight six day licenses. The following licenses had been transferred during the year, viz., Royal Oak, Goginan, from Caroline Northey (de- ceased) to Elizabth Ann Mitchell, Druid Inn, Goginan, from John Sayer Nicholls (deceased) to David Evans, and the Miner's Arms," Goginan, from David Evans to William Jones. Four exten- sions of time and three occasional licenses had been granted. The population of the division was 4101 thus showing 315 persons for each public- house. During the year 14 persons were proceeded against for drunkenness and convicted, showing an increase of two as compared with last year. During the year he had received several complaints about the Black Lion Hotel, Llanbadarn, and from observations kept and investigations made he re- gretted to say that the house had not altogether been conducted to his satisfaction. On Sunday morning a number of gentry residing in the surrounding district drove to the village to attend divine service at Llanbadarn Church, and during their absence at Church their horses and carriages were put up at the Black Lion. Their servants instead of attending Church invariably retired to the Inn where he had every reason to believe they were supplied with drink, otherwise he had no complaints to make. The Sunday Closing Act had been well observed during the year, and the public houses except the one he had mentioned had been satisfactorily conducted. The Bench having deliberated in private for some time, the Chairman said they were glad to have such a good report and to hear that all the public houses, with the one exception, had been well conducted. All the licenses with the excep- tion of the Black Lion would be renewed. The renewal of that license would be considered at the next Petty Sessions in view of the representations made by Superintendent Phillips. Mr. Jenkins (the landlord of the Black Lion) said t hat the Chairman had told him he could serve persons who had come over three miles. However, he did not want these persons there and he would shut the gates against them in future.
Rural District Coun cil. Aii the monthly ireeting 0>! the above- Council ("I Aioll(ta *v til-ti,o w"J:, present:—B Ir. John Morijau (ill the chair-Rft'i.. John Davies, Messr s W. A. Miller, Lewi*. Richards (Cwmi heidoi),. Thomas Morris (Cyfaethybre»in), J. B.. Morgai* (CyLmallmawr), Jarnts (Henllys), 1 tichard Jenkins (Llancynfelin.), Thomas Powell ( Llanfi- hangsi t pper), Eva,'i< Richards (Llanfi. hangei Lowei-), E. J. Evans f'Llangwvrvfon), and. Evan Simon. (t:chaynclre), w.ith the Clerk (Mr. Hugh. Hughes), and the Assistant Clerk (Mr..David Dav;i»). \v. p M-i E. J. Evans askec¥whet]jer a reply hacf been receipted from tbe Board of Trade to the Cterk's last letter with referarjee to the Llanfihangel Rail"»ay Crossing. ThtiClerk replied tlvnt he had received a letter from., Mr. Williams, Brynbwl, who referred to occasions when he had had h remain there a very cons'derable time, becturi^-the- gates were closed, and actually to dismount to go. into the railway yard Aaad shout out several time?; before he could get uiv one to open tba gates. He was going to sell( 'a eopy of that lctfc>r to the Board of Trade. Thb happened on the owcasisu of the last Petty Sessions at Talybont, and coming from a magis- trat(.\Iit ought, to carry a.ocstam amount of weight. TYPHOID A'Ð, DIPHTHERIA. The- Inspector, in hi1- report, stated that the cases against the occupieru of houses in Cambrian- terrace, Bortli, would came on Talybont Petty Sessions, on Thursday September 7tb. Having received complaints from.peraoiis at Aberystwyth respecting a nuisance caused by pigstyes situated in a field on Penglais HIil he visited the place and served a notice upon the owner to have them re;-loved, the notice had: been complied with. A caae of diphtheria haci.ioGnurred at Goginan. No reason could be assigned for the outbreak, the drainage being satisfactory. Disinfectants had be.3D used, A case of typhoid had occurred at Capet Bangor. The patient had recovered. The usual precautions had beea taken. He also reported that steps had been taken with regard to several houses without privy accomodations and with other defects. The Inspector now explained to the Council how :te cases of typhoid art!: dipt her ia had arisen and :said every precaution had been taken to prevent itheir spreading. A number drew attention to the ;^act that both cases- were at public honses and humorously asked if beer bad anything to do with I it. The Inspector replied that lie could not say as he never touched beer (laughter). 7. MILL: liJiVtH; AT BORTH. f; Mr. James Williams,, clerk to the Cyfoethybrenin | Parish Council, wrote calling attention to the Mill I Leet at Bortli and stating that there was at present no water ia the leet, and the material being dry could now be cleared in half the time. The leet wanted cleatring badly. Mr. Morris moved, and Mr. Morgan seconded that the leet be cleared tbe expense to be borne by the parish. Mr. J. B. Morgaa seconded. Mr. James moved as an amendment that the two owners (Dr. JOil'.f.'S and Mrs Basil Jones) be requested to clea-3 the leet. Mr. Richard Jeakins seconded. Rev. John Davies remarked that if the owners refused to d4, t-lie work the Council could carry it out and the expense to them. Mr. Richard; James said they would be encroach- ing on privai-j property and might involve the 11 y paiish in £ 30U) damages. The amendment was carried by eight to three. Mr. Morris, moved that notice be given to the owners tha-c the work be carried out in three weeks. -Carried;' ROAD AT PWLLHOiM. Mr. Miller stated that some time ago the Council put some-channelling down at Pwllhobi. When the Couaty Council closed the road they took a portion,of it up, and he suggested that the channel-. ling had now better be replaced. The-Cierk was instructed to write to the County Coun.).ii -accordingly. REPAIRING A BRIDGE. My. Morgan Davies, road surveyor, submitted an account of the expenditure- on a bridge at Llanilàr daioaged on the occasion a storm on August'Zth. Thci amount was E3 12s. 6d. Mr. E. J. Evans said thSa- was supposed to be a county bridge, and as this, was a special expanse, he-moved that they apply to the County Council far, payment. This was agreed to. MEDICAL. OFFICERS. Mr. J. B. Mn-gaji proposed the re-appointment dDP 12 uionthtr"6f the Medical Officers of Health for the Rheidol and Ystwyth Districts at thG\ annual salaries of E20 each subject to the approval of the Local Government Hoard. LOAN. The consideration of the following motion, which was in t he name-. Mr. J. B Morgan, was deferred, That this Couaci-L procure a loan to meet the cost of erecting the proposed bridges over Beidiog and Melindwr brocks respectively, and that the Clerk be instructed lio take the necessary steps for that purpose-" ♦
Distressing Occurrence at Nanteos. YOUNG FARMER DROWNED. On Saturday morning Mr. John Evans, coroner, held an inquest at Cwmhwylog Farm, Llanbadarn- y-Creuddyn Issa, touching the death of David Rowlands, 28 years of age, who lived with his mother at Cwmbwylog farm, and who was found drowned in Nanteos Lower pond at mid-day on Friday, September 1st. The jury was composed of Messrs. Hugh Lloyd (Nanteos), foreman John Joel, Tynywern; John Hughes, Waungrig; Thomas Jones, Tynfron; Evan Griffiths, Goodfancy David Richards, Nantoes; David Davies, Nanteos; Morgan Hughes, Penrallt; Joel Evans, Pantycryne; J. Morgan Jones, Cefnllech; Edward Richards, Pencraig; John Thomas, Cwmcaseg. Richard Rowlands, farmer, living with his mother at Cwmhwylog farm identified the body as that of his brother David, who was also a farmer. He was 28 years of age. Witness last saw him alive on Tuesday morning, about 6 o'clock, in the farmyard. He went from there to look after the cattle, in the direction of Nanteos. He never saw him again alive. He had not been ill lately, nor had he complained about anything, or threatened to take his life. He suffered from a cold in the spring. Witness had never the least fear that he would do himself any harm. He bad left no written statement to. throw any light on the matter. He was in no trouble as far as witness knew. John Morgan Jones, Tynycoed, gardener's assistant, at Nanteos, said be went to search for the deceased on Friday morning in company with about 30 people, including Edward Richards and John Richards, who were in the boat with him. About 12 o'clock they went down to the lower pool at Nanteos. Witness and the two Richards went into the boat and after rowing a short distance saw a head in the water about 10 yards from the land. It was under water about 18 inches, in an oblique position. He was taken into the boat. From his appearance be had evidently been dead for some time. By the Jury: There was no indication of a struggle having taken place. The Jury returned a verdict of "Found drowned." The Coroner at the close made a feeling reference to the loss sustained by the family, and a vote of condolence was passed.
North Cardigan Main Roads Committee. A special meeting of the Northern Division Main Roads Committee was held at the Town Hall, Aberystwyth, on Monday, when there were present Mr. Joseph Parry, who presided in the absence of Mr. David Jenkins, Messrs. J. T. Morgan, Evan Richards, C. M. Williams. Major Hugh Bonsall, H. Bonsall, William Evans (Ponterwyd), William Evans (Cnwchcoch), Thomas Morgan, E. H; James, Benjamin Jones, Evan Jones, David Daniels J. M. Williams, James James. Rev. T. Mason Jones (chairman of the County Council), D. C. Roberts H. C. Fryer (clerk), and R. Lloyd (surveyor). The Surveyor presented several handsome designs of the proposed new iron bridge over the Mynach at Devil's Bridge. After a little discussion it was agreed to refer the whole matter to a small com- mittee in order to give further consideration to the necessity of having the design of the proposed structure in keeping with the scenery and general surroundings of that romantic spot. The committee also considered the proposed works for the defence against the sea at Borth which had been referred to them by the Council. After considerable-discussion it was agreed that the Clerk should write to Mr. Case, the engineer of the present groynes at Borth, with reference to constructing adrfttional groynes so as not to inter- fere with his present scheme.
Mr. Stanley William Morgan has been appointed to be a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of the Gold CoaAL
Blrsiness Notices. I, .t; j; CARDIGANSHIRE CARRIAGE "^yrORKS i J. G. WILLIAMS, I PRACTICAL CARRIAGE BUILDER, CHALYBEATE STREET, (Near Railway Station,) ABE It Y S T W Y T H NEW CARRIAGES of own Manufacture on hand, of Best Material and Finest work- manship throughout. Rubber Tyres fitted to all Vehicles if required. J 3- li-ILLIAIIS invites "nspecti(m of works, which is the largest and best equipped in the county. Private ADDRESS —13, BAKER STREET,. J^MPORIOl,. rjIREGAROX. REES JONES, Is. now showing a Taatgs assortment of LADIES', MAIDS': and GIRLS' O S T I' M E S IN ALL SIZES, I..THE LEADED SHADES, A:.o OF THE IT ATEST STYLES, FllOM: J n. CP FOifc LADIES' SIZE- DAVII) HOWELL, GENERAL DRAPERY ESTABLISHMENT, 33 & 35v GREAT DAEKGATE ST" AND 2, M ARRET STREET, I ABER Y S T \V YT II. J^LANNELS ANI> 4^HAWLP, CARPETS AND LINOLEUMS. -r W. R. JONES, WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER, &c„ 32, Great Darkgate Street, ABERYSTWYTH. A large Assortment of JEWELLERY, in Gold, Silver, and Pebbles, Suitable for Presents, &c., also LADIES' AND GENTS' GOLD AND SILVER WATCHES. SPECTACLES AND EYE-GLASSES TO SUIT ALL SIGHTS. A Good Assortment of WEDDING, KEEPER, and 1 GEM Rums. | —— FURNITURE. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. J. L. EVANS, COMPLETE HOUSE FURNISHER CABINET MAKER & UPHOLSTERER, |^j_REAT ARK GATE ^TEEBT A BERYSTWYTH. FURNITURE, FURNITUR E, FURNITURE j DAVID WATKINS, WORKSHOP SEA VIEW PLACE. PRIVATE AIDÐESS; CUSTOM-HOUSE STREET. PAINTER, PLUMBER, PAPERIIANGER, GLAZIER AND HOUSE DECORATOR. | CHOICE ASSORTMENT OF PAPER- HANGINGS ALWAYS IX STOCK. I SHEET LEAD PIPES, CISTERNS, &c., kc. HOLLIEE'S COMMERCE HOUSE, BRIDGE STREET & QUEEN STREET FOR FANCY GOODS AND CYCLING ACCESSORIES j -# CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. SUMMER EXCURSIONS CHEAP EXCURSIONS TO SCOTLAND ON FRIDAY NIGHTS, AUGUST 4TH ASD 18TH, AND SEPTEMBER 1ST, 15TH, &: 29.TH, 1899, By the direct route via Whitchurcli, Crewe, Pres- ton, and Carlisle, will be run as under to *NEWTON STEWART, *STRANRAER, *WIGTOWN, *WHITHORN, CARLISLE, MOFFAT, *DUMFRIES, *CASTLE DOUGLAS, *KIRKCUD- BRIGHT, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, Greenock, Gourock, Helensburgh, Row, Dumbarton, and Balloch. For train times, fares, etc., see handbills issued by the Company. WEEKLY AND FORTNIGHTLY EXCURSIONS. Commencing Wednesday, May 24th, and: every Wednesday in June, July and August, Cheap Weekly and Fortrrgiitly Tickets will be issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Dolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Portmadoc Cricc- letli, Pwllheli, Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Rhayader, Builth Wells, Newtown, Montgomery, Oswestry Ellesmere and Wrexham, to London (Eustoa and 1 addington), available for the return ost the following Wednesday or Wednesday week. Similar Tickets will be issued from London dur- ing the same period, available for return on the following Monday, Wednesday, Monday week or Wednesday week. Owestry, May, 1899.S" General ManaSer CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY from all L. & N. W. and G. W. Stations, in LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO ♦Birmingham, ""Wolverhampton, *Walsall, Peter- ;Leicester- ""Derby, *B„rton-on-Trent, Staftord Coventry, Manchester, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Liverpool, Birkenbead, Wigan and Warrington FROM Oswastry, Llanymynech, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown, Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth; Do galley, Harlech, Portmadoc, Penrhyndeudraeth, Criccieth, and Pwlheli, Similar tickets are issued from Aberystwyth, Borth Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley ( T,C nrhynde,ldraeth' Portmadoc, Criccieth and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. *Tickets to these Stations are not issued from W eLshpool. Passengers return OR tlie Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. THOUSAND-MILE TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the coupons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. M^P™°feaoh is £ 5 5s Od 1.000 miles, and £ 2 17s od, 500 miles being about l^d per mile. Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, to Mr W. H. Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates.. for authorising the use of the tickets by purchasers" family, guests, or employees can be obtained, price Ddeach book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNISS, General Manager. Oswestry, March 1899. CASTLE HOUSE, ABERAYRON. John Hugh Jones, The oldest established Draper in Abesayron. LARGE STOCK OF DRAPERY OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. FOR WELSH MATERIALS Of all description unsurpassed in the Town. MODERN SHOWROOMS. Ladies and Gentlemen are respeo*ful!y requested to visit the above Establishment. They will be surprised at the variety of the Stoc Printing. POSTERS. HANDBILLS. 'IT )L CIRCULARS. PROGRAMMES. INVOICES. BILLHEADS. MEMORANDUMS. BUSINESS CARDS. TIME SHEETS. RECEIPT BOOKS. DELIVERY BOOKS. "Cb Ulelsl) feette" Office, BRIDGE STREET & GPAYS liViV RD.. ABERYSTWYTH. List of some of the principal places where 44 Che uielsb Gazette" w is sold: ABERYSTWYTH. ABERAYROX. ABERDOVEY. ABERGYXOLWYX. ABERLLEFENNY. ABEEARTH. ARTHOG. BALA. BARMOUTH. BLAEXAU FLESTINIEE BRON ANT. BLAENPENNAL. BORTH. Bowj STREET BANGOR. CARDIGAN. CARMARTHEX. CARNARVON CEMMES. CELLAN. CILCENNIN. CROSS INN. • CORRIS. CORWEN. CRICCIETH. CWMYSTWYTH. CRIBYN. DOLGELLEY. DINAS MAWDDWY. DERRY ORMOXD. DEVIL'S BRIDGE. DREFACH. DIHEWYD. DYFFRYN. EGLIN-YSFACH. GOGINAN. HARLECH.. LAMPETER. LLANBADARN FAWR, LLANFIIIANGEL. LLANFARIAN. LLANWNEN. LLANWENOG. LLANARTH. LLANDDEWI. LLANGEITHO. LLEDROD. LLANILAR. LUNON. LLANBEDR. LLANGVBI. LLANYBYTHER. LLANDYSSUL. LLANBRYNMAIR. LLAXRHYSTYD. LLANUWCTILLYN. LLWYNGWRIL. MACHYNLLETH. MINFFORDD NEWCASTLE EMLYX. NEWQUAY. PENNAL. PONT LLANIO. P ONTR H YD FENDIGAH). PONTRHYDYGROES. PEXRH YNDE UDRABTAU. PORTMADOC. PENLLWYX. PONTERWYD. PENRHYNCOCH. PENPARKE. PWLLHELJ. RHYDLEWIS. RHYDFYDR. TALYBOXT. TREGARON. TALSARÝ. TAT-SARNAU, TOWYN. TREFEJRIG, YSTRAD. YSPYTTV YSTWYTH LONDON. LIVERPOOL. LLANDJRY. LLAXDRINDOD WKLLS. MANCHESTER, PONTYPRIDD ADVERTISING (JO'S BOOK- STALL. POHTH. PONTYCYMNEK.