ABERYSTWYTH. The season is now at its height and the town is full, comfortably full, but not over- flowing. Brilliant weather prevails and the whole town is busy as a hive of humming bees. The boats are having a busy time. The water in the Bay is grand—sea and sky are calm and clear. The parade is quite crowded in the evenings. Evening entertain- ments are held in the Royal Pier Pavilion, particulars of which may be found in our advertising columns. Several large excursions arrived during the week. The coaches and char-a-bancs are well patronised. Thousands of visitors while staying in the town avail themselves of a day's outing to the famous Devil's Bridge, Monk's Cave, Llyfnant Valley, and other places of interests. The visitors' train along the Coast is very popular and is not infrequently quite crowded. This train leaves shortly after ten in the morning for Barmouth, stops at every station and gives visitors an excellent opportunity of enjoying the scenery along the route.
BARMOUTH. Barmouth ought to have been ablaze with flags and bunting on Friday on the occasion of the laying of the foundation stone of the Intermediate School, but there was not a spark of colour to be seen anywhere-, However, the public made up for the absence of a display of colour by turning up in large numbers, first at the luncheon given in the Assembly Rooms, and afterwards on the school site. Nor did the visitors regard the interesting event with indifference. At half-past three they came trooping towards the spot where the new schools are being erected and listened to the speeches with as much intentness as the most patriotic of Barmouth natives. It was an ideal afternoon. n r.l The strong rays ot the sun were ieuipeieu by the breeze that blew from the sea and the sound of the waves close by was additionally refreshing. At the close every one- especially the Saxon visitors expressed surprise that there should have been con- tributed a total of X500 during the afternoon; but the Saxons have no idea what enthusiasm the cause of education excites in the Cymric breast! The spell of fine weather we have recently enjoyed has brought with it an increased number of visitors.
ABERDOVEY. A large number of visitors arrived during the week, and the town is now fairly full. The weather is an ideal one for holiday- making and everything now is at its best. The estuary is studded with boats and fishing is carried on with zest. Cyclists are never tired of having a run along the Pennal Road which commands an excellent view of the river Dovey.
TOWYN. Visitors are having exceptionally good weather. The town is now beginning to fill up. The roads are in excellent condition for coaching and cycling. The Marine Parade which commands a splendid view of sea and mountain, is much frequented in the evenings.
ABERAYRON. Visitors are arriving daily and the town is now beginning to fill. The Wednesday Sports have attracted a large number of day trippers. More seats are badlv wanted, especially in the neighbourhood of the beach, and along the side of some of the most frequented country paths. Why not start a footpath society for Aberayron 1
BORTH. A large number of visitors arrived during the week. Almost all the houses and apart- ments are let for this month. The Golf Tournament, which takes place next week, promises to be a great success.
HARLECH. Visitors and excursionists arrive in large numbers daily, the great attraction being tne ancient castle. St. David's Golf Links also attract a large number of the golfing fraternity. The weather is glorious and the scenery all along the coast is superb.
LLANGRANOG. This little: village is a favourite seaside 1 xesort with a large number of visitors who return yearjifter year. The weather is de- lightful and the country is at its best.
TALYBONT. Talybont is a delightful little place for a quiet holiday among the hills. It is within easy reach of road and rail from Aberystwyth and is yet well secluded and far removed from the "madding crowd." During the summer months it is much frequented by visitors and tourists. The whole district is .exceedingly picturesque and the surrounding hills command fine views of sea and mountain.
DOLGELLEY. A large number of tourists and excursion- ists visited the town during the week. The mountain climbers are having very favour- able weather, and parties may be seen daily wending their way towards Cader. Torrent Walk and other places of interest in the neighbourhood are much frequented.
4- LLANDRINDOD WELLS. The weather is glorious a brilliant sun shines throughout the livelong day. It is an ideal time for holiday-making on the mountain moors. The Wells are unmistakably becoming more popular from year to year; and with a little more judicious enterprise they should hold their own against all the Continental spas which owe their popularity to a vanishing craze to follow fashion and find fresh fields and pastures new." But" they. wander far and wide who roam, to find the joys of life from home.' Mr. Jenkins, the enterprising manager of "The thvalia," is about to publish A Book of Praise and Songs" for the use of visitors staying at that well-known hotel. The excellence of the collection is guaranteed when we state that Mr. D. Emlyn Evans has supervised the work. The Welsh Coast is well re-pi esented at the Wells at present, and new contingents may be expected to arrive after the !><a;k .Holidays.
DR. MACNAMARA AT ABERYSTWYTH. SPEECH ON ELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN WALES. IMPORTANT REFORMS SUGGESTED. The visit of Dr. Macnamara, the eminent authority on elementary education, to Aberystwyth, on Saturday, created no little interest. Dr. Mac- namara. as is well-known, is the editor of the Schoolmaster," and one of the leading members of the London School Board. He was accompanied by Mr. Waddington (Bolton), ex-president of the N. U. T. The P-ieetings were held under the auspices of the North Cardiganshire Teachers' Association, of which Mr. D. J. Saer (Aber- ystwyth) is President. In the morning at the Board Schools Dr. Macnamara addressed a private meeting of Teachers on the Superannuation Act, the provisions of which he fully explained; and Mr. Waddington spoke on Mr. Robson's Bill. Mr. Saer presided, and at the close a hearty vote of thanks was accorded the speakers on the motion of Mr. Hamer (Trefeirig), seconded by Mr. C. H. Cocks (Penparcau). In the afternoon a public meeting was held in the University College, where a large audience assembled, invitations having been sent to School Board Members, and Magistrates, besides all the teachers of the district Principal Roberts, of the University College, presided, being supported by Mr. Vaughan Davies. M.P., Dr. Macnamara, Mr. Waddington. and Mr. Saer. PRINCIPAL ROBERTS' SPEECH. The Chairman, on rising to open the proceedings was received with applause. He remarked that he was very glad to see such a large number of managers and teachers of schools—some of them of secondary schools—jvi the district assembled on an occasion which was a most interesting one and which he trusted would leave its mark npoit the development of elementary education and educa- tion at large in the district. They were to have the opportunity of listening to two eminent teachers and public men (applause) who had for many years been in the forefront of activity and reform in connection with primary education; and he was sure that as Welsh men and women inter- ested in education they would accord them a most hearty and enthusiastic welcome (applause). Both had it in their power to render a great ser- vice to the cause of primary education in Wales at this very important juncture. First of all the interest which they took in the questions which were being discussed by them in Wales would lead to their oeing considered by a large public even outside of Wales. Dr. Macnamara was not only a leader in the great Association of Teachers which was so vast and powerful, but was also, as the Editor of the -1 Schoolmaster," in a position to render invaluable services to any educational cause which he might take in hand. There were many reasons which made it important for Wales that interest in Welsh educational questions should not be limited to Wales itself, but should be shared by the public and by educationists in the Kingdom at large (hear. hear). There were certain questions in regard to which both gentlemen would doubt- less have something to say it was not his intention to seek to anticipate the direction of their remarks; but there was the important and perplexed question of attendance in the schools and perhaps the more vital question of the proper staffing of the schools (applause). In regard to both these questions Dr. Macnamara had already rendered service by the light lie had thrown upon the actual condition of these questions in the schools of Wales. Welshmen aimed at the very highest possible results in connection with education. Their future as a nation, their influence in the world was bound up with the use that they made of the educational advantages that were now within their grasp consequently it stood to reason that they in Wales were prepared to welcome criticism from those who had the interests of education and of Wales at heart, and from those who were qualified to give it, and he anticipated that they would profit to a very high degree from the light that had recently been thrown upon certain sides of their elementary educational system. The establishment of the secondary schools, the immensely rapid enlargement of their conception of the meaning of the term elementary education in view of the demands made by public life and by industrial life upon the working community, had brought the question of the efficiency of our elementary schools into the very forefront at the present time. There was just one question-only a part, but still a vital part of the broad question of the efficiency of the teachers of our primary schools to which he wished to call their attention. They were aware that from October next the new code came into force, and for the first time there was recognized the power of the school authorities to secure the education of their pupil teachers for a part, at any rate, of their period of apprentice- ship in secondary schools (hear, hear). He had no doubt whatever that this departure would commend itself to every teacher in Cardigan, and also to every school manager. It really went to the very root of the question, because it provided the condi- tions of a hopeful work for the teachers of the future, and he trusted a year would not have elapsed before this new power was extensively made use of in that county and the adjoining counties. He did not think there was any other county in the kingdom which had sent more of its pupils into 'the teaching profession in proportion to its population than Cardigan. Consequently education was to them a paramount industry, so that even apart from the effect of such advantages as the pupil teachers could get in the county schools upon the efficient work of these pupil teachers when they returned to teach in the primary schools—even apart from that—even regarding the education of pupil teachers as a name and an end in itself it had the very greatest claims on our consideration. It was one of our ambitiens not only to supply Wales with teachers but to send highly-equipped teachers to all parts of the empire (applause.) He regretted that this visit occurred during the vacation, thus debarring his colleagues and students from attending, but at the same time he felt that there was a very close community binding together the elementary teachers, the secondary teachers, and the college teachers in work and devotion to one common cause (hear, hear.) He was one of those who believed enthusiastically in the future of Elementary Education in Wales, and also had faith in its present efficiency within its limits and according to the advantages at its disposal. If they looked into the history of primary education in that typical rural district of Wales, they would find it to be a record of admirable progress. It was not perfect, they recognised the drawbacks which existed, but at the same time the success that had been attained was in itself admirable. A school 20 miles to the South of Aberystwyth, sent not less than three of iis pupils at one time through the London Matricula- tion. That was not an individual piece of success, but was quite related to the general high efficiency of the work of that school, and further of the work done by a similar small village school seven miles to the North, where two pupils at one time passed the same examination and where the results in the Science and Art Department Examinations were most admirable for a series of years. An old Merioneth Schoolmaster was now a fellow of the Geological Society. He had given instances of past work, not because they could not be paralleled by present schools in the district, some of which were doing most admirable work. He should say that while they could not claim on the whole for Elementary schools, and Wales a conspicuous place as an entire of uniform system of educa- tional work, they could claim for it the very highest credit for instances of splendid work done by individual schools throughout Wales (applause.) MR. WADDINGTOS'S SPEECH. Mr. Waddington, who was cordially received, said in the first place he must thank them for their kind recognition of the services which he, in con- junction with others, bad done towards bringing about the Half Time Act passed by Parliament recently. He then proceeded to deal with the attendance at the elementary schools. Sir John Gorst had said that the serious obstacle to the effective expenditure of money on primary schools was the attendance. He had said, when we look at England and Scotland or at Wales, we cannot help but almost despair of the condition of the elementary school attendance to-day. According to Sir John they had on the registers of the pri- mary schools to-day little children who, it was feared, would be tenants of the docks of assize courts and police courts in the future. Things were deplorable in England, but when they came to Wales they found they were still more so. Dr. Macnamara had some time ago said Wales was a bad third in its relation to attendance at primary schools. He thought he could prove con- clusively that day that it was a very bad third (laughter). To-day the percentage of attendance at the elementary schools of England was 83. whilst the percentage of Wales was only 77. If he might bring matters nearer home, he could say, without fear of contradiction that Cardiganshire was the worst of any county in Wales. Thepercentage of Cardiganshire was only 73 (shame). He would have excused the county on the ground suggested by the Chairman that Cardiganshire embraced smcli a large number of rnral districts, did he not have in mind that the county was exempted from the lowest possible standard and at the earliest pos- sible time, and that the Orkneys and Shetlanders easily, and not only the attendance of Cardigan- shire but of Wales as well. He thought everybody must agree that things were far from satisfactory both in England or in Wales (hear, hear). It behoved them all from the highest minister of education downward to do all they could to im- prove the attendance at their elementary schools (applause). They came together that day because. H as educationists, they felt that they were not get- ting a satisfactory return for their money. Why was this so ? He believed first of all that compul- sion fitted badly into the English social life. When they compared England with Germany and Switzerland they must bear in mind that those countries had been disciplined under a long age of conscription and subjected to restrictions which they in "England would repel and repel effectively (hear, hear). On the other hand they had in England and Wales fifty per cent. of parents who constantly broke and evaded the law in its relation to elementary education. In ■such cases it had been found necessary to enforce the compulsory powers of the Elementary Educa- tion Act. He ventured to prophesy, however, that in the case of the other fifty per cent. parents would continue to send their children regularly to school even if there were no compulsory powers (hear, hear). Of the fifty per cent. where it was found necessary to exercise compulsion twenty-five per cent were parents who sent their children to school eight times out of a possible ten in a week. Years ago, he believed it was in 1876. the Man- chester School Authorities intimated that they considered an attendance of eight times out of ten admirable. The results of that intimation were apparent that day. Twenty-five per cent, of the parents thought they were doing a great thing if they sent the children to school eight times out of ten. The other twenty-five per cent. consisted of the real derelicts of elementary education. They found on inspecting the books that year after year the same families received notice to appear before Elementary School Committees. After they had appeared the children for a week or so attended regularly. Then aftei being wiped off the list the old game went on. He had traced the same families who did this kind of thing year after year. In instances of this nature the attendance as a rule was three out of ten. If they could effectively deal with the latter the other twenty-five per cent, would reform as a matter of course. It took a long time to bring the parents to hook, and when they were brought, the magistrates inflicted a small fine, with no costs, As a result the costs had to be paid by the local authority. In the blue book they found that often the persons who had been the means of breaking the law by employing children under age had to adjudicate on such cases as magistrates. A magistrate who had employed a boy to look after the cows or frighten the crows away, should certainly not be the person to administer the law when the parents of the boy were summoned for neglecting to send their boy to school. The administration of the law should be taken out of the hands of local men and placed In the hands of an independent person. Having referred to the bad impression which would be put upon the minds of children by being hustled to police courts. He said these cases should be dealt with by independent authorities created for the purpose. The factory acts were administered admirably. In fact there were no acts on the statute book so well administered. This was because the factory in- spector was independent of every local person and there was no question as to whether at the next election he would be sacked or not (laughter). In the other case the nuisance inspector was subject to popular control of the worst possible character, and it was with fear and trembling that he went about his work fearing that he might take out a summons against somebody who might be on the Bench and who at the next election would have the power of deciding whether the inspector should continue in office or not (hear, hear). He con- tended that the attendance officer and the local attendance committee were the worst possible persons to deal with the matter (hear, hear). He then went on to instance a case in the town of Bolton where a man was returned to the local body who boldly declared that it was his intention to prevent any steps being taken to. summon offenders under the Act. What they needed was a person appointed by the government to see that local authorities enforced the law and to take out summonses. They bad a case not long ago where a small School Board deliberately refused to take out summonses, and the attendance of pupils at the school was nothing short of a scandal. A large number of the School Bcards of Wales wciv; in default, and had prac- tically been in default all their lives (laughter and hear, hear). But he wanted to put it on a more sordid ground if he might be permitted to say so. They in Wales had provided accommodation for 313,000 children at an estimated cost of £10 per head, and of these places there were 70,000 or 80,000 vacant, and they were paying interest on the money so expended in some form or other. That investment brought in no return, but it was a continual debt as well as a useless expenditure. These children for the time they were away reduced the possible amount of grant that could be gained by the school (hear, hear). Last year their percentage was 77 per cent, but if they had 90 per cent, and he presumed that this was not too much to expect, they would have been in receiQt of Z70,000 more from the Government (loud cheers). They had heard a great deal about legislation for the classes, but here was Z70,000 offered to the masses which they could earn them- selves (cheers). Would it not be worth expending P,1,000 to have special inspectors for the whole of Cardiganshire alone for which they would obtain a return in perpetuity (hear, hear). He then went on to refer to the fact that boys in Wales as soon as they passed the fifth standard and were twelve years of age were taken to work in the bowels of the earth for ten long hours. He supposed it was a matter of custom, but he did not think that it was fair to the child, that the law permitted them to be employed for so long as fifty- four hours per week underground. The miners themselves declared that eight hours per day was sufficient, and he was glad to know that the leaders of the miners were with them on this all-important matter. There were 43,000 boys between the ages of 12 and 16 who were at work underground < in this country, and he considered that it was nothing less than a scandal, and a disgrace to a nation such as that of England. Referring to the rural clause in the half-time Act, he said he did not believe that any Education Department would make it workable (applause.) At this atage Mr. Sacr announced that letters expressing regret at inability to attend had been received from Lord Lisburne, Mr. Legard (chief inspector of schools for Wales), Mr. Darlington, H.M.Inspectorof Schools; Mr. short, Sub-Inspector of Schools; and Professor Anwyl. DR. MACXAMARA'S SPEECH. Dr Macnamara. who was enthusiastically received, then spoke. At the outset he expressed the hope that the efforts now being made by elementary and secondary teachers in connection with education would meet with success, and said they owed a debt of gratitude to Principal Roberts, who had stayed at Aberystwyth during the vacation in order to preside over that meeting. Proceeding he said that speaking at Merthyr last November he had contrasted the condition of the Welsh Primary Schools with those of England and of Scotland, with the result that in respect of all the essentials that go to make up an efficient popular school system- the attendance of the children the age up to which they stayed at school; the money spent on primary school; and the quality and number of the teacher employed—Wales came a bad third. This judgment had been freely canvassed, which in itself was a good thing, for the more people in- terested themselves in their schools, the more those schools would flourish. But the onlyreally serious criticism levelled against his bad third speech, was the fact that it was made by a stranger from L( n Ion—(laughter)—as Mr. Legard called him, but a stranger from London was quite as competent to speak concerning education in Wales as a stranger from Leeds (laughter and cheers). And to make the thing worse, here he was again, unrepentant- (laughter)—to drive home with later official 'tigures his criticisms of last November. He quoted from the local inspectors' reports to con- firm his statements. He would urge Welsh people not to be misled by flamboyant appeals to their local patriotism. That was how his own country —Ireland—had suffered. They could have too much of that. They could look backwards too much, to their glorious history, as the Irish alwayswere doing. Irishmen spent their time in looking backwards. If they looked forward—as they in Wales did—to the great future, they would get on much better Their elementary school system in Wales was lacking in several important essentials, and therefore much of their fine zeal for intermediate and higher education must suffer in consequence. He advised them, when they shouted Goreu arf, arf dysg" to mean it. They had discussed the matter very fairly and fully in Wales, and the comments he had made had caused them to look further into it. That alone postulated a zeal for education, and the more it was discussed the better for it. Well, now, reverting to the latest set of official figures, what did he find ? First of all with regard -to School attendance. The percentage of regularity for Scotland was 84-3; for England, 81-96; and for Wales, 76*61. In other words, one-fourth of the children on the rolls of the Welsh schools were always away. They might say that many parts of Wales were mountainous and with scattered populations, and he believed there were babies occasionally which kept children at home (laughter) But the County of Westmoreland shewed a per- centage of regularity of 82-88. The County of Aberdeen, where the Grampians were (laughter), came out 84-5, and even the Orkneys and Shetlands shewed a percentage of 78-7. As to the amount of money spent, in Scotland the latest annual main- tenance charge was 9,2 11s. 3^1. per child Eng- land £2 7s. 8d.; and Wales P,2 5s. 6d. The County of Pembroke spent F,2 Is. lid. a child last year; the County of Argyle £3 7s. 8id.; the 4 County of Cardigan £ 2 3s. 3d.; the County of Sutherland iP,3 4s. lid.; the County of Flint. 2 E2 3s. 5d.; the County of Perth, £2 8s. 10^ I. Anglesey spent £ 2 Os. 8d.; Bute. £3 Os. 71 cl.. and so on. John Knox said every scholar made was an addition to the wealth of the community. That was why Scotchmen were exiled from their native laud at large salaries, and likely to remain away (laugh- ter). Cardigan, as he had said, spent P,2 3s. 3d. a cliild-a jout a seventh of what they spent on a militiaman, each of whom cost P-15, and was there a finer line of national defence than the militia- men? (much laughter). Had they all the intellect in Wales? Could they do with less expenditure on education because they had more brains? If they were satisfied, he was (laughter); The natural result of the small amount of money spent was seen in the quality and quantity of the teach- ing staff. In Scotland 61 per cciu. of the teachers zn were fully qualified certificated adults: in England, 41 per cent:; in Wales, 37 per cent. Practically only one third of the Welsh Elementary School teachers were fully equipped for their work. the other two thirds being either juvenile apprentices or partially or wholly unqualified adults. Looked at in another way the staff employed gave to each certificated adult 45 children under the London School Board, 71 children in all Scotland, 93 child- ren in all England, and 104 children in Wales. According to the report of the Welsh Central Board there was a permanent teacher to every 17 children in the Welsh County Schools- Surely there was need to approximal e the methods of staffing the Welsh Elementary School to that of the Welsh Intermediate School. The splendid Welsh effort for higher education depended for its success on the Welsh Elementary School, 70 per cent of the Welsh Intermediate scholars came from the Welsh Elementary schools, which showed in what a broad, democratic basis their system of higher education was founded. Therefore the success or tho failure of the one system would mean the success or failure of the other. As the recent report of the Charity Commissioners had well said, In Wales and Monmouthshire, between the prim- ary and secondary school there is emphatically an open door." All the more need for vigilance and care that the scholars who pass through it bring with them such a sound preparatory training as will enable them to profit durably by the course of higher and wider study to which they are thus admitted." Considering that so many were not qualified for their work all the greater was the credit attached to them for the results attained They had only one out of three qualified—they could not build intermediate and higher education unless they had a solid foundation, and they had not a solid foundation. He would remind them of the seventh chapter of Mathew, the 26th verse (laughter). The youngster in Wales had as much a comunal right to education as the youngster in London. Education was not a charity-although it was left to charity in some places—but a com- munal atiair. A child ought not to be handicapped because he was born in Cardiganshire. In London they had a certificated teacher for every 45 child- ren. They had won that victory, and although some of the members of the London School Board might have to go down for this advocacy of intell- ectualism—which John Bull did not believe in so much as physicalism-they would go down with their flags flying (cheers). SUGGESTIONS FOR REFORMS. It would be useless for him to spend his time and theirs in proving and re-proving that Wales was a bad third without indicating the means of reform and the first of these was greater public concern in the well being of the elementary school. John Bull had won his w;> y to the front by endurance, courage, intrepidity, muscle—"leers and arms" (laughter)—but th, ruling force of the world in the future would not be physicalism but in- tellectualism-although he rather;fancied legs and arms would still be useful-and in small rural communities they must make up for the smallness of numbers by fully-equipped intellects (applause). They would have to attend to this else their country wculd go down. It was the German schoolmaster, not the soldier, that won the Franco- German War. Why was Wales lagging behind 1 He would tell them. From 1880 downwards Welsh educational zeal-of which there was plenty—had really been mainly absorbed in the promotion and development of the Intermediate Act. Jcint Education Committees, Joint Conferences, Bursary Schemes, Central Board representation, and so on, had so fully occupied their minds that it never occurred to them to consider the nature of the foundation upon which they were building. From the discussion which had followed his comments at Merthyr he was confident that all that was required was that Welsh public attention should be seriously called to :this question of the position of the elementary school. Given greater public con- cern, the next thing was to secure something like a sensible method of levying the local burden of elementary education. First of all a much greater burden of the cost must be thrown on the Central Exchequer, especially as regards the rural areas. Much of Wales was rural and poor. As the Welsh Central Board said The poverty of rural Wales makes it difficult for children in primary schools, whether board or voluntary, to reach a really satisfactory standard of attainment." Now they must, as he had said, agitate for more generous Exchequer grants from the Central Communal purse for their schools generally, and their rural schools especially. They had their South Wales Borderers, their Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and their Welsh Regiment. But they didn't levy a heavy local rate for the maintenance of these gallant regiments, which was probably a good thing for the regiments. And they must look at the schools as national institutions just as were the three Welsh ;regiments mentioned. They heard of jumble sales on behalf of national schools; just imagine a jumble sale being held for the South. Wales Borderers (loud laughter). Then the parson tickled a guinea out of a benevolent old lady (laughter), andjthe farmer preferred a three penny to a sixpenny rate. Let them have this matter put on a permanent basis (applause). If they agreed to leave a margin of the cost for the locality-as a safeguard against bureaucratic treatment bv the central government and possible laxity of adminis- tration in the localities-then they must levy for that local rate on everybody. They mustn't let half the population escape on the plea that they preferred Denominational education, to which most of them took precious good care not to contribute. Then they must levy their local margin over county areas, and not in the grotesquely restricted areas that they did at present. The immediate result of making the parish the unit of local educational Government was the fact that the burden pressed most unfairly and unevenly, and that it was not by any means assured that the village school board could provide the right sort of men and women for the local administration of education. Wales had 337 school boards for 216,000 school board children. London had one school board for more than twice the number of school beard children. That was the anomalous beauty of British local government. Cardiganshire for 8,000 school board children had 33 school boards; Cardiff for 21.000 children had one school board, and so on. The multiplicat ion .-f the village boards meant waste of money on unnecessarily multiplied little pieces of autonomous machinery. Take the Verwick School Board in tlieJjCounty in which they were met. It had one school with an average of 43 children. To look after these they must needs have a separate school board of five members and a paid clerk. A rate of one penny in the pound brought in P,7 3s. in Verwick. The salary of the clerk, who was a pluralist (laughter), and the legal and other administrative charges came to £16 6s. 10d., over a twopenny rate gone before they got to the school at all. The result was that Welsh village boards that did their duty were bound to run their rates up to 2s., 2s. 6d., and even n 2s. 10d. in the pound, with non-board villages contiguous raising nothing at all locally. They must sweep these anomalies away once for all; levy the local rate by Counties, and let a County authority administer it through representative local managers to all schools under a code of regulations that half a dozen men that really meant business could excogitate in half an hour. Take the County of Cardigan. Half of it, roughly, was locally rated under 38 school boards, the other half was not rated. The rated half subscribed in round figures about £7,000 locally, or something over a shilling in the pound on its rateable value, I- I I Desiaes giving sometning in voluntary subscriptions. The other half subscribed voluntarily about £ 1,500 or something under 3d. in the pound on its rateable value. The mean rate for the rated portions of Wales was lOid. Why could not the Cardigan County Council levy, say, a tenpenny rate all round to be dispensed to the schools as he, Dr. Macnamara, had suggested ? That would mean about E12,000 locally as against £8,500 from all local sources as at present. It would mean more. It would mean far more effective local government, supervision by an effective County, and a great saving of money through the unification and simplification of the local machinery. Let the thing be administered by large-headed men, and not by little obscure people who, when they signed a cheque for P,25, said they never saw so much money as that in their lives (laughter). He earnestly asked the con- sideration of his hearers to some such reform as he had outlined. Given more generous central aid, sufficient local aid for all schools under fair conditions, and effective County authorities, they could soon put their elementary schools on such a substantial basis as would enable them to bear effectively the superstructure of intermediate, technical, and university education. They must not let their teachers or officers do extraneous work in the church or chapels. By attending to his suggestions they would have better government, and better men to administer it, and they could then say that Wales had not only a magnificent system of intermediate schools, but that the whole thing stood, as it ought to do, upon a thoroughly deeply- founded, well-sustained svctein of primary education (loud applause). MR. VAUGHAN DAVIES, M.P., SPEAKS OUT. Mr. Vaughan Davies, M.P., who was received with applause, proposed a vote of thanks to the speakers. Referring at the outset (o the "Agricul- tural Clause" in Mr. Kobson's bill, he said they had evidence of little children getting up at 4 o'clock, and doing a day's work before going to school, and it was to do away with these fearful atrocities, that they had to meet the Conservative party in some way or other to allow the bill to get through. He (Mr. Davies) was workirg with Mr. Kobson to whose ability, the passing of the bill with due, and they considered that it was better to have that clause in the bill, than that the bill should not be passed at all. They all saw that the clause was to a great extent detrimental to the interests of the school but they had that consideration on one side and humanity on the other, and they thought the clause had better be inserted. Proceeding the hon. gentleman said that the fact that Wales was in a terrible and disgraceful state with respect to elementary education was a matter of the highest and most serious consideration for every Welsh- man. He did not believe it was the wish of the people of Wales, that they should stand in the position they did—" third on the roll," and the question was where were they to go, and what were they to do ? He thought they must go to that founda- tion that had already been spoken of by Dr. Mac- namara, even if they did not read their Bibles so minutely as to be able to quote chapter and verse (laughter.) He took it for granted that he was perfectly right with his authority (laughter.) Where was this sand on which they were building? He was speaking before old friends—members of school boards—-and he would tell them most dis- tinctly, that the reason Wales was standing in the position it did at present was due to them (hear, hear.) The sooner they knew the truth the better, and as long as he had the honour of holding the position he did in Cardigan- shire he would never rest quiet for one single moment and allow it to occupy the position it did at the present time (cheers). Since the passing of the Act of 1870 the question of education had as- sumed a perfectly different aspect; they could not leave education now in the hands of men who hardly ever left their homes and were only partly educated (hear, hear). Education had taken such strides that they were bound to meet it, they could not leave it in the hands of the little localities of the county. He was speaking in the presence of some members of national schools— and he wished them every prosperity—but at the same time he hoped he would live to see the day when the words Board School and National School were done away with—(applauae) when they would have simply one educational system through- out Wales, and one system in Cardiganshire, and that system in the hands of a broader area-in fact the whole county area. Under the present system some schoolmasters could hardly call themselves free and independent men; they were clogged in their work by fear of those who had a little- power over them, lest they might, for some pettifogging spite turn round, and do them an ill turn. How necessary then it was that both the teachers and the children should be made freer and more prosperous. There were 20,000 schoolmasters re- ceiving less than P,75 a year (shame)-the wages of a head groom or a gentleman's butler, the height of whose ambition was to count the bushels of oats and the bottles of wine (laughter). There were only about 2.500 schoolmasters who got -0200 a year, and that after preparation and probation of seven years and yet what power was in their hands to control the destinies of the country Let them consider the raw material placed before them, the majority of the children who attended were between the ages of six and twelve. Most of the classes numbered from 60 to 70 or 80, and it must be hard for any teacher to impart knowledge to all the children in the class, because they must gauge the strength of the class by the smallest mind in it. They were bound therefore to work detrimentally to a large number of the children. It was impossible for them to carry out their work in this way. Passing to the question of attendance the hon member said that poor attendance in the rural districts was due to the fact that School Boards were not in a position to appoint proper attendance officers. How was it possible for the school attendance officer to be able to do his duty effectually at a salary of 2s. per week? They were told it was the fault not of the attendance officer but of the magistrates. He had been a magistrate himself over 30 years and he had never heard of a magis- trate taking advantage of his position to retard education in any shape or form. He referred to the slovenly way in which cases were prepared, and said they often found it impossible to convict on the evidence adduced. Unless the case was brought home properly he for one could not fine any one. By having a larger area they would have an officer appointed who would be perfectly free from local feeling. He knew an attendance officer who was told that if he dared to summon anyone he would be turned out at once. The people of Wales desired education. He instanced the opening of the County School at Tregaron, and said the people were willing to pay for education if they could only get it and get it on a proper basis. Therefore those School Boards who carried out the work in a niggardly manner were not carry- ing out the wishes of the people themselves. The question nowadays was when a young man applied for a situation, How is he educated ? Everything depended, not on influence, but on ability. In conclusion, he said they could do nothing better than have meetings of this kind, so that the schoolmasters might know there was a great public opinion behind them willing and ready to support them. These little children had to go out to the world; there was [a great charge, therefore, in the teachers' hands, and it was the duty of all to make their (the teachers') lives better, and their future brighter, and to help them ia every possible way (applause) Dr. Roberts, Cambridge, who was now called upon to second the proposition, said that during his life he had proposed or seconded many votes of thanks, but he could honestly say that he had never risen to support any vote of thanks with more heartiness and with more sincerity than he did this vote. Ha did so because the speakers had fearlessly and with perfect sincerity told those present their thoughts. He must admit that one never liked to be told one's thoughts. But when they recognised that the information was given to them with a view to remedying their thoughts, and when they recognised that the first condition for improvement was that they should know that the faults existed, then he thought they should feel grateful that their faults should be pointed out, and he felt sure that all present feit very grate- ful to Dr. Macnamara and Mr. Waddington for what they had said that afternoon. Dr. Roberts then re- lated a story of an Englishman and a Scotchman who had an argument as to which country was best. Having argued matters of scenery, literature, etc., they decended to details and discussed apples. They agreed to produce apples from each country so as to settle the dispute. The Englishman brought some beautiful rosy apples, whilst the Scotchman submitted green and very uninviting apples, but before going into their merits the Scotchman said he should like to say that he liked his apples sour and hard (laughter). Now, they were not going to say that they liked things sour and hard, but they admitted that the statements made were sour, and they hoped they would profit from what they had heard and that in the years to come their system of education from the bottom to the top would slowly ripen into a state of com- pleteness and perfection. It was encouraging to find that discussions on primary education had been opened. The people were slowly moving as was evident by the stir which Dr. Macnamara had created in the country some few months ago. As Welshmen they were proud of their country and they did not like to hear that it was not perfect. Those were his feelings and he felt sure those were the feelings of those present. Their common sense showed them, however, that the faults were there, and once they clearly recognised the faults they would turn and move slowly towards reform. He felt sure that the discussions which had been initi- ated would be coutinued, and would slowly but surely lead to the reforms which would give Wales, he hoped, a more perfect system of education than even existed in Scotland (applause). The proposition was carried by acclamation and duly acknowledged, and on the motion of Dr. Mac- namara a hearty vote of thanks was also accorded to the chairman, after which the meeting ended.
LLANFARIAN. OBITUARY.—The news of the death of Miss Elizabeth Davies, Frondeg, Blaenplwyf, was re- ceived with general regret in the neighbourhood. She had been ailing for a long time, and passed away on Friday night, the 21st ultimo. She was an excellent singer and had a fine rich voice, and her loss will be keenly felt in the musical circles of the district. She was also a faithful member of the Sunday School. On the following Wednesday, a large number came together to pay their last tribute of respect to the departed, and a large number of wreaths had been sent. by friends and admirers. The Rev. W. LI. Davies, the pastor, and Rev. John Evans, Lledrod, officiated. As the mortal remains were laid to rest in the Burial ground of the Chapel. That grand old resurrection hymn 0 fryniau Cacrsalem ceir gweled was sung with much feeling and fervour. Much sympathy is felt with her parents and brethren in their sad bereavement.
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