Lectures on Fruit Culture. The third lecture was given in the College on 'Friday evening by Mr. J. L. Pickard. Mr. J. Morgan. J.P., The Larches, Aberystwyth, occupied the chair and in his opening remarks he said that be was afraid that he was perhaps not one of the most uitable persons to preside overan important gather- imar of people interested in growing trees for the beautifying of the neighbourhood, as his business, that of a timber merchant, led him into destroying a Tast amount of timber which grew on the pine clad tlb of our beautiful Wales, but still he had a keen appreciation of gardening, and in his own little way he tried to make his own garden as bright and as attractive-looking as he possibly could, and he wm sure he should be as glad of any practical kitfts from an authority like Mr. Pickard'as any one wan was attending tlan course (hear, hear). I Mr, Pickard briefly recapitulated the points he kari advanced the previous week, and said that although substances containing nitrogen, phosphate and potash composed a complete manure in so far as the requirements of the plants were concerned in our ordinary soil, yet they were not the only substances used by the plants. Every plant requires iron and sulphur, and lime, and if any particular il were deficient in any of these substances it wou-fl be just as necessary to add them to the land as it. is necessary to add nitrogen or potash, or phosphate. Iron has an important connection with the colouring matter in flowers, and where we desire bright, deep, intense and clear colour in our flowers it is a good plan to water them occasionally with water in which a handful of rusky nails "has been steeping for some days; for all ordinary purposes however there is plenty of iron in the soil. The only difficulty we have in respect to iron is to get it combined in suitable forms in the soil. It is very liable to form ferrous #alts in badly drained or badly dug soil, and these sait»s are highly poisonous to the roots of fruit trees. We want them to change into ferric salts if possible, then no harm can be done to the roots. Sulphur is always present in abundance, and the same may be said about lime, it is rarely iadeed that a soil does not contain sufficient lime for the nutriment of our plants, nor can it be wondered at when we consider that geologists tell us one sixth of the earth's rocky cruet is composed of some kind of limestone, either as limestone, or chalk, or marl, or gypsum; and lime is one of the easiest dissolved of all minerals. Gardeners, and farmers too for that matter, have for ages past been in the habit of using a good deal of lime for some of their crops, and often with the happiest results. Almost every gardener knows of cases where the crop of grapes, or some other fruit crops have been doubled after the application of a liberal dressing of lime, and curiously enough, one rarely hears of harmful results following its use. All fruit trees are fond of lime, and it will well repay us to examine its action rather closely. I* a state of nature it is almost always found com- bined with carbonic acid, and in this state we usually speak of it as mild lime," and in this form the great majority of plants have to use it. We. however, want something more useful than this, so we burn the mild lime, we drive off the carbonic acid as a gas, and the lime is left behind; this we speak of it as "quicklime" Lime never occurs naturally as quicklime, for the simple reason that it is impossible for it to remain in this state, owing to the great affinity it has both for -wa,t,er and carbonic a -id. Freshly burnt lime has biiieh an affinity for water, and it absorbs it with such rapidity, that a considerable amount of heat is evolved in the process. The conversion of slacked lime into carbonate of lime or mild lime is a slower process. Sooner or later, however, it takes place, and as it withdraws the carbonic acid from decomposing organic matter in the soil, it hastens the process of decomposition, and sees that the material is decomposed in the right way. A knowledge of these simple chemical facts will help us to understand the action of lime in our gardens. Lime acts in three distinct ways in the soil. It improves the texture of all soils that are heavy or wet. It breaks up and improves the chemical con- stituants of the soil, and it has an important influence upon the biological occupants of the soil. The effect of lime upon the texture of a soil is amongst its most striking properties. Every gardener knows well what a transformation is effected in the texture of a stiff clay soil by the application of a dressing of lime. It has a much less tendency to puddle in wet weather, and it is rendered very much more friable when it is dry. Instead of drying and shrinking into hard lumps, it crumbles up into a coarse or fine powder, and this effect which lime has of lightning" heavy soils will often last for years. But more important perhaps than even its mechanical action is the chemical action of lime. It is a most important agent in unlocking the stored up fertile portions of the soil. This it does by decomposing different minerals and setting free the potash they contain. Its action in decomposing vegetable matter, and releasing the nitrogen it contains, so that it is available for the plants use, is also one of its most important uses, and this accounts for its beneficial action when applied to peaty soils, or soils that by reason of heavy manurings, and too little digging, laave become rich in stagnant organic matter. In soils of this description lime is an absolute necessity in order to check or neutralise the sour tendencies of such soils. Sourness is chiefly caused by want of air, and by matter rotting the wrong way, and this. as we have already seen, causes acids to form that air harmful to our plants. If a soil is once allowed to become sour, it will remain sour for a long time unless we use very energetic measures to sweeten it. The use of lime as a corrective for sour lands has long been practically recognised. The presence of acidity in a soil is hurtful to vegetable life, and when we reflect that after planting a bed of strawberries, we can have no opportunity for at least three years of again digging it 10 admit air, and for a still longer time in the case of all other fruits, we see how impor- tant it is to use every means in our power to sweeten the soil. The generation of sourness in a soil is almost sure to give rise to certain poisonous compounds, and if we allow these compounds to form, we shall suffer by losing the roots of our plants. The roots will rot off at their tips, then the harmful influence is felt right through the tree, and it is quite certain that when this happens, the tree can get no food. Lime, in sweetening a soil, prevents the forma- tion of these compounds for a long time after it is applied, and for this reason alone it is advisable to apply lime to all soils we intend planting with fruit crops, unless we are satisfied that they are perfectly sweet, and are likely to remain so. Another important feature of lime is that it prevents fungoid growth on our trees. Every gardener has, to his sorrow, a close acquaintance with mildew, with rust, with canker, and so on. Every one of these diseases are caused by tiny microscopical organisms known as fungoids." These live upon the sap of the trees, and they grow with such rapidity that trees cannot long survive their attack; indeed more trees die of canker than all other causes put together- Fungoids can find no support from trees that are comfortable and happy in sweet, warm, well- drained soil, but directly these soil conditions are reversed, fungoids get a chance, canker-sets in, and the tree's useful days are over. Lime has another important role in promoting favourable- conditions for a teeming multitude of life in our sods that are' actively engaged in preparing plant food in the soil. If we apply finely broken up feones as a manure, the plant can make no use of them untiff their character is completely changed. The bonesh are attacked by bacteria in the soil*, and they work so industriously in breaking up the-bones, or in other words, in decomposing the bones thati their most useful part has no difficulty Eu'dissolvin ar in water, and combining with oxygen ready to 00' taken up by the plants roots. It is utterly impossible to convey to you any idea of the vast" y numbers, or the vast usefulness of these germs isr the soil. They are tiny members of tStevegetablb world, every individual germ or microbe -consistirg- of a single cell, without hardly any structural' organisation. They are so tiny that it is said a million of them could be packed mto a tuSe of the diameter of a human hair; and fi miltions of them could find comfortat.ferecreation space on a postage stamp. One often hears a great deal about the harmful propensities of micro. We^re warned against their insiduoas attacks at ererv turn until we have come to r gard them with feelings of fear and dread, yet if we only keep the harmful ones at arms length, the remainder are-the most useful servants we can possably have,, and moreover, we cannot possibly do without them. The manures, &c., which we apply to soils, and which are generally supposed tononrish the plant, are in reality the breeding and food necessities for sdll organisms; and it is these bacterial bodies which convert the added material into soluable and useful compounds for plant absorption; it therefore follows that a soil to be fertile must be tferm occupied, and the more active these germs are the more plant food can be prepared. Whea Wo iUL ullhisr our soil we want to be thoroughly L 11 impressed with the fact that we are digging, d manuring, and draining, and liming our land in order to make it warm and comfortable and sweet for the lowly workers in nature's laboratory, who will cheerfully perform the work we cannot do for ourselves, if we only supply them with food, with aii- vrith moisture, and with warmth in the soil. If we lleg-lcd, the.e primary conditions we may not exterminate the microbes, but we allow unfavour- able conditions to be set up which are bad for the microbes. and bad also for our fruit trees. We have now spent a great deal of time in dis- cussing the reasons why we should carefully prepare and manure the ground for fruit trees, but these details are all fundamental principles, and are just as important in the general practice of horticulture as they are in fruit growing. We have seen in an elementary way that all the food from the soil is taken up by the root hairs, and that it is always taken up in a dissolved state as a weak watery mineral solution; that it joins forces in the leaf with carbon di-oxide from the air to form elementary starch, which in turn changes into sugar, and then into higher organic forms until it finally becomes living matter, and capable of increasing the size of tree, or producing flowers and fruit. But our responsibility does not end here; we have not only to see that proper plant food is manufactured in the plant, but we have to see that the plant makes the best possible use of it after it is manufactured. The lecturer illustrated by means of blackboard and other drawings how plants increased in size by cell formation in the leaf, and in the Combiuna layers of the stem and branches, and pointed out how necessary it was that these cells should not only be formed, but that they should be crammed with stored-up material ready for the trees supreme effort in producing flowers and fruit in the follow- ing year. Any attempt to make new wood after midsummer, he said, was a mistake, as the wood formed after that ttme would be weak and sappy, and would have to be taken off at pruning time; wood of this description serves no useful purpose; it only gobbles up the victuals that ought to go for the production of of fruit. It is used up in the elongation of a useless part of the branch, instead of being stored up in the cells that are already formed. Fruit represents food material not required elsewhere in the tree, and all that is not required for immediate use is stored up in the branches it fills up the cells, and causes what we term" ripening" of the wood Now if we allow our trees to make t continuous growth right through the summer there f is no surplus food to store: it is all sent up into the end of the branches and lost. But if we can pre- vent this loss, and get the earlier formed cells well filled with material we can confidently expect a big crop of fruit. How can we prevent this waste of material ? Well, by adopting the same plan with our ordinary fruit trees that we adopt with our vines, and peaches, and figs. Pinch out the growing points of all the branches as soon as they have made sufficient wood for the future prosperity of the tree. This operation of summer pinching should never be delayed after the middle of June. At this time it can easily be done with the thumb and finger, and it is of far more service to the plants if done then than it would be if delayed a month longer. The operation induces habits of economy and thrift in the trees as they are obliged to store up the surplus material, which they can no longer send to the end of the branches. It is pro- bable that after a week or two the branches will again begin to grow. Never mind, go over them again when two or three leaves are formed, exactly as you would do with vines. Sometimes, in the case of young and vigorous fruit trees even this method may not give us the desired result, as there may be more sap than the tree can utalise. The flow of sap depends upon root development. If there are a lot of long thick roots we shall get big branches, and big branches are a long time before they produce fruit. In this case we lift the trees in the autumn, and prune their roots. When the roots are cut it checks rapid growth to branches for two or three years, and not only that but it has an important influence in delaying their flowering period for a week or two in the spring. This often enables us to secure a crop of fruit where otherwise, owing to late frosts, and cold wet weather, the flowers would all have been destroyed. The lecturer next explained the influence of light and heat in influencing and restraining growth. Heat lengthens, light strengthens, was a maxim always to be borne in mind, both in respect to roots and brandies. Their growth is the result of external forces at work upon them, and it is only by understanding and controling these external forces that we can hope to understand and control our fruit trees. Mr. Austin, gardener, Abermad, mentioned in support of what the lecturer had said regarding root pruning, that every tree he had root pruned during the last three years was now carrying a crop of fruit, while those which had not been root pruned had scarcely a fruit upon them, and he thought with Mr. Pickard that this was largely owing to the fact that the root pruned trees were fourteen to sixteen days later in flowering than the others were. After questions had been asked and answered, Mr. Colville proposed and Mr. Weller seconded a vote of thanks to the Chairman and the lecturer. The question set by Mr. Pickard for the ensuing week was; Describe the effects produced by pinching out the ends of branches of fruit trees in early summer." At the close of the meeting the members of the Paxton Society decided, upon the suggestion of the Registrar and Professor Middleton, to erect a group of plants, flowers, fruits and vegetables at the forthcoming Welsh Industries Exhibition in the College, the group to cover a space of about three hundred square feet, and to be representative of the horticulture of the district. The following were appointed as a small committee to carry out the initial arrangements in their own districts. Mr. Weller, Aberystwyth, Mr. Austin, Llanrhystyd road, and Llanilar. Mr. Hopkins, Nanteos, and Capel Seion, Mr. Pateman, Llanbadarn, Mr. North- wood, Gogerddan, and Mr. Colville. These gentle- men will be glad of the promise of the loan of plants, flowers, fruit and vegetables in order that the group may be both thoroughly representative and attractive. At the request of several members "Tomatos" will be the subject of Friday evening's lecture. i y
The Prince of Wales and the West Wales Agricultural Society. A meeting of the Council of the United Counties Agricultural Society was held at the Boar's Head Hotel, Carmarthen, on Saturday, to arrange details for the show which is to be held at Ystrad on the 24th inst. Col. Lewes, Llysnewydd, presided, and intimated that the secretary (Mr. D. H. Thomas, Starling Park) was unable to attend through indisposition. He wrote to say that he had been promised an entry in the horse department from the Prince of Wale., and asked the committee to decide as to whether a special shed should be erected in the show yard for his Highness's exhibit. Mr. John Phillips, Caerlleon, did not see why they should make a distinction between the Prince's horse and that of anybody else, Mr. David Evans, Llwyncadfor, adding that he did not think the Prince's stud groom would expect any special provision. Mr. W. J. Bnckley, Penyfai, remarked that no distinction was made in other shows where Royalty exhibited. The secretary might, however, write to say that the best loose box in the town would be reserved for the animal overnight. This was agreed to, and Mr. J. Francis, Myrtle Hill, offered to put np an awnina; on the field for the horse if the attsndant wished it, and Mr. J. Francis and Dr. Bowen Jones volunteered the use of their private loose boxes, the deputy secretary (Mr. 1 Vmcent HowdlJ Thomas) husaerously suggesting that the persons who was allowed to put up his Highness's horse- for the nigM should contribute £5 to the society's funds for the-privilege.
FESTINIGG. ACCIDEN-TS.-Xt the Votty and Bowydd Quarry last week Mr John Barlow, Bowydd Road met with an accident while at work. His hand was caught by the machine and severly bruised. Mr. Robert Davies, Congywal, met with anaccident to his foot at the Oakely Quarry on the same day. SUDDEN DEATffib-In common.witb many other parts of the country there have been several sadden deaths in the districts of late. On Sunday Mr. Wrill. Jone, Groesfrordd, was fouril dead in his bed from, the bursting of a blood vessel'. He only went to hi» bed after dinner and finding; him rather long befose comin g down, a membii of the family called on him. Finding this of no avail they went to see-with the result above mentioned. On Mon- day Mrs. Gwen Edwards, Llwynhir-terrace died very suddenly in spite of every medical effort. Muasfr sympathy is- expressed with the Itev P. Howells and his family on the death of his young soir, Mr. Richard Howell in his,22hd year. PRESENTATION.— Mr. W. Davies (junior), Cae'r- blaidd, was the recipient of a handsome present on the occasion- of his marriage from the workmen at She Diffwys Quarry the- other day. The presentation consisted of a massive silver tea service. Mr. Davies, who is co-proprietor and manager of the Quarry, is very popular, and is held in high esteem by the mem. THE COUNTY SSGHOOL.—This- school has attained excellent results at the recent matriculation ex- amination of tbe- Welsh University. Griffith Williams, Dorvil street, passed in the first division. Lewis F. Davies, Bowydd street and R. Percy Hughes, Post Office, in the second division. Catherine J. Hughes, David R. Rowe, D. P. Rol)erts, Evan Jones and J. R. Williams passed in four of the five subjects.
A disastrous collision took place near the Good- win lightship between a French trading schooner and the steamer Hercules, of Dantaic. The steamer crashed into the sailing vessel, which was laden with onions, and had on board a number of youths who were intending to hawk them in this country. Fifteen persons from the schooner entered a boat, but itcaptised ar.d five of its occupants-all youths — were drowned. The remaining persons on the sailing ship, which speedily sank, were rescued by the steamer.
CRICKET. The Ceredigion have played 8 matches in 11 days, winning seven, one being postponed on account of rain, which is a record for this club. Against the visitors on Wednesday, Mr. Gaer Jones and Mr. Tudor Jones played well for the town. Against the B.C.C.N. on Friday Mr. Stanley Jones played a pretty game for the club. Against New- town Mr. Gifford did well, while Messrs. Yearsley and Durden disposed of Newtown for 22 runs. On Monday Montgomery came to Aberystwyth but the thunderstorm prevented the match being played which was a great disappointment. On Wednes- day the Ceredigion journey to Towyn to meet a strong team including the veterans Dr. Davies and Mr. Peter Vaughan, but the Ceredigion were too good for them, winning an interesting game by 14 runs. On Thursday they played a team of visitors from Longton, Staffordshire, winning easily, Messrs. Durden and Green playing well for the club. while Mr. Yearsly bowled splendidly. On Friday they played the La Poupee Theatrical Company, Mr. Griffith Jones, junr., making a good score when it seemed all over with the club 8 wickets being down for 23. Mr. Jones scored 46. The Royal Welsh Ware- house not being able to fill their engagement to the disappointment of a large number of spectators, a game was brought up against the La Poupee Com- pany assisted by three or four good cricketers (visitors) a very interesting game was witnessed. Mr. Hudson's 44 for the Company was a very pretty display while Mr. Tudor Jones' 59 was a treat. This is the highest individual score for the season. The fielding of the Ceredigion can be greatly improved on. TOWYN Y. CEREDIGION. The above match was played on Wednesday on he ground of the latter, which resulted in a win or Ceredigion by an innings and 14 runs. LONGTON (STAFF.) v. CEREDIGION. The above was played on the 10th on the ground )f the latter, which resulted in an easy win for the lome team. Appended is the score:— CEREDIGION. Gaer Jones, lbw b Lyall 22 G. R. Gifford, b Preston .3 Stanley G. Jones, b Preston .10 J. D. Gifford, b Lyall .17 J. H. Yearsley, b Lyall 5 O. P. Griffith Jones, b Lyall 0 C. R. Duerden, not out 26 Arthur Green, b Lyall.29 Oswald Green, b Lyall .4 Boycott, hit wicket 0 Maysmor, c Jones b Lyall 4 Extras 4 Total 114 LONGTOX. Preston, lbw b Yearsley .6 Hallesley, b Yearsley 5 Wallev, b Yearsley.1 A. B. Jones, b Yearsley .17 Lyall, b Gaer Jones .4 J. Kent, run out .2 Gorle, b Gaer Jones .1 W. Mountford, c & b Yearsley 0 Raybould, b O. P. G. Jones 8 Johnson, b O. Green 3 J. Mountford, not out .0 Total.47 LA POUPEE CO. v. CEREDIGION. Played on the Aberystwyth College Ground on Friday, 11th inst. LA POUPEE CO. A. Dennis, b Gaer Jones .1 L. Tunbridge, b Morris .2 T. Mahoney, c Duerden b Gaer Jones .0 L. Stanistaw, b Morris 11 D. A. Jones, b Parry .2 W. H. Daymond, b Parry .16 J. D. Maysmor, b Duerden 1 E. Coombs, not out.1 W. O'Connor, b Duerden .0 E. F. Maysmor, c Parry b Jones .9 Extras 12 Total 54 CEREDIGION. Gaer Jones, b Stanistaw .2 J. H. Yearsley, c Maysmor, b Stanistaw 0 A. Green, run out .0 Duerden, b Deniss .3 O. Green, b Stanistaw .8 Jones Parry, b Deniss .2 Whalley, b Stanistaw .1 Lyall, b Deniss 1 G. B. Jones, b Deniss .18 Griffith Jones, run out.46 Mathias, not out 0 Extras 16 Total 97 "LA POUPEE" CO. v. CEREDIGION. The return match was played on Saturday between the above on the ground of the latter, which resulted in ah easy win for the home team. Appended is the score:— LA POUPEE CO. O. Green, b Duesden 0 T. Maxwell, b Duerden 3 L. Stanistaw, b Yearsley 1 A. Deniss, b Duerden 0 Maysmoor. c Jones, b Duerden .4 C. Parry, run out 2 J. D. Maysmoor, b Duerden.6 Hudson, c & b Jones .44 D. A. Jones, c Gifford b Yearsley I A. Coombs, b Gifford 2 W. 0. Sullivan, not out 0 Extras .9 Total.72 CEREDIGION. Gaer Jones, b Stanistaw .4 Tudor Jones, b Hudson .59 Stanley Jones, c & b Stanistaw .4 J. D. Gifford, b Stanistaw.5 M. G. Jones, c Stanistaw .3 A. E. Gifford, c Stanistaw.2 0. P. G. Jones, c Jones, b Hudson .6 Duerden, not out 5 T. D. Jenkins 1 rr„ H. Hughes }Tobafc J. C. Yearsley, c Deniss 0 Extras.8 Total (for 8 wickets) .96
GOLF. THE BORTH TOURNAMENT. Lao* week, from Monday the 7th to Friday the llthv the annual tournament of the above elub was held- The course was in a very good condition, though the greens were very fast owing to the dry weather. The heat of the sun was tempered by a cool breeze from the Dovey valley, and no rain fell during the week to mar the proceedings with the exception of Monday afternoon, when the ladies were drenched in a thunderstorm in their match, in which the winner was Miss Murphy, the Captain's daughter. In the competition for the Camfcrian Railway Cup,. Mr. Roughton, of Formby, was aoccessful with the excellent round of 88. The Challenge Cup was won by Mr. Lattimer, of Brecon, on Tuesday with two rounds, 97 and 91— a most popular win. The bogey was beaten on Wednesday by one up, while the Captain's Cup was fought for on Thursday. In the mixed Four- somej that took place on Friday, the first prize was won by Mr. Roughton and Mrs. Heywood of Forncfcy. At the close of the competition, a general meeting of the members were held in the Club House, when the chair was taken by Captain Murphy. Various important resolutions were can for the improvement of the course for next yeas, and the visitors are charmed with the excellent natural turf of the green. Mr. Lattimer was elected Captain, Dr. T. H. Jones, Sandmarsh, was chosen Secretary, and Miss Watkins, Treasurer, for the ensuing year. A strong committee was also chosen to carry on successfully the affairs of the Club.
LLANBRYNMAIR. CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH,—The election of deacons and officers of this church took place last week. and the following were elected:—Deacons William Roberts, Tynygors; David Davies, Dal- gadfan Vaughan Evans, Penddol; Hugh Francis, Pentrecelyn George H. Peate, Glanllyn; Richard Williams, Hendre Rufus Owen, Tafolwern; Wil- liam Jones, Cwmbach; Jonathan Lewis, Bant: Daniel Jerman, Cwmcarnedd Evan M. Jones, Cwmpenllydan Thomas Jervies, Rhydymeirch; John Davies. Dolgoch; Thomas R. Evans, Ystrad- fach. The first seven were old deacons re-elected, the lastseven being new deacons. Richard Williams, as secretary, and Vaughan Evans as treasurer, were re-elected.
ABERYSTWYTH BOARD I OF GUARDIANS. At the fortnightly meeting of the above Board on Monday morning there were present:—Mr. David Morgan (presiding), Mr. W. T. Miller (vice- chairman), Rev. J. Davies, Messrs. T. Fossett Roberts, T. E Salmon, B. E. Morgan, Edward Jones, James Jones, W. Morris, T. Powell, J. E. James, Daniel Morris, Richard Jenkins, Evan Jenkins. Thomas James, Richard Thomas, and John Jones, with the Clerk (Mr. Hugh Hughes), and the Assistant Clerk (Mr. David Davies). STATISTICS. Mr. J. J. Hughes' district, number of paupers in receipt of out-door relief, 184, amount of relief £ 51 19s., as compared with 194, and P-51 15s. during the corresponding period of last year. Mr. Thomas Vaughan's district, 158, and £47 16s., as against 160, and £44 17s. Mr. Morgan's district,' 134, and P,43 12s., against L135 and £44 4s.; number of inmates 36 against 31 during the corresponding period last year; vagrants, 15 against 17. RELIEF DISTRICTS. A letter was read from the Local Government Board signifying their assent to the proposal of the Guardians to make the following alterations in the general relief districts of the union, viz.: To transfer the Township of Llanbadarn Lower from the Rheidol District to the Aberystwyth District, and (2) to transfer the Township of Trefeirig from the Geneu'rglyn District to the Rheidol District. COUNTY COURT DISTRICTS. A letter was read from the Local Government Board calling attention to an order in Council which had been recently passed consolidating the whole of the orders in Council as to County Court Districts in England and Wales. It would be observed that the County Court Districts were de- fined in the Order'by reference to Unions as Parishes as constituted in April 12th, 1898, and that every parish, and with few exceptions every Urban District was brought within the boundaries of a single County Court. The Lord Chancellor desired that the Order should be open for the ratepayers' inspection, MONEY IN DISPUTE. Mr. W. Morgan, Troedrhiwceir, Cwmrheidiol, attended before the Board, and answered enquiries with reference to a sum of money which he was alleged to have received from his aunt, who was in receipt of relief from the Board. He admitted hav- ing received 9,14, which be said his aunt told him to hand over to her grand-daughter who was in London, and whose money she said it was. A Guardian, however, said that the old woman had told him that she bad given P-26 to Mr. Morgan. The latter emphatically denied this and stated that since her illness there was no reliance to be placed upon what she said. It was decided to write to the grand-daughter, Mr. Morgan stating that he was willing at any time to hand over the £14 to her. PREPARING FOR THE NEXT WORLD. An old man of 77 attended and asked if he could not find someone with whom he could go to live. He was now living alone in a house which was near a chapel, but the Board thought as he was so old and apparently helpless he should have someone to go to who could take charge of him. Ah," moaned the old man in Welsh, I am near a chapel now. and I'm thinking of the next world, as all of us are, I hope." The Board told the septuagenarian that he ought to look out for another place during the next two months. COUNTRY VERSUS TOWN. The Master (Mr. Jones) reported that he bad had no new wheelbarrows during the last 13 years, and the present wheelbarrows bad been so much repaired that it was useless repairing them again. He thought it would be advisable to ask some country tradesman to tender as better wheel- barrows were made in the country than in the town. Mr. Salmon: Do you mean to say they can make better barrows in the country than in the town ? Mr. Morgan: Oh! yes, better carts and every- thing (laughter). The Master explained that in the country the timber they used for carts would be handy for wheelbarrows and so they could make them much cheaper. Mr. Miller proposed that the Master be allowed to obtain tenders from town and country trades- rnen.Carried. ALLEGED OVERCROWDING AT ABERYSTWYTH. The Guardians were discussing the case of an old woman residing in Windmill Court, when Mr. James Jones asked how many people lived in the same house as the applicant-Mr. B. E. !Morgan said the house was certainly overcrowded.—The Clerk The Inspectov^f, Nuisances should see to that.—Mr. James sSut he doesn't see to it. It is overcrowded.—Mr. Miller: Perhaps the Inspector thinks it is not.—Mr. B. E. Morgan proposed that the attention of the Inspector be called to the house, and this was agreed to.—Mr. Salmon said that there were a good many houses overcrowded in Aberystwyth, and there were no houses for the poor to live in. A LEGAL QUESTION. Mr. Salmon, pursuant to notice, moved than an applicant for relief, named Mrs. Hughes, be allowed 6s. a week outdoor relief as given to widows with the same number of children. He remarked that the woman had been deserted by her husband since last October, and for the past four months she had been livjng in the town with her children. The Board decided then to give her 6s. a week, but that resolution was rescinded at the following meeting of the Board on the motion of the then Chairman, because it was contended it was a procedure against the rules and regulations of the Board. The woman had refused to come back to the Workhouse, she preferred being out and at liberty to being scooped up in the workhouse, so that the poor innocent children who had been deserted by their father, enjoyed the same liberty that other children did. Repeated applica- tions had been made to the Board for relief. The woman's father, out of his scanty earnings, had assisted her as much as possible, and the neigh- bours seeing her making efforts to get on without being compelled to go to the workhouse, had also taken pity on her. The Board had offered a reward of Z5 for the apprehension of the husband, but he had not been found, and the Act provided that if the Guardians were satisfied that, to all appear- ances, the man had gone beyond the sea, they would be perfectly justified in granting out relief. Now on April 13th Mrs Hughes heard that her husband had gone to America in company with a friend from Borth. Some might say that they would be infringing the rule referring to the granting of relief to a deserted wife, but that did not refer to the woman with children, but only to the woman herself. The sins of the father ought not to be visited on the children, the stigma of having been brought up in the work- house would be detrimental to their future welfare. He was sure they would only be doing justice by granting the amount for the benefit of the children so as to enable them to be brought up like other children. Mr. Miller said he would second the proposition if only for the sake of the children, as it would be an advantage for them to be brought up outside the house. The Chairman: I support it if it is legal. The Clerk: Mr. Salmon has correctly quoted the section. "So long as it may appear" that the husband is beyond the sea, then you are justified in granting outdoor relief. Mr. Fossett Roberts: In the event of his not being beyond the sea, can the Guardians recover if he is arrested ? The Clerk: No, unfortunately not. You can have him arrested for deserting his wife and children, but you can't recover the past main- tenance. Of course we might say, There's so much due, are you prepared to compromise the matter ? But he is not bound to do it, he can go to prison. Mr. B. E. Morgan: You say the words are To all appearance." Will they satisfy the auditors? Mr. Salmon: Make the grandfathers contribute something. The Chairman thought Mr. Salmon's motion was out of order. Mr. Salmon I question your ruling. Why ? The Chairman Because we have no evidence The Chairman Because we have no evidence that the man is beyond the sea." Mr. Salmon (with emphasis): The woman is here. You are doing an injustice. I question your ruling. The Board haven't said whether they are satisfied or not. Under what section do you rule it out of order? If you tell me that I'll abide by your ruling. Rev. J. Davies We have no evidence. Mr. Salmon: The words are To all appearance." Mr. James He would have written back to his father if he had gone. Rev. J. Davies said the woman had stated that she would not live with her husband if he came back. Mr. Miller: She is afraid of him. Let the Chairman take the view of the Board. The Chairman: I think it is quite out of order. We have no evidence that the man is beyond the sea- We must have evidence in black and white. Mii Salmon: You are ruling it out of order, but you dont know under what Act. It is sufficient evidence that he has gone away that we have failed to apprehend him in twelve months. Mr. B. E. Morgan: To all appearance means either that a letter has been received from him from abroad, or that some one has seen him on the sea, or that some one whom we know can tell us as a fact that he is abroad. The mere fact that we have not been able to find him is not sufficient evidence. During my first year of office in the chair this application was granted, then there was a hue and cry, we looked the matter up and we rescinded the resolution. The motion was not put.
Business Notices. CARDIGANSHIRE CARRIAGE WORKS J. G. WILLIAMS, PRACTICAL CARRIAGE BUILDER, £ UIALYBEATE gTREET, (Near Railway Station,) A 13 Y S T W Y T H. NEW CARRIAGES of own Manufacture on hand, of Best Material and Finest work- manship throughout. Rubber Tyres fitted to all Vehicles if required. J. G. WILLIAMS invites inspection of works, which is the largest and best equipped in the county. PRIVATE ADDRESS 13, BAKER STREET. E -NIPORIum, T REGARON. REES JONES, IS now showing a large assortment of LADIES', MAIDS' and GIRLS' COSTUMES IN ALL SIZES, IN THE LEADING SHADES, AND OF THE L ATEST STYLES, FROM 1 OS, 6D. UP FOR LADIES' SIZE. DAVID HOWELL, GENERAL DRAPERY ESTABLISHMENT, 33*35, GREATDARKGATE GT., AND G MARKET STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. w ELSH JFLLANNELS AND SHAWLSc CARPETS AND LINOLEUMS. W. R. JONES, WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER, &c„ 32, Great Darkgate Street, ABERYSTWYTH. A large Assortment of JEWELLERY, in Gold Silver, and Pebbles, Suitable for Presents, &c. also LADIES' AND GENTS' GOLD AND SILVEE WATCHES. SPECTACLES AND EYE-GLASSES TC SUIT ALL SIGHTS. A Good Assortment of WEDDING, KEEPER, an( GEM RINGS. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. J. L. EVANS, COMPLETE HOUSE FURNISHER CABINET MAKER & UPHOLSTEKER, gtREAT jQARKGATE ks TREET A BERYSTWYTH. FURNITURE, FURNITURE, FURNITURE DAVID WATKINS, WORKSHOP: SEA VIEW PLACE. PRIVATE ADDRESS CUSTOM-HOUSE STREET. PAINTER, PLUMBER, PAPERHANGER, GLAZIER AND HOUSE DECORATOR. CHOICE ASSORTMENT OF PAPER- HANGINGS ALWAYS IN STOCK. SHEET LEAD PIPES, CISTERNS, &c., &c. HOLLIER'S COMMERCE HOUSE, JGRIDGE STREET & QUEEN STREET FOR FANCY GOODS AND CYCLING ACCESSORIES. CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. REGATTA AT ABERDOVEY. ENGAGEMENT OF NANTLLE VALE ROYAL SILVER BAND. THURSDAY &C FRIDAY, AUGUST 17TH AND 18TH ON THE ABOVE DATES CHEAP DAY RETURN TICKETS WILL BE ISSUED TO ABERDOVEY For full particulars as to train times, fares, etc., see the handbills issued by the Company. C. S. DENNISS, Oswestry, General Manager. July, 1899. HORTICULTURAL, HORSE, DOG & POULTRY SHOW AT MACHYNLLETH, ON WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 23RD, 1899. i On the above date CHEAP DAY RETURN TICKETS WILL BE ISSUED TO MACHYNLLETH- For times and fares see bills. SUMMER EXCURSIONS CHEAP EXCURSIONS TO V SCOTLAND ON FRIDAY NIGHTS, AUGUST 4TH AND 18TH, AND SEPTEMBER 1ST, 15TH, & 29TH, 1899, By the direct route via Whitchurch, Crewe, Pres- ton, and Carlisle, will be run as under to *NEWTON STEWART, *STRANRAER, *WIGTOWN, WHITHORN, CARLISLE, MOFFAT, ^DUMFRIES, *CASTLE DOUGLAS, KIRKCUD- BRIGHT, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, Greenock, Gourock, Helensburgh, Row, Dnmbarton, and Balloch. For train times, fares, etc., see handbills I issued by the Company. WEEKLY AND FORTNIGHTT^ EXCURSIONS. Commencing Wednesday, May 24th, and every Wednesday in June, July and August, Cheap Weekly and Fortnightly Tickets will be issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Dolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Portmadoc, Cricc- ieth, Pwllheli, Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Rhayader, Builth Wells, Newtown, Montgomery, Oswestry, Ellesmere and Wrexham, to London (Euston and Paddington), available for the return on the following Wednesday or Wednesday week. Similar Tickets will be issued from London dur- ing the same period, available for return on the following Monday, Wednesday, Monday week oi Wednesday week. C. S. DENNIS, General Manager Owestry, May, 1899. 1 CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY from all L. Jc N. W. and G..W. Stations in 1 LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO *Birmingham, *Wolverhampton, ""Walsall, Peter- borough, *Leicester, *Derby, *Burton-on-Trent, ""Stafford, *Coventry, Manchester, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Liverpool, Birkenhead, Wigan and Warrington FROM Oswestry, Llanyraynech, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown, Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Portmadoc, Penrhyndeudraeth, Criccieth, and Pwlheli, Similar tickets are issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Penrhyndeudraeth, Portmadoc, Criccieth, and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. *Tickets to these Stations are not issued from Welshpool. Passengers return OR the Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. T H O U S A N D-M I L E TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the coupons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. The price of each is £5 5s Od 1,000 miles, and £ 2 17s 6d, 500 miles being about l^d per mile. Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, toMrW. H. Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates for authorising the use ofthe tickets by purchasers' family, guests, or employees can be obtained, price 6d each book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNISS, General Manager. Oswestry, March 1899. Printing. p I OF EVERY DESCRIPTION QUICKLY AXD JJEATLY D O-NE AT THE "Uleisb Gazette" PRINTERIES BRIDGE ST. & G RAY'S INN RD.. ABERYSTWYTH. CHARGES MODERATE, JjLL ESTIMATES FREE E-NGLISI-I and WELSII WORK BY RELIABLE AND COMPETENT MEN. TRANSLATIONS ON EASY TERMS. GWNEIR POB MATH I I 7 0 Argraffwaith YN DDESTLUS A BUAN YN SWYDDFAR, "Uleisb Gazette" HEOL Y JJONT A £ J_RAY'S INN RD A BERYSTWYTH, AM BRISIAU RHESYMOL. CYFIElTHIR L LA WYSGRIFAU CYMREIG A SEISNIG AR DELERAU RHAD. EVERY KIND OF ARTISTIC AND COMMERCIAL Printing. QUICKLY AND NEATLY DONE AT THB Wdsb Gazette" PRINTERIES, BRIDGE STREET (TOP OF GRAY'S INN ROAD), ABERYSTWYTH.