Lectures on Fruit Culture. The first of a series of ten free public lectures on the principles and practices of Fruit Culture." was given "in the dairy class room of the college by Mr. Pickard, Intructor in Hortculture. on Friday evening. Professor Middleton occupied the chair and in introducing the lecturer on the subject stated that for the past eight or nine years the Gollege Authorities had been working very success- fully on the sabjcct of agriculture and they now thought it was time to turn their earnest attention to the horticultural requirements of Mid-Wales, and with a view of arousing greater attention in gardening they had secured the services of Mr. Pickard who, he was sure, would do his best to interest all those who had gardens to put them to the best possible use. There were, he said, three classes of gardeners in the district, whom be hoped would benefit by the course of lectures they were about to have; first, the professional gardener who devoted all his time to the work; secondly, the cottager who had small plots of garden attached to their homes and thirdly, those like himself who had gardens, but did not know very well what to do with them, and so styled themselves Amateurs," but in his experience they all agreed on one point, they were all keen on fruit" when ripe, and he hoped to see the day when more and better fruit would be grown in the neighbourhood of Aberystwyth (hear. hear). Mr. Pickard, in commencing his lecture, said that the importance of horticulture in our national life was at present receiving very great attention, and during recent years vast improvements have been made in many branches of gardening, particularly so in the cases of vegetables, chrysanthemums, begonias, tomatoes, and other things in which gardeners took special interest, but he was sorry to say that the cultivation of hardy fruits had not so far generally shared in the improve- ment that was taking place. This was all the more suiuiising when the fact is considered that gardeners usually regard fruit growing as one of the higher branches of his art. When a gardener has a portion of his fruit under glass he gives it every care and attention that his experience can suggest wi- 'I the result that they produce some of the finest and most luscious grapes and peaches and n<v+n?iT!es in the whole world,yet if we inspect th3 fruit out of doers we usually find evidences of unskilful treatment or utter neglect ? Now, this should not be, for there is no part of the garden can return higher profits, or the produce of which is more welcome than the portion devoted to fruit crops, provided skill and knowledge of the habits and requirements of the plants are used in their cultivation. '1 L- Many clever ana ctsiiipetont gardeners no Knew had a profound contempt for what they described as the theory of gardening," and in the main be believed they were right, aw few gardeners had either the time or the ability to form and work out theories, and for his part he would promise not to intentionally advance one word of theory during the whole course of the lectures. He, however, did believe in science being combined with practice. There is absolutely nothing to be frightened at in the term Science," he said, when it was stripped of the high-sounding difficult names attached to it, it simply meant. exact knowledge," and surely it is worth while trying to gain this by all who have the interests of their garden at heart, quite apart from the increased crops it would bring. Take a simple operation like pruning. Every one thinks he knows bow to prune an apple tree, yet there are dozens of wrong ways in which it can be done, but only one riuht way. If the operator knows the right way he knows all that science can teach him upon this particular work, but if he does not know the one right method, for each particular tree it is obviously impossible for him to practise it. Science is every bit as important in the garden as it is in the engineering workshop, in the textile factory, and in the leather and othar important industries in which it plays so important a part. This fact is slowly becoming recognised in all parts of the Kingdom, and we shall find in the near future that the gardener who has the broadest grasp of the technical aspect of his profession will be able to obtain the best situations and the highest remuneration for his services exactly as they do in other trades or professions, and he who best under- stands the habits and requirements of his plants, and intelligently supplies the plant with all it requires, at the same time encouraging its desirable habits ;cnd restraining its undesirable or.cs. will certain; y reap a rich reward of the best that the plant can give, whether it be flowers or fruit. The lecturer said he could conceive of no greater treat that a gardener could have-and in the. t.T) gardener he included all n.-hn t,.I active interest in. 'rn"ri<r f'fõu1d he procure a pair of glorified Spectacles by whose aid he could pfep inside his trees to see how they grow, what they require, how they get it, and what they do with it; unfortunately such spectacles could not be bought. We must go to the tree itself for information on these interesting and important points. If we place a tiny seed in the ground under favourable conditions it will grow in size and bulk, and it becomes our business to find out where this material comes from, and what it consists of. If we were building a house we should he particularly careful to provide a sufficiency of the various materials required for every part of the house, and should take care in selecting the most suitable materials for the purpose. We ought to exercise just as much care in seeing that the tree has a sufficiency of suitable material for its purpose in as far as we can influence the supply. All plants obtain their building material from two sources, some from the air, and some from the ground. That which is taken from the air is chiefly beyond our influence, but we can, and do. largely influence the supply from the soil. Roots are adapted for taking food from the ground and are provided with moans for seeking it, and taking it up as required by the plant. If we carefully examine the roots of a plant we shall find a number of fine hairs aggre- gated near the growing point of each piece of root; these hairs are simple tubes for the purpose of absorbing food material. Their life is a very short one when the plant is actively at work, they live, perform their work, and die in the space of a very few days, but a fresh supply grows as the roots increase in length, so we must keep the roots grow- ing in order to keep the top growing, as nearly all the food fror .1: p soil is taken up by root hairs in a solid state. it has to be dissolved in the soil eitl-ier by w: or by the rost itself. The root hairs have the power of dissolving the soil, but we must bear in mind the fact that this solvent action occurs upon whatever the root comes in contact with, whether it is good or bad; they have no power of selection but simply dissolve what they can. If we allow the roots to poke their noses into sour, uncongenial material, the whole plant must necessarily 8nffer. All the dissolved material is passed up from the roots to the leaves by the aid of water. Plants have to take np a large quantity of water in order to get enough material for the work they have to do. The plant has however to get rid of the greater part of the water, it is only a carrier, so the plants eject it through tiny openings in the leaves, retaining all the food which has been brought up in solution for future use. Roots haye a further important duty to perform in addition to providing food. It is commonly said that the leaves are the lungs of plants. This is only partially true. The stems breathe. The flowers breathe and, most important of all, roots breathe and are the lungs of the plant quite as much as the leaves are, and in order that the roots may be kept healthy, air must be supplied in abundance. We should bear this in mind when digging for planting, and at all subsequent stages of the plants growth. If the land is too wet there is no room for air, and the best and most useful part of the roots become suffocated, the tree is weakened and becomes an easy prey to disease and pe^ts, and finally becomes unproductive or dies. Air is also required in the soil to decompose and combine with food materials already in the soil or thj:.e which we may add to it. This brings us to the first great principle in fruit growing as well as all other kinds of plants, that m; must thoroughly dig and break up every inch of laud we expect the roots to occupy in order to qit air, to allow the roots to spread freely, and to keep the soil in a sweet and open condition. It is a principle of hard work, but if it is neglected C, all the other principles are of little avail. It is not sufficient that the surface merely should be dug, but. we should dig quite as deeply as we expect the roots to go down. Take the case of strawberries, whoso roots naturally go down eighteen inches or two feet into the ground, and keep in mind the fact that 1he chief of the food is taken up by the extreme growing points of the roots, what right have we to expect satisfactory crops of good fruit if we are too thoughtless or too lazy to dig deeper than eight or nine inches. The term ■'Soil" is rather a complex one and difficult to understand by those who have not given the matter very close attention. Soil, as the gardener understands it, is a combination of inorganic chemical substance in a greater or less proportion. By far the greatest bulk of it is of no d: service as plant food, though it serves to h ild the plant in position, and to hold the water and air which prepares the small proportion of food material contained in th,) soil. TK- tirst and probably most important of these su1. ,r:c.i is -'Nitrogen." Every plant must oM; tm- -ubstance out of the ground to keep it fÇ its supply of nitrogen were cut off by any :.•• iu; the would stop growing, while, on ih hand if too much is supplied we get a too rapid srrowth of foliage at the expense of fruit and fh, .vers. Every plant requires a supply of -'Phosphates," as this substance makes plants sturdier and riper, and it is especially concerned in the production of flowers and fruit and bulbs and tubers. Potash" is also an essential plant food. Its particular work is to look after the formation of all new parts of a plant. If a new bit of root is to be formed down goes a bit of potash to look after it If a new bud, or a seed, or a flower is to be started, away goes a bit of potash to look after the formation, and when we reflect that the new flower may be the fruit for the season, or the new bud may be the branch of years hence, we can realize the importance of the work being properly done at its commencement, If the new parts start off with a weekly constitution no amount of after cultivation will entirely remove the defect. All plants require Lime and Sulphate and "Iron" and "Magnesia," and these substances, together with water, are all taken up from the ground. One other substance required by all plants is taken from the air, and this, strange to say, supplies fully one half the total dried weight of the plants. Carbon is taken in through the leaves as a gas. It is combined with Oxygen and known as Carbon dioxide. The plants keep the Carbon and return the oxygen to the air. All this material is taken into the leaf in a raw state, it is simply inert, inactive, inorganic matter, incapable of undergoing anv of the changes which we associate with life or decav, and in this state it cannot increase the size of the plants. But in the leaf a marvellous change takes place, a change which it is impossible to imitate. It is manufactured from raw inorganic material into organic material, and life depends for its existence upon this process. Now let us see how this affects us as fruit growers. The first change that takes place in the leaf so far as we know at present is from raw material into starch, and this change only takes place under the influence of light, and brighter and more direct the light is, the quicker does the change take place. When, therefore, we allow the branches and leaves of our trees to overcrowd and overshade each other, we stop the very manufacturing process that gives them life and healthy vigour. Starch is largely composed of Carbon and water, but if potash is deficient not much starch will be made by the leaf. This is plainly evinced by plants in our garden which are not directly supplied with potash. Although starch is the organic substance formed in the plant, it is by no means the only change that has to take place. Starch is insoluble in water and it is in this state it cannot pass out of the leaf. During the night, however, the starch that has been manufactured during the daytime changes into" sugar and in this state it can leave the leaf. Sugar is of the same chemical composition as starch, viz., carbon and water, but, as the sugar is leaving the leaf, at least, some of it unites with a little bit of nitrogen and a very little bit of sulphur to form Albuminoids," and this in turn changes into protoplasm," the basis of all life. Mr. Pickard said he was afraid all these particulars would sound dry and uninteresting, yet it was important to master them before we could thoroughly understand the subject of scientific fruit culture. There were a few points which he was particularly anxious to impress his hearers. The first was, that Nitrogen was the motive power which made the leaves work, hard in preparing food for the remainder of the tree. The next that phosphates made the plants and trees sturdier and riper and better able to produce flowers and fruit. And that potash looks after the formation of starch, and all new parts of the trees.. We must remember, he said, that the leaves pre- pare all the food of which the plant is composed. Second, we want the leaves to prepare the proper sort of food, the sort that flowers and fruit are composed of, and third. we must see that the leaves give up a proper proportion of the food after it is made. How far we can influence these matters he hoped to show in fhture lectures. A hearty vote of thanks to the lecturer for the very interesting way in which he had dealt with his subject, and to Professor Middleton for pre- siding was proposed by Mr. H. Austin, gardener, Abermad, and seconded by Mr. Pateman, gardener, Llanbadarn, and carried unanimously by those present. The Chairman in responding congratulated the Aberystwyth gardeners on the recently formed Paxton Society, and said that he would not only gladly become a member himself and render the Society all the help he could, but would also interest his collegues in the Society (applause).
MACHYNLLETH COUNTY SCHOOL. THE GOVERNORS AND MRS. HUMPHREYS- OWEN'S SCHEME. STATEJTF.MT BY HEADMASi-fm. A meeting of the Governors of the above school was held on Friday. Present: Mr. Richard Rees (chairman), Rev Josiah Jones, Dr. A. 0. Davis, Mr. Edward Rees, and Mr. W. M. Jones, with Mr. Rowlands (clerk), and Mr. Meyler (headmaster). The proposed amendment of the County Scheme, whereby children from outside the county would be charged a higher scale of fees for their educa- tion than those who reside within. Mr. Meyler, who had been invited to lay his views before the governors to-day, said :—It is something like two years, so far as I could remember, that the, to me somewhat startling theoiy was propounded of the abvisability of restricting the Montgomeryshire County Schools to boys and girls living within the various school districts of Montgomeryshire. This idea appears to have been considerably modified by to-day, and if I understand the question aright, the proposal emanating from the County Governing Body, and read at your last meeting, is to give Local Governors the option, whenever they think fit. of imposing an additional fee on scholars from outside the school district. Let it be clearly understood at the outset that the Montgomery- shire scheme admits of no such restriction as is embodied in either of the above proposals. Clause 69 says The school and all its advantages shall be open to all children of good character and sufficient health who are residing with their parents or in lodgings to be licensed for that pur- pose by the school managers, or are boarding under regulations made by them in a hostel of the school or in the house of any master." The proposal under consideration then is. I take it to annul this clause by the insertion of one which will make it possible for a higher fee to be charged in the case of certain scholars. I must here repeat, as having an important bearing on the question, the remarks I made at your last meeting to the effect that some time ago the headmasters and head- mistresses of this county in conference with the County Governing Body, suggested certain changes in the scheme. It was not denied at the time that the suggestions were good, but it was pointed out by the chairman that there must be no talk of changes in the scheme for a long time to come, ten years at least, and all the members of the conference agreed in the wisdom of the dictum. In face of this, I for one, must express my surprise that a question involving such a drastic and far-reaching change in the scheme has been submitted to you at the present time. The case for the proposal seems to me to break down at this point. It is assuredly unwise to attempt any tampering with the regulations which govern the conduct of these schools until such a period of time has elapsed as alone can give us the experience of their working, which would justify any change whatever, and I am so far from being.an alarmist on the question that I do not think there is any great probability of such a change being brought about. It has been publicly stated, I believe, that the grievance in this county is at its other end and that it is a hardship for the governors of Welshpool school to have to provide education for children who live across the border of Shropshire. I will just make two remarks on this. First, if the object of the proposer of the change is to exclude English children of to make them pay a higher tee, say the full cost as it is c -all e(I-fallaciously, I say—of the education pro- vided, then it is unfortunate and somewhat illogical that the proposal aims at something very much wider than this, namely, the exclusion (for that is what it means) of Welsh children from the school which is most convenient for them. For if the argument is a sound one in regard to English children, it most assuredly is not, in regard to Welsh. And secondly, while we are not directly concerned with the question as it affects Welshpool or any other school but our own, I would venture to say that the argument for the exclusion of English children, so far as I have heard it, is very far indeed from convincing. It sounds reasonable enough to say "Why should we go to the expense of providing education for children across the border, whose parents do not contribute to the County Fund ? But not under any circumstances can it be said that we provide education in this way. The fallacy consists in the assumption that every extra child that comes into the school costs a sum equivalent to the amount spent in establish- ing and maintaining the school divided by the total number of children in the school. This is not the I case. Take Machynlleth school. Your grant is based on 54 scholars. It has cost you so much to I establish the school for that number; you then admit twenty more, and you find it does not cost you a single additional penny to maintain it in a state of efficiency with the increased numbers. But you are richer in the matter of your income by some hundred pounds. If it should be objected that the extra twenty will necessitate an additional member on the staff, it is obvious that the increased numbers will pay- for him, and you still profit from the fact that you have now an extra teacher whose services are at the disposal of the, whole school, adding to its efficiency. To | come to the question as it affects Machynlleth School, you are all aware of the circumstances peculiar to it. in consequence of its position on the borders of three counties. Since my appointment to the headmastership of this school I have always maintained that the time for the consideration of the eligibility or otherwise of pupils from outside the school district to share in its privileges was before the establishment of the school, when it might have had a wider district contributing to the fund which maintains it. The country limit is ill suited to a school with this one's peculiar geographical position. What were the obstacles to I zfl such an arrangement I do not know, they were overcome in other districts in Wales. But of this I am sure, that since an arrangement was not made the policy of exclusion is not the remedy. I believe the time will come when these avertions will be looked into, and possibly districts will have to be re-distributed, you will then have a strong case in being able to point to the numbers educated at your school from outside the borders of your school district. But however much it is to be deplored that you do not receive a grant on account of these outsiders it is none the less certain their presence is a help and not a hindrance to you. I think as satisfactory a proof of the truth of this as anything that can be adduced will be the inquiry whether there are 50, or 70, or 100 in your school, who among you pays a penny more or a penny less of the county rate. It will be found that whatever the numbers are, or from whatever part of the world they may happen to come, there is no difference whatever to the person who pays the county rate. The only difference, I repeat, is the higher the numbers the greater will be your school income. But there is another view than the merely financial one and I will state it in a word. This proposal of high-class fees does not merely mean driving the children to other schools which will know better than to adopt any policy of ex- clusion, it means that many will receive no educa- tion at all. AncL i cannot believe that whether we are dealing with English children or with Welsh, the governors of Intermediate Schools in Wales will care to adopt a policy which strikes at the root of the spirit which brought these schools into being. The schools, if they are to fulfil the great mission for which they have been established, must be left alone to develop in freedom and without vexatious restrictions opposed to the law of nature itself. Should one school be able to offer peculiar advan- tages, suited to the particular needs of an indivi- dual, it can hardly be wisdom, in a national system of education to say to such a person, You can't come to our school because you live six feet outside such and such a parish." Another important fact which must be borne in mind in connection with Machynlleth School is this—you have built a good commodious building adopted to meet the require- ments of a district that can send 72 scholars to it. Your are about to build a laboratory which will ac- commodate 18 more, so that you will have a school capable of accommodating 90 pupils. Your own school district described in the first schedule can- not do anything approaching this with its present population. How many pupils have been fur- nished during the past five years from Caereinion Fechan, Darowen, Isygarreg, Llanwrin, Pencgoes, Uwchygarreg, I believe they could be counted on the fingers of one hand! There only remains Cemmaes, Llanbrynmair. and Machynlleth, and comparatively very few have come from the two first named yet. But these parishes are improving, but out of a total of 71 in the school this term 30 come from outside the school district. It is clear, therefore, that you have built your school with a view to meet the needs of the district generally, irrespective of county boundaries, and the initial cost having once been met, no further expense is involved, no matter where pupils come from. Of course the scheme provides for the wants of the school district first. That is to say, it is only rea- sonable that scholars from within the county should not be ousted because there is no room for them in consequence of the large number that come from without. But may I point out that in a district like this, there is no danger of any such contingency, and it should be remembered in this connection that when scholars come to this town from a distance to lodge, to all intents and pur- poses they may be regarded as living within the county. There is one other aspect of this question which I must touch upon with some frankness, one which, it appears to me, may be easily lost sight of in discussions concerning matters that affect the welfare of a school. You will have observed that the scheme arranges that part of the emoluments of the headmaster and head-- mistress shall depend upon the number attending the school. The reason for this is so obvious that I need not attempt to explain it. It is an arrangement that obtains in all secondary schools throughout England. By it the headmaster has a direct interest in maintaining the school in a flourishing condition. If you place such restrictions upon the growth and development of a school, as will keep down its numbers to less than half its capacity yAu will be unable to command the services of high class teachers, your school will lose caste, will compare unfavourably with other schools, will fall into decay, and ultimately perish. What of the question of scholarships and bursaries? This is perhaps outside the range of the present discus- sion, but I have one word to say. You will do well to carry on the policy which has marked your action from the commencement, and throw open scholarships to the world. But it may be objected, this is surtly unfair to scholars within the dis- trict. I can only say that scholars from our own primary schools have been able to render a re- markably good account of themselves hitherto, and I do not imagine you will find a single case of hardship connected with such a system. With the scholarships open, the scholars from our district primary schools will be more diligent, will be more carefully prepared, and will reap vastly greater honour and glory by their success through having to compete against all comers. As to bursaries, you will of course see that all deserv- ing cases in your own district are considered first. One word more. I have tried to use the language of moderation in my attempt to deal with a pro- posal, which, from whatever point of view re- regarded, will in my opinion do no good whatever, but possibly infinite harm. In all my experience, whether as a pupil or a master, I have never be- fore heard of a proposal which in effect amounts to this-let us build and equip schools, but let us keep pupils out of them. 1 was myself brought up at an endowed school where the fees did not cover the cost of the education provided, but any one connected with that school would have been in- deed astounded at any suggestion to keep pupils outside. It is an axiom of school keeping whether the school be an endowed or a private one to have it as full as its capacity will permit, just as in business it is desirable to have as many customers as can possibly be attended to. And whether children come from England or from distant parts of Wales, contact with them will be good for our own children and good for them. Our own coun- try has suffered in the past from this narrow ex- clusive parochialism, and Governing Bodies have the responsibility resting upon them now of seeing to it that this Little Englandism shall have no place in our educational system. The Chairman said that although proposed by Mrs. Humphreys-Owen with the best intentions he feared it would be ruination to their schools. Mr. Meyler, replying to Mr. E. Rees, said that there were other places in Wales where two or more counties shared the cost of a school lying on the borders. Mr. Rees expressed the opinion that this was the best solution of the difficulty. Dr. Davies thought they ought to protest most strongly against it. The Chairman moved and the Rev. Josiah Jones seconded a resolution protesting against the pro- posal of Mrs. Humphreys-Owen, but signifying their willingness to discuss the matter at a confer- ence of the head masters and head mistresses of the County Schools.
DOLGELLEY. I RURAL DISTRICT COUNCIL. A meeting of the above Council was held at the Shire Hall on Saturday, when there were present, Mr. J. Evans, Barmouth (in the chair), Mr. William Lloyd, Llangelynin (vice-chairman), Messsrs. Meyrick Roberts, Llanfihangel, Owen Jones, Llanynmawddwy, Ellis Pughe Jones, Llan- ddwywe-is-y-graig, Robert Hughes, Llanfachreth, J. Roberts, Brithdir, Morris G. Williams, Hugh Evans, Llanenddwyn. Dr. Charles Williams, with Mr. W. R. Richardson (assistant clerk), Dr. Hugh Jones, (medical officer). and Mr. William Jones (inspector). The Clerk read the minutes of the last meeting which were confirmed. The Clerk said he had written to Mrs. Scott with reference to her farm, Cae'rberlian, to execute the necessary repairs without delay, but he had re- ceived no answer. The Surveyor had been there, but he could not say whether anything had been done. Mr. Ellis Pughe Jones proposed that the matter be adjourned for a month. Dr. Charles moved as an amendment that the Surveyor should visit the farm and report upon it within a month, and if there was no sign of repairs having been commenced at the end of that time, the Council should take proceedings against her. Mr. Meyrick Roberts seconded, and the matter being put to the vote, the amendment was carried by 5 to 3. The Surveyor said that the medical officer and himself, had visited the premises in Bridge-street. The matter was in the same position now as it was a month ago. The medical officer said that the privy accommodation was insufficient. It was ultimately decided to press Mrs. Evans, the owner, to find accommodation. With regard to the complaint, brought before the Council at the last meeting by Mr. Edward Wil- liams, Corris, of the polluting of the river, the Surveyor reported that arrangements had been arrived at with the scavenger, who would watch the river. The Clerk intimated that he had heard nothing further in connection with the extension, of the Dolgelley District. As to the farm called Gorwyn, it was decided that he be allowed one month to execute the re- pairs, etc., and if at the end of that time, such repairs were not done, proceedings would be taken against him. It was decided to take proceedings against Mr. Ansell with regard to his three farms in the parish of Llanenddwyn. LLWYNGWRIL WATER SUPPLY. The Clerk said that he bad not received a reply from Mr. Gillart on the question of water supply for Llwyngwril. Mr. Meyrick Roberts pro- posed, and Dr. Charles Williams seconded, that the Clerk be instructed to write to Mr. Gillart ex- pressing the Council's surprise that the amended scheme was not in the hands of the Council by this meeting, and that lie should prepare them as soon as possible. BYELAWS. Dr. Charles Williams brought this matter for- ward, and said that the Council ought to have had ,p.rlv hy thi ti,n thp ln7P-la"vs \?hií"h nrnvftrtiiul "J' "Iv "r" "-6.o..¿ 5'\J"L"v" new buildings. He therefore proposed that five from the Council, with the medical officer and in- spector, be appointed to prepare the byelaws and submit the same by the next meeting. This was passed and the following were chosen:—Dr. Chas. Williams, Messrs. J. Evans, Meyrick Roberts,. Cadwaladr Roberts, and Hugh Evans. INSPECTOR'S REPORT. The Inspector (Mr. William Jones) reported that he had visited the spring at Llwyngwril at Bron- I I yfoel, and taken a sample to be analysed, but bad not yet heard the result. On the 27th June he found that the outflow was 11 gallons per minute, or 15, 840 per day, as compared with 24,860 on June 9th. This diminution in the outflow was rather serious, keeping in view the possibility of the Railway Co. taking water, and the supply to Mr. Wynne Jones' farms. He had gone down bv appointment to see Mr. Davies, to see what could be done to improve the drainage at the Children's Home, Arthog, which now are discharged into a stream, which is sometimes used for drinking pur- poses. Mr. Davies got a letter sent to Alr..Solomoti Andrews, asking his permission to carry the drain- age into a cesspool over his land.—He submitted several designs of the dry earth system. He also reported that a spring had been found which would supply Blue Cottages, Aberllefenni, which belonged to Captain Pryce, who says the Parish Council or the District Council ought to bear the expense of doing the works. The Surveyor said that ^4 Idris street, Corris, was kopt in a filthy state. The drains also wanted repairing. A large cistern has been fiixed for storing water for the better supply of Aberllefenni School and cottages. A new drain has been made along the back of Braichcoch-ter- race. The owner of Garneddwen was prepared to carry out the recommendation of the Medical officer. The arrangements for supplying the east Z71 I I side of Lower Corris had been completed, and were working satisfactorily. The work had been done 17 in Graigfachddu, and, Fronwnion, Brithdir, but nothing at Escairiau. Friog drains required im- mediate attention. Nothing was yet done at.Brith- dir, Dyffryn, but the contract had been let by Mr, Ansell at Aberseirw. The report was adopted. MEDICAL OF,,FICL REPORT. The Medical Officer (Dr. Hugh Jones) reported that on July 5th a case of diphtheria occurred at Fairbourne terrace. He had inspected the pre- mises. He thought that the immediate clearing of the cesspool and midden was necessary. This had been done promptly, and no cases had since occurred. On July 14th he examined Brynmelyn, Llanelltyd. The sleeping rooms had no ceilings, and were not proof against wind and water. There were no eaves-troughs. On July 20th he inspected the sanitary arrangements of Brithdir Board School,, which he found most defective. Several' privies discharged into a common pit, to which rain and water gained access in wet weather, and made the pit additionally offensive. The pit was only cleared at long intervals. Proper earth closets should be at once constructed, and all the sur- roundings should be thoroughly cleaned. On the same day he, with the Inspector, visited portions of the Fairbouroae estate, and met Mr. Cotsworth, the agent, and suggested some improvements in the present drainage arrangements. On July 17th he examined llainewyddion,.LJanaber, at the re- quest of the Parish Council. It is a terrace of 6 houses from which a drain had been constructed, to discharge finto an open cesspool, close to the public road,, which was certainly a nuisance. It should be placed further away and properly ven- tilated. Tkfc soit tVas in contract "with the back wall of the. houses to a considerable height, so as to make the houses damp and incapable of being properly ventilated. There were two sleeping rooms in roch house, which were low, confined, and .inefficiently ventilated. There were no fire places in any of them, and the windows were too small. There were no troughs in front of the houses. Pail closets bad been provided for each house, I)ut the pails in those belonging to number one and three were so full as to be a nuisance. On the same day he examined Brynfelin, Llanenddwyn, where sleep- ing accommodation was confined, the roof low, and no ceiling, and the floor upstairs defective. The bedrooms were small, the skylights quite inadequate for ventilation and the back walls were damp and in contract with the soil. There were no eaves- troughs. A pail closet was within a yard of the house, and the pail was full to the brim. He examined the neighbouring house of Briws. There was a small sleeping room on the ground floor with a very small window, and no fireplace. The sleep- ing accommodation upstairs was confined; roof low, no ceilings, and only small skylights for light and ventilation. There was a small stove in one of them which was not satisfactory. The back walls were in contract with the soil, and there were no eaves-troughs, and an old offensive pit privy. He examined Carlagucha, in the same parish. There was a cow-shed attached to the house and the soil was in contract with back almost up to the eaves. There were no eaves-troughs, and the roof was defective. The dairy was small and dark and windowless. The sleeping accommodation above was confined, roof low, and no ceilings or fireplace and only two small skylights for light and venti- .ation. The gable of Pantyraithnen was in contract with the soil, and there were no eaves-troughs. A cow-shed was attached to the lower gable. One sleeping room on the ground floor had no fireplace. The sleeping accommodation above was confined, roof very low, no ceiling, and only two small sky- lights, for light and ventilation. At Carlagisa the soil was in contract with the back wall to a slight extent, and there were no eaves-troughs. The sleeping place on the ground floor had no fire- place. Those above were not fit to be used as such owing to the roof being low and defective, allow- ing water to come in freely. On July 24th he visited Aberllefenni and Corris with the Inspector. He examined Hen Factory, Aberllefenni, the back walls of which were built in the bed of a stream. There was a foul and defective drain in front of the house, and there were no eaves-troughs. The sleeping accommodation was confined, no fireplace, and inadequate ventilation. The roof was defective and the houses were very damp, and in their present condition quite unfit for human habitation. Shopbren. in the vicinity, bad confined sleeping accommodation, and was most improperly venti- lated. There was no fireplace, and only one window in gable made to open. The roof was defective, and the walls bad no eaves-troughs. Having been directed to report on the Corris Rail- way manure heap, he found that the manure was simply deposited on the ground immediatelyabove and close to edge of a stream, into which it directly drains, in contravention of the Talyllyn bye-laws. Those bye-laws required removal at least once a fortnight. He again examined Glan- pafon. The roof of the front house was defective, and there was a small house erected at the back, the sleeping accommodation of which was so con- fined and inadequately ventilated as to be most dangerous from a health point of view. Hehad called the Council's atention to those houses. He also examined No. 4, Idris Street, Corris. The cellar contained a large amount of some kind of liquid filth, which seemed to suggest leaky drains. Several cases of foul sore throat had occurred in the house recently. The drain should be laid open, and the premises thoroughly cleaned. At Victoria Buildings, Upper Corris, was a foul and defective drain in the back premises. There was also a drain at the back of Bethania Terrace, passing under one of the houses, in front of which was evidently a leakage in the drain. The drain passed down the back of Glanllifon, and there again was a serious leakage. All the drains should be opened and re-constructed. He examined Dafarn Newydd, and found same of the walls damp through defective eaves-troughs, with dilapidated and defective privies. On July 26th, he examined the Congrega- tional Chapel house, Dyffryn. The sleeping rooms had no ceilings, and the roof was defective, and there were no eaves-troughs, and the privy a most serious and dangerous nuisance. It is situated close to the house on the edge of the public road. It should be thoroughly cleaned, and proper accommodation provided. Plas-bach, Coedystum- gwern, Llanenddwyn was disgracefully filthy. The sleeping rooms upstairs had no ceilings or fireplaces, roof low, windows defective, and not made to open sufficently. There was also a foul pit privy. Pantheulog had a sleeping chamber on the ground floor with no iiraplace. The sleeping rooms above were low, confined, and no ceilings, and were insufficiently ventilated. The soil was in contact with the back wall almost up to the eaves. There were no eaves-troughs in front. Another house of the same name, occupied by William Davies, had soil at the back to sumo height, and had uo eaves. troughs, and two houses at Tynyffgnon, Dyffryn, y I had defective doors, floors and rofs, and had no ceilings, and they were damp, owing to water gsining access in bad weather. There were no eaves-trougqs. The privy was in terribly foul and dangerous condition. Henshop, Dyffryn, was far too close to be wholesome. The walls and roof were defective. There were two rooms without fireplaces, and not adequately ventilated, and there were no eeves-troughs. Dr. Charles Williams said that the case to the Brithdir Board School was not important, con- sidering that there were so many children. He proposed that a notice be served for immediate removal, and that seven day's notice should be given. He also proposed that in other cases of the Medical Officer's report, extracts from the report should be sent to each owner, and in cases of urgency, seven day's notice. With regard to Tai Newyddion, Llanaber, Dr. Charles Wihiams proposed that the clerk should write to Mrs. Williams, enclosing extracts of Drs. report, and inform her that the Council request her immediate attention to the matter. This was passed.
-==.=== Dentistry. ESTABLISHEO 40 YEARS. MESSRS MURPHY & ROWLEY, SURGEON DENTISTS, Honorary Dentists to the Aberystwyth Infirmary and Cardiganshire General Hospital. ADDRESS— 54, T ERBACE RO,AD, ABERYSTWYTH ROWLEY begs to announce that he is now -ITJL able to undertake Gold and all other Fillings, Crowns, Bridge-work and all the latest improvements in Iodern. Dentistry. Artificial Teeth in the latest English and American Styles. TEETH EXTRACTED PAINLESSLY UXDER GAS. Mr R. visits Machynlleth, Towyn, Aberayron, Tre- garon and Lampeter. Patients can be attended to any day at Aber- ystwyth.. All at the most Moderate Charges. Full particulars on application. Business Notices. THE A BERYSTWYTEE J^NAMELLED LATE WORKS, R OPEW ALK. A BERYSTWYTH. MANUFACTURERS OF ENAMELLED SLATE CHIMNEY PIECES. Slabs of every description, always in stock. Prices and estimates on application. FOR GOOD AND RELIABLE BOOTS AND SHOES OF THE BEST QUALITY GO TO EDWIN PETERS, 51, GREAT DARKGATE STREET, 51, (Three doors above Town Clock,) ABERYSTWYTH. Gentlemen's and Ladies' Boots and Shoes of every description. Repairs on shortest notice BILLPOSTING IN ABERYSTWYTH. "Trying to do business without advertising is like winking in the dark. You may know what you are doing, but nobody else does." SEND YOUR POSTERS TO THE ABERYSTWYTH AND DISTRICT BILLPOSTING CO., Proprietors of the largest and BEST Hoardings in Aberystwyth and District. Send for list of Stations. Billposting done on most reasonable terms. Advertisers invited to inspect the Hoardings of this Company. Satisfaction guaranteed. Address all communications and parcels to- HERR PAREEZER, BILLPOSTING Co., PAREEZER HALL, QUEEN'S SQUARE, ABERYSTWYTH, "CELT LLUNDAIN." PAPYR WYTHNOSOL CYMRU LLUNDAIN. Ysgrifau dyddorol. Newyddion o bob man. Hanes y Byd a'r Bettws. Nodion Gwleidyddol. PRIS CEINIOG. GYDA'R POST, 1/8 Y CHWARTER. Dosbarthwyr yn eisieu yn mhob ardal, ANFONER AT "LONDON KELT" OFFICE, 211, GRAYS INN ROAD, LONDON, W.C. 1HE Ulclsh Gazette Circulates largely through- out the Counties of CARDIGAN, MERIONETH AND MONTGOMERY. I HUGH DAVIES'S [ COUGH MIXTURE I NO MORB Difficulty of Breathing. ■ NO MORB Sleepless Nights. I NO MURE Distressing Coughs. I DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COUGHS H DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COLDS I DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for ASTHMA B DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for BRONCHITIS B DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for HOARSENESS E DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for INFLUENZA B DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COLDS B DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COUGHS 1 DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for SORE THROAT U DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE-Most Soothing 1 DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE warms the Chest 2 DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE dissolves the Phlegm H DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE—for SINGERS H DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE—for PUBLIC 1 DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE SPEAKERS i THE GREAT WELSH REMEDY. B 13d. anil 219 Bottles. Sola Everywhere. 0 Sweeter than Honey. Children like it. HUGH DAVIES, Chemist, MACHYNLLETH. Educational. MISS PHILLIPS, CERT. R.A.M., R.C.M., AND TRINITY COLLEGE, LONDON, QRGANIST OF "TESLEY CIIURCH9 With experience in successfully preparing for the above Examinations. Receives Pupils for Organ, Pianoforte, and Singing. Terms on Application. ADDRESS 34, PIER STREET. HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS VICTORIA HOUSlC, V I C T 0 R I A (MARINE) T E R R A C E A BERYSTWYTH. SEPARATE KINDERGARTEN. PRINCIPAL Miss KATE B LLOYD. Certificated Mistress, Assisted by a Staff of highly qualified Resident Governesses. REFERENCES— Thomas Jones, Esq., B.A., H.M. Inspector of Schools, Llanelly; The Rev. O. Evans, D.D., King's Cross, London. E. H. Short, Esq., H.M. Inspector, Abervstwvth. Principal Edwards, D.D., Bala Theological College. Principal Roberts, M.A., U.C.W. Principal Prys, M.A., Trcvecca College. Dr Scholle Aberdeen University. Rev T. A Penry, Aberystwyth. Pupils prepared for the London and Welsh Matricu- lations, Oxford and Cambridge Examinations, &c. For Terms, &c., apply PRINCIPAL. ABE 11Y STWYTH COUNTY" SCHOOL HEADMASTER I MR. AVID SAMVEL, M.A., (Cantab). SENIOR MISTRESS J^JISS JUDITH JgWART, M.A., (Vict) ASSISTANT MASTERS AND MISTRESS MK' \V. pE4KSOX JPULLER, M.A. MR. THOMAS qwexs, Late Headmaster of the Aberystwyth Commercial and Grammar School. ISS M ACDE HCGHES, RSc. (Lond) DRAWING MR. J. H. APPLETOX, Cert. Art Master. DRILL SERJEANT-MAJOR W. J LOXG. JOHN EVANS, 6, Portland Street, Clerk. Aberystwyth. Business Notices. TEMPERANCE COMMERCIAL HOTEL. STATION TERRACE, LAMPETER. Two Minutes walk from the Railway Station. WELL-AIRED BEDS. BATH ROOM. CHARGES MODERATE PROPRIETREss-MB8 S. A. WALTERS. BUY YOUR MEDICINES FROM DAVIES BROS., THE PHARMACY, LAMPETER, ALL DRUGS AND CHEMICALS OF GUARANTEED PURITY. MR. STEPHEN H. EVANS AUCTIONEER, LAND AGENT AND VALUER. OFFICES HARFORD SQUARE, LAMPETER. FOR HIGH CLASS OFTFITS GO TO TOM JONES, COLLEGE STREET, LAMPETER LATEST STYLE IN TAILORING COM- BINED WITH MODERATE CHARGES. 1 ARTIFICIAL TEETH. MR. JAMES REES (Seventeen years with Messrs. Murphy and Rowley), y £ rjlRINITY JJLACE, ^^BERYSTWYTH. Mi? REES visits TREGARON first and last Tuesday in each Month at Mrs. Williams, Stanley House. Visits Machynlleth the Second and Fourth Wednes- days in each Month at Mrs. R. Jones, Pentre- rhydin Street (opposite Lion Hotel). Corris on the 1st and 3rd Saturday in each month at Mr W. Evans, Grocer, Liverpool House, (opposite Slaters Arms. Visits Lampeter the First and Third Fridays in each Month, at R. Evans, milliner, 18, Harford Square. CHARGES MODERATE. FOR PURE CONFECTIONERY IN ALL VARIETIES GO TO MORGANS', AT 16, TERRACE ROAD, 27, PIER STREET, AND AT WHOLESALE DEPOT— 55, NORTH PARADE. ABERYSTWYTH The only practical Sugar-Boiler in the town. Fifteen years experience. Shops supplied at lowest terms. FOR THE BEST SELECTION OF ALL KINDS OF TOOLS, TABLE CUTLERY, ELECTRO-PLATED JL GOODS, POCKET KNIVES, RAZORS AND SCISSORS,, CALL AT Ir VVM. IlTJONES' IRONMONGERY AND TOOL DEPOT, MARKET STREET, ABERYSTWYTI1 ALSO THE LARGEST STOCK OF EXLLED WARE IN TOWN. in Bill B III CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. ATHLETIC SPORTS AT BARMOUTH, AUGUST 7TH. EISTEDDFOD AT BUILTH WELLS, AUGUST 7TH. REGATTA AT PWLLHELI, AUGUST 7TH. ATHLETIC FESTIVAL AT ABERYSTWYTH, AUGUST 8TH. For full particulars as to train times, fares, etc., see the handbills issued by tho Company. C. S. DENNISS, Oswestry, General Manager. Julv, 1899. SUMMER EXCURSIONS CHEAP EXCURSIONS TO SCOTLAND ON FRIDAY NIGHTS. AUGUST 4TH AND 18TH, AND SEPTEMBER 1ST, 15TH, 6C. 29TH, 1899, By the direct route via Whitchurch, Crewe, Pres- ton, and Carlisle, will be run as under to ♦NEWTON STEWART, *STRANRAER, *WIGTOWN, WHITHORN, CARLISLE, MOFFAT, ♦DUMFRIES, *CASTLE DOUGLAS, *KIRKCUD- BRIGHT, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, Greenock, Gourock, Helensburgh, Row, Dnmbarton, and Balloch. For train times, fares, etc., see handbills issued by the Company. WEEKLY AND FORTNIGHTLY EXCURSIONS. Commencing Wednesday, May 24th, and every Wednesday in June, July and August, Cheap Weekly and Fortnightly Tickets will be issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Dolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Portmadoc, Cricc- ieth, Pwllheli, Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Rhayader, Builth Wells, Newtown, Montgomery, Oswestry, Ellesmere and Wrexham, to London (Euston and Paddington), available for the return on the following weanetdfty cr. "Wednesday, week. Similar Tickets will be issued from London dur- ing the same period, available for return on the following Monday, Wednesday, Monday week or Wednesday week. C. S. DENNIS, General Manager. Owestry, May, 1899. CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY fronk all L. At N. W. and G. W. Stations in LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO .Birmingham, ^Wolverhampton, ""Walsall, Peter- borough, Leicester, *Derby, *Bi\rten-on-Trent, .Stafford, "'Coventry, Manchester,, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Dewsbury, IJuddersfield, Liverpool, Birkenhead, Wigan an(i..Warrington FROM Oswestry, Llanymynech, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown, Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, ToWyil, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Portmadoc, Penrhyndeudraeth, Criccietli, and Pwlheli, Similar tickets aie issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley,, Harlech, Penrhyndeudraeth, Portmadoc, Criccieth, and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. *Tickets to these Stations are not issued from. Welshpool. Passengers return oa the Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. THOUSAN D-M ILE TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the coupons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. The price of each is £ 5 5s Od 1.000 miles, and £ 2 17s 6d, 500 miles being about lid per mile. Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, to Mr W. H. Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques f to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates for aut horisi 11 V. the use of the tickets by purchasers' family, guests, or employees can be obtained, price 6d each book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNISS, General M&pager, Oswestry, March 1899,