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The Garden. The following is a good agenda for JulySow peas in the first week for the last crop of the season. In the last week sow yellow turnips for a full ..winter crop. and spinach for an early winter supply. Plant full crops of celery, celeriac, and endive, about the middle and end of the month: late crops of broccoli, cauliflower, and coleworts in the last week. Gather and dry medicinal and pot-herbs; also propagate such by slips and cuttings. Con- tinue the summer pruning and training of all wall- trees, with the destruction of insects. Plant strawberries in pots for forcing next winter.
Vegetable Garden. Plain Veitch's Self-protecting Autum Broccoli and any winter greens not yet set out should be seen to. Sow Walcheren cauliflowers on warm border, and afterwards lift into frames. Mulch vegetable marrows and ridge. In windy districts peg the growing shoots out. If the weather is dry these, and any other crops which require moisture, should be watered copiously. Celery, for instance, is a marsh plant, and bolts if checked by drought. Celery for the coming shows is best blanched with clean, sweet hay paper will do. In a selection of vegetables for exhibition, peas, rauliflowers, toma- toes, and French beans carry weight if well grown and not too old. Vegetable marrows are often shown too old at the local shows in the country. Really good white potatoes, either kidney or round, are better than coloured. Judges who know any- thing about quality often stretch a point in favour of known good kinds. Cucumbers are frequently too old. On the other hand, globe artichokes are often too small and poor. Top-dress tomatoes in cool houses. They will require more nourishment now. Train up the young shoots of early tomatoes from which the bottom fruits have been gathered A good second crop will be the result. Tie up lettuce to blanch when nearly full grown. Sow endive freely; give each plant a square foot at least. The green curled is the best variety for general culture. Sow turnips after early potatoes. Gather beans and peas before they get old. ♦
Art Needlework. In these days of sewing machines, the old art of hand needlework has been hard put to it to maintain its existence. But since 1872, the Royal School of Art Needlework has been striving to keep it alive, and with much success. Opened in a small way, in 1895 it developed into a training school, and the Prince of Wales laid the foundation stone of the new building, which will stand at the corner of the Imperial Institute. Princess Christian read an address, which gave an account of the work of the School since its foundation, and outlined its aims in the future. The Prince of Wales, in replying to the address, expressed his pleasure in coming that day, and the hope that the ceremony would convince many of the impor- tance of the scheme. His Royal Highness went on to say: I; I do not hesitate to express my opinion that your undertaking is most praise- worthy, and that it deserves the energetic support of all lovers of art, irrespectively of the still higfher motives of charity. But without such co- operation, it is greatly to be feared that this ancient and beautiful branch of art will fall per- manently into decay. Such a contingency, so regrettable in itself, would involve an evil of even greater magnitude by depriving a large number of ladies, who have been reduced from comparative affluence to poverty, of the means of gaining their own livelihood hitherto afforded them through the aid of your school. I have always entertained a warm appreciation of the generosity which is especially characteristic of the artistic profession, and the liberality of its members (foremost among whom are such dis- tinguished artists as the late Lord Leighton, Sir Edward Burne Jones, Mr. William Morris, Mr. Valentine Prinsep, and Mr. Walter Crane) has been strikingly illustrated by their hearty sym- pathy with your scheme, and by their efforts on your behalf. I congratulate you on the position which the school has attained. I learn it is held in such high estimation that representatives from our own colonies, from the United States of America, and from various European nations, have visited your institution, and have reported on it so favorably that similar systems have been initiated in their respective countries. A great stride was made in 1895 when your executive committee con- sidered the institution established on a sufficiently firm basis to justify them in forming classes in every branch of embroidery. Instruction was imparted by them to those who aspired to become professional workers or teachers. Evening schools of design were started at nominal fees; certificates and diplomas were awarded, and payments were reduced to such an extent that pupils can now obtain the benefit of all your sixteen classes at the rate of only 2s. 6d. a month. It is an en- couraging circumstance that the Technical Educa- tion Board of the London County Council have marked their approval of your efforts by voting you an annual grant of £150.
MID-CARDIGAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE.
MID-CARDIGAN EDUCA- TIONAL CONFERENCE. MR. DARLINGTON ON THE ATTENDANCE QUESTION. INTERESTING DISCUSSION. NEW ASSOCIATION FORMED. A Conference of Teachers, School Board Mem- bers, and others interested in elementary educa- tion in Mid-Cardiganshire was held at the Felin- fach Board School, on Saturday afternoon, for the purpose mainly of discussing the attendance question, which has recently been brought to the front by the discovery that Wales, in this respect, is a long way behind its neighbours, England and Scotland. Notwithstanding the unfavourable weather, there was a very large attendance. Mr. Thomas Darlington, H.M.I.S., presided, being sup- ported on the platform by the Rev. J. M. Griffiths, J.P., Aberayron, Rev. T. C. Edmunds, J.P., Tre- filan, Mr. D. Tify Jones, J.P, Mayor of Lampeter, Mr. Morgan Evans, J.P., Llanarth, Mr. T. H. R. Hughes, J.P., Llanwnen, Mr. E. C. Willmott, Car- diff, Member of the Executive Committee, N.U.T. Mr, Daniel Jones, Llanfihangel. The following teachers were present:—Mr D. Jenkins, Ffaldy- brenin, Mr Davies, Ram, Mr Lewis, Boys' School, Lampeter; Mrs Jones and Miss Bowen, Lampeter; Mr Lewis, Llanybyther; Mr Jones, Llangeitho; Mr. Davies, Llanddewi-brefi; Mr Thomas, New Court; Mr. Griffiths, Cribyn Mr Jones, Llanwnen; Mr Stewart, Silian; Mr Jones, Bettws; Mr. Davies, Llangybi; Mr Davies, Farmers; Miss cly Evans, Dihewid; Miss Jacob, Llanarth; Mr R. Davies, Talgarreg; Mr J. Evans, Myd- roilyn; Mr. R. E. Bevan, Llanarth; Mr S. Jones, Penybont; Mr. J. R. Davies, Aberayron; Mr H. Jones, Aberayron; Mr S. E. Davies, Llan- ddewi; Aberarth; Mr T. R. Davies, Llanon; Mr. D. Rees, Pennant; Mr W. Morgans, Cross Inn Mr. W. D. Evans, Cilcenin; Mr. J. B. Jones, Ciliau Pare; Mr J. Ll. Davies, Felinfach; Mr D. Davies, Bwlchllan. Among others present were, Mr J. M. Howell, J.P., Aberayron, Messrs D. E. Davies, Gelli, Llancrwys (chairman of Llancrwys School Board), David Jones, (chairman Llanfihan gel Ystrad School Board), Morgan Griffiths (vice- chairman), D. Watkins (secretary), D. Jones (Cribyn), D. Hughes (Rhydyfydyr), J. Davies (Dyhewid), and Lewis Jones (Ffynonddafolog), &c. The conference was a great success, thanks to the efforts of Mr. Watkins, the hon. secretary, who is deserving of the highest praise. MR. DARLINGTON'S ADDRESS. The Chairman in his opening address which was delivered in Welsh, remarked that the fact of such a meeting as the present being held was in itself a very hopeful sign of the recent growth of interest in the whole question of attendance was one of the most encouraging elements in the situation. It was high time to move in the matter; for Wales had bee l far too satisfied and inclined to rest on her oars. For years Inspectors had been calling serious attention to the subject, and to Mr. Legard was due the chief credit of taking the initiative in the matter and of getting someting done (hear, hear). It was remarkable how little was generally known of the true relative position of Wales in respect of school attendance. Her system of education had been completed, and there was a. natural tendency to suppose that because the machinery was perfect, the education itself was faultless. But while Wales had been congratulating herself on doing better than her neighbours, the fact bad been too much ignored tnat the attendance in her schools was very considerably lower than in England. The report of intermediate examiners had been a rude awakening to them in Wales these had shewn them that for some reason or other the state of education in Wales had been considerably lower than what it ought to be and side by side with the ignorance of facts went ignorance of the law. He gave instances and pointed out current mis- conceptions as to the law. He would not (he pro- ceeded) go into particulars, as that was the busi- ness of the conference, but one thing he desired to lay special emphasis upon was that in the ulti- mate resort everything depended upon puplic opin- ion-upon the enlightened co-operation of the public; and the drawback in Wales was that public opinion was not sufficiently enlightened upon this subject (applause). To quote the words of the Depart- mental Committee of 1881," there was in Wales much enthusiasm for education in singular combination with considerable ignorance of what was meant by the word." That was as true to day as it was 18 years age, though since then education had made remarkable strides. The people of Wales had known how to make sacrifices for Intermediate Schools and for Colleges, and yet they had not succeeded in grasping the elementary fact of the necessity to send their children to school regularly. How was it that public opinion in Wales was not so enlightened as it was in Scotland or in England. That was a matter of history. In Scotland they had hadlan excellent educational system for centuries whereas Wales had been almost destitute of educational opportunities until the last 30 years. Hence the absence of an educated public in Wales as compared with Scotland. Parents in Wales did not realise how much their children lost by absen- ting themselves from school one day in five, nor how much the work of the whole class suffered from the irregularity of a few of the children (applause.) The parents must be educated before one could expect to educate the children (hear, hear.) He hoped a new era was about to dawn in Wales. There were many indications that public opinion was beginning to stir, and that efforts made by lovers of education in Wales were bearing fruit, but much remained to be done and he hoped that one of the results of holding this conference would be to open the eyes of the public to the importance of making Wales better in this respect. Lately some gentlemen from London had been giving them views upon this subject (a laugh.) He had not read their speeches, but he understood that they laid special emphasis, on the fact that in reference to the matter of attendance Wales came out a bad third, as compared with England and Scotland. There was nothing new in that. Some of them in Wales had been preaching the same thing for a long time and persistently to deaf ears, but for his own part he was glad to get the help of these gentlemen and they could only welcome criticism so far as it was based upon knowledge and sympatny (near, near.) Wales had in the past learnt much from her critics, so he was ready to learn from them in the future, but he would not like to leave the impression upon anybody's mind, that he agreed that Wales was a bad third in education generally as well as in attendance, for that was far from being true (applause.). If Wales was a bad third in some matters, she was an easy first in others (renewed applause.) It had not been by merely talking about education that Wales had shown the greatness of her love towards it, but by paying for it freely and generousiy-by paying, not from her wealth, but from her poverty (applause.) They might admit readily that there was much ignor- ance in Wales concerning the true aims and truo nature of education, but they could not permit it to be said without protest that Wales fell behind either England or Scotland in her love for education. This was not easy optimism, it was not the saving fact of the situation because it was to this spirit, the spirit that created the intermediate schools, and the colleges, and the University that they must look to correct the mani- fold faults of our elementary education. They must educate public opinion upon this subject- show the people what was wrong, and the best way to remedy it; and for this reason he welcomed the holding of that conference, because it would be the means of awakening interest and of raising the tone of public opinion, and of securing the co- operation of the parents and the public in the different work that was before them. With the growth of a healthy public opinion upon the question of attendance, everythiug else would follow as a matter of course (loud applause). THE STANDARD OF EXEMPTION. Rev. T. C. Edmunds (Chairman of the School Attendance Committee for the Lampeter Union), remarked that he read the circular from Mr. Watkins with great pleasure, knowing as he did, that that gentleman had the good of the schools at heart, and he sincerely hoped that the meeting would bring forth good fruit. That was their object in meeting-that they might be able to do something. For the past 30 years he had been associated more or less with day schools, and the most vexed question at all times bad been the question of attendance. Resolution upon resolution had been passed, but so far nothing had really been done. This was a loss to the school managers, but it was a far greater loss to the children themselves (hear, hear). Why were they in Wales behind other people ? Simply because there was not sufficent pressure brought to bear upon the children to com- pel them to go to school. The fault lay, not en- tirely with the parents, although they were more or less to be blamed he thought if the school managers exercised a little more stringent authority, and brought a little more compulsion to bear on the children, the attendance would prove immensely. He moved that this meeting is of opinion that the Model Bye-Laws issued by the Education Department should be immediately adopted throughout Mid-Cardiganshire, without a half-time clause, and with standard V. or any standard above that, as a standard exemption. He added that personally he thought standard VI should be the standard of exemption (hear, hear). He thought children left school far too soon. A Standard V child, 12 months after he left schcol, had forgotten all that he had learnt, however diligent the master might have been to teach him (applause). Mr. Lloyd (Adsolwen, Llanon), in seconding, signified his preference for Standard VI or Standard VII." In his parish they experienced great difficulty in reaching Standard IV in many cases, but they were determined now to get them to Standard V., and if possible to Standard VI. The worst of it was the parents did not know what education was, not having had any themselves, and they ought to establish a school for parents (laughter) Another difficulty was that, when school managers took action, the magistrates over-ruled them. Mr. T. H. R. Hughes said that, as a member of a School Board, he could say that they had quite enough to do to keep children at school till they reached Standard IV. A man in his district some time ago was wondering where he would get work- men from-they were getting to be so educated- (laughter)--but if every parish was like Llanwenog they need entertain no fear on that score (renewed laughter). Mr. Jenkin Lloyd (Tregaron) pointed out that the first body of men they should appeal to were the magistrates, who ought to be in a position to fully appreciate the situation. Rev. E. Morris remarked that it was a big jump" from Standard IV to Stanadrd VI, they ought to be more gradual. Rev. J. M. Griffiths considered Standard VI. low enough (hear, hear). If they raised it to that standard they would undoubtedly find that the parents would be much more assiduous in their efforts to send their children to school. It was not difficult for a child of average intelligence to reach Standard VI. at a comparatively young age—say 12—and no child in the county ought to be allowed to do manual labour under that age (applause). If in order, he would move as an amendment that the standard of exemption be Standard VI. Mr. T. H. R. Hughes seconded, and upon a show of hands 35 voted for the original motion, and 31 for the amendment. Mr. Morgan Evans, J.P. (Chairman of the Llan- arth U.D. School Board) moved that a certain minimum per centage of attendances should be required annually of each child between 5 and 14 years of age, and not legally entitled to exemption from school attendance, He remarked that he had had 28 years' experience in connection with a School Board, and had noticed two special diffi- culties in carrying out the work of elementary education. The first difficulty was in making up the teaching staff, and the Government was to some extent to blame, because after saying that such and such a number was necessary, they found fault with the Boards for not appointing more (laughter). He thought, however, that the attendance of children entirely depended on the School Boards, but the difficulty here arose when they came to deal with individuals on their merits. It was mostly the" bounillLry" children that were the cause of the difficulties, but these could be avoided by the co-operation of neighbouring Boards. The best way to secure better attendance was to punish those who employed the children (hear, hear). It would be much more effective than the present mode of prosecution, which meant five shillings without costs," or no fine at all. Indeed he knew of parents who said it was far better to run the risk" (laughter), for the child earned money and could afford to pay a few crowns (applause). He expected more from co-operation all round than from anything else. Some parents were too lazy to get up to prepare breakfast for the children in time to go to school. These indifferent people ought to be roused, for such parents taught children to be indolent. If a child was not taught that he had something to do in the world he would turn out to be, if not a beggar, then next door to one (applause). Mr. Daniel Jones (Chairman of the Llanfihangel School Board), in seconding, said that he was in full sympathy with the object of the Conference, as he believed in the rising generation—" Cymru Fydd "-receiving effective education. But the children had many difficulties to contend with, such as distance from school, bad footpaths, and the indifference of parents. He thought the per- centage of attendance should be in accordance with the distance, and that new school areas should be drawn out. Illness was the chief cause of the absence of children in his district during the past month, and he suggested that Parish .9 Councils should be pressed to improve the path- ways, so as to avoid wet feet (laughter and hear, hear). Parents who broke the law without some valid excuse should be punished. Prizes should be given for good attendance, and the children should have an annual outing. He preferred moral persuasion to punishment save in exceptional cases. The ratepayers should also be reminded of the financial loss they sustained through irregular attendance (applause). MR. WILLMOTT'S SPEECH. Mr. C. E. Willmott (Cardiff), member of the Ex- ecutive Committee of the N.U.T., in supporting the resolution, said that he should prefer if a definite percentage of attendance was mentioned. There was no doubt in his mind that the most serious hindrance to the progress of education at the present day was irregular attendance. At the present time throughout England and Wales there were, roughly speaking, over one million children who were absent on each occasion that the schools were open. In London alone there were over 100,000 children absent, and the worst feature of this was that it was nearly always the same children that kept away, children of careless parents who did not trouble what became of their children. The very children that ought to be in school and properly educated drifted in to the street and made up in the end a large proportion of the criminals of the country. And yet we were supposed to have compulsory educa- tion. The Act of 1870, which made attendance compulsory, was almost a dead letter; and al- though it had been described by Sir Charles Dilke as one of the most tyrannical Acts ever passed, it was jeered at alike by parents, employers and school authority. The law in itself was perfect; it was its administration that was at fault. Allud- ing incidentally to the practice of making bye-laws, he remarked that he had bye-laws in front of him which allowed children to leave school at half time if they passed the first standard (laughter). He believed that was in Cardiganshire (a voice: next parish). He did not blame the attendance officer for the irregular attendance. He was sent round from village to village and bad to cover a large amount of ground, and was paid £5 for it (laughter) He knew he could not do the work, and the whole thing became contemptible, and the law was a perfect farce, as far as he was concerned. Sometimes he would bring a child before the School Attendance Committee, who accepted easy frivolous excuse the parents brought before them, and if a case was brought before the magistrates, many of those gentlemen would do nothing because they did not want to be unpopular amono- their neighbours, and they winked at the law° When one was fined it was only to the extent of a shilling-sometimes Ss.-and very often the fine was not collected. In Scotland the maximum was 20s. and costs, whilst in Germany, France, and Switzerland parents were imprisoned for the non- attendance of their children. In fact they had compulsory attendance on the Continent, not simply the name and the sham. The administra- tion of the law in England had brought it into contempt, and the fines inflicted were so small that the parents paid them cheerfully out of the 'earn- ings of their defaulting children. The inaction of the magistrates was totally unjustifiable (hear, hear). He also objected to their adjourning cases for long periods. He did not suppose that the magistrates were against popular education, but they did not recognise that the schools were the training ground of the nation. What was the remedy? He advopated summary convictions, and an increase in the maximum fine, and that there should be a list of legitimate excuses without which the magistrates should be bound to convict. From the latest Government returns the percentage of attendance in Scotland was given as 84.3, in England 81.6 (just where Scotland was six years ago), and Wales, 75.86, whilst Cardiganshire itself stood at 72.97. The worst of the English counties had a percentage of 74.31, so that Cardiganshire was much below the whole of Wales, much worse than the worst of the English counties, and infinitely worse than Scotland with its 84.3. But coming nearer home he found that in Mid- Cardiganshire some schools had a percentage as low as 61 and 50, and one even as low as 40. There was no earthly reason why Wales should be so far behind. The children were quite as intelligent as they were in other parts. With regard to labour certificates, he found that they were not enforced in Cardiganshire. (A Voice: Yes). In Cardiganshire there were six schools with percentages varying from 55 to 59, 16 from 60 to 64, 14 from 65 to 69. That was enough to rouse the authorities to a sense of their responsibilities. He also drew attention to the early age at which children left school, but in this respect Cardigan beat England and the whole of Wales (applause). Mr. Watkins pointed ont that in Ystrad children left school without labour certificates. The Board never asked for labour certificates. He knew of one who went out at 10. The parish of Ystrad was full of children who had left without passing the required standard, and there many other parishes in the same position. The members of the Board would not do their duty if they thought they would lose one single vote by it (applause and hear, hear). The motion was then put, and carried un- animously, FORMATION OF AN ASSOCIATION. Rev.' J. M. Griffiths agreed with Mr. Willmott that the maximum fine should be increased, he thought R5 would not be too high (hear, hear ,and a laugh). Board members were not quite blameless in this matter. Every magistrate he knew was quite as anxious to administer the law as members of the School Attendance Committees. They must remember that most of the cases brought before the magistrates were not properly prepared. It was seldom that a solicitor was engaged. He was a manager of one school in Aberayron where the average attendance for the past five months beat the whole of England, being 85 per cent. (hear, hear). In the other school in Aberayron it was • 83. It ought to be so. It was surprising to him that the people of Mid-Cardiganshire than whom there were no keener people in Wales or England did not rise to the occasion. It was a loss to the child, to the nation, and to the future. Cardigan lost in wants Z1832 a year. of the whole of Wales £ 15,255. If they did their duty they should get the average up to 90 per cent. Mr. D. Tify Jones, J.P., (Mayor of Lampeter) in seconding the resolution, remarked that it was true in this, as in other cases that in unity there was strenght. He dwelt on the advantages that must accrue from frequent meetings of the new Asssocia- tion, and went on to say that they ought to feel thankful that they had a man in the district who took such a deep interest in education as Mr. Watkins. In welcoming Mr. Willmott, he said, that there was no need for Welshmen to resent the efforts of anyone who would try to assist them in realising high educational ideas. He was not going to say a word of apology for those magis- trates who took a lenient view of what had properly been described as the crime of neglecting to send children regularly to school; but he had seen cases brought before the- magistrate in so unmethodical and slovenly a manner that no jury in the world, let alone magistrates, would convict. The least that could be asked of school attendance committees was that they should prepare the cases welL— (Applause). Rev. J. M. Griffiths expressed the hope that the new Association would take it to consideration the advisibility of forming central classes for pupil teachers, who were not properly trained and too hard-worked. Speaking on behalf of his co- workers, he said they would be willing to make a contribution.—(Hear, hear). Professor Robert Williams (Lampeter College), who was called upon by the Chairman, remarked that he did not know of any class that deserved greater support than elementary teachers, who did not receive the assistance they should.-(hear, hear). They ought to be paid better salaries, for no work was more important than theirs, and every one came more dr less under their influence. He should like to teach a class composed of magis- trates—(laughter). He advocated the formation of a County Council of Education," and in con- clusion, alluding to the formation of central classes for pupil teachers, said he should be pleased to take them in history gratuitously.—(Applause). The Chairman having said that he put great im- portance on the motion, as the chief fault at pre- sent was the absence of co-operation amongst the different school boards, it was carried unanimously and Mr. Daniel Watkins and Mr. Lewis, of the Lampeter Board School, were appointed joint sec- retaries to convene the new association, which will embrace the Lampeter, Aberayron, and Tregaron Unions. Mr. John Howell, J.P., Aberayron, in moving a vote of thanks to the Chairman, and Mr. Willmott, remarked that Mr. Darlington had proved his love for Wales by learning her language and the inter- est he took in the schools and the teachers shewed that he was eminently fitted for the post he occu- pied. They also felt grateful to Mr. Wilmott for coming to address them, and to Mr. Watkins, their disinterested and indefatigable secretary, who had commenced that successful conference, and worked for the cause, not for personal gain. Mr. Daniel Jenkins (Pentre), seconded the motion, which was carried by acclamation. The votes of thanks having been duly acknowledged the proceedings ended. For motion of an Association Rev. J. M. Griffiths, concluded by moving that the managers and teachers and others engaged in Mid-Cardigan- shire in the administration of the Elementary Education Acts, should form themselves into an association to carry into effect the resolutions already passed, and to consider other matters of common interest, and that the immediate arrange- ments be entrusted to a committee consisting of one representative from each body of school managers joining the association, and a certain proportionate number of head teachers.
Voluntary Schools. The return of Voluntary schools that have been closed since the Voluntary Schools Act of 1895 shows that the voting of doles to school managers has failed in eighty-five cases to keep the schools running. We find amongst the reasons assigned for closing the schools: Inability of managers to comply with requirements of Education De- partment," "Difficulty in maintaining school, and promises unsatisfactory," "Financial difficulties," "Lack of funds," "Withdrawal of subscriptions," and h Insufficiency of voluntary subscriptions." Possibly an additional reason may be that sub- scribers are relying on the Act to find the necessary funds.—" Daily Chronicle."
. Child Labor.
Child Labor. The Earl of Portsmouth presided over a meeting of the general council of the London and District Association of British Voluntary Schools, held at the Memorial Hall. Having referred to the return showing that 148,000 children were employed in manual and other labour during the time they were at school, the chairman said that as they were spending an increasing amount of public money every year upon education, it was perfectly obvious that children could not spend ninety hours a week in employment, and attend school physically cap- able of receiving any education at all; and the money of the country was therefore being very largely wasted. A clergyman in a large parish of of a city told him that a very large proportion of children were absolutely receiving not only no bene- fit from education, but physical injury from having to attend school and perform this work out of school hours. Parents should be reminded that now their children receive a free education there was the less reason for sending them to work at an early age. This matter, he considered, should be taken up by the local authorities, the school boards, and town councils and by-laws should be framed—to be included in future local Bills-regulating child labour. In accordance with local requirements children should certainly not be engaged in the early hours of the day or late at night.
Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn. CLERICAL MEETING.—This anniversary clerical meeting was held this year on the 21st and 22nd of June. On Wednesday evening at seven, the service was intoned by the Rev. Enoch Jones, Ex- mouth, the lesson being read by the Rev. J. T. Hughes, Vicar of Llanfihangel-ar-arth, and two sermons were delivered by the Rev. T. Phillips Lewis, St. David's, Penllergaer, Swansea, and the Rev. J. Myfenydd Morgan, Vicar of St. Dogmaels. On Thursday morning at eight, the Holy Com- munion was administered by the Rev. J. P. Evans, Vicar of the parish, assisted by the Rev. Arthur Edwards, curate of Port Talbot. At ten the Rev. T. Phillips Lewis intoned the service, and the Rev. R. Eustace Jones, curate of Llanbadarn Fawr,read the lesson, who also preached, and was followed by the Rev. J. T. Hughes. At three, the Liturgy was intoned by the Rev. T. Phillips Lewis, and the Rev. J. T. Hughes preached. At half-past six the Rev. J. F. Lloyd, Vicar of Llanilar, intoned the service, the lesson being read by the Rev. M. H. Jones, curate of Aberdovey, and two sermons were preached by the Revs. T. Phillips Lewis and J. Myfenydd Morgan. Besides the clergy already named, there were also present the Rev. W. J. Williams, Vicar of Llanafan; the Rev. W. Evans, Vicar of Llangorwen; the Rev. D. M. Evans, curate of Netherton, Dudley: and the Rev. K. Ll. Hedley, curate of Glanogwen. The singing, as usual, was under the conductorship of Mr. William Lewis Evans, Dolauceunant, and Miss Evans, Abertrinant, presided at the harmonium. The anthem Teyrnasa lesu mawr was sung on the occasion. The clergy and their friends were hospitably enter- tained at the Vicarage by the Vicar, whilst many neighbouring farmers and others liberally provided as well for other strangers. Collections were made after each service to defray the expenses, which realized a fair sum. The weather was most favourable, and the preaching all through was able and powerful.
LLEDROD. SUCCESS.—We are pleased to see that Mr. W. H. Davies, son of Mr. Richard Davies, Ty'nporth, has obtained second class honours in classics, and has graduated B.A. at St. David's College, Lampeter. Mr. Davies, was for some time a pupil under Mr. D. Samuel, M.A., Headmaster of Aberystwyth County School, when he was at the Old Bank School. From there Mr. Davies went to Ystrad Meurig School, where he remained a few years till his entrance into St. David's College.
I ROUND THE CHURCHES.
ROUND THE CHURCHES. [NOTE.—We have pleasure in stating that a short article will appear here weekly from the pen of Philip Sydney. It will, as a rule, deal with some topic of local interest other than the purely theological and political. Communications for the writer's consideration may be sent to him c/o Editor. Welsh Gazette."] ST. PAUL'S (WELSH) WESLEYAN CHURCH. The present comfortable, but none too well lighted Church, took the place of the original home of the Welsh Wesleyans, which still stands in Queen-street, and is now used by the Salvation Army. The impression of the building given to any stranger is most favourable, everything except- a very large exception too—VENTILATION—con- duces to the o.'der and regularity of public wor- ship. When will the majority of Church officials recognise the fact that 312 worshippers ought not to be assembled in a. building of which, so far :-Is my observation went,, every window was carefully closed on a sultry summer evenipo- 1 From the beginning of these articles it has been the endeavour of the writer, who is not, probably, known to half-a-dozen worshippers in any Church, | to set forth the things which at once strike a I stranger, whether they be favourable or otherwise. I This being so, it would not be honest did he not mention one or two things here which jar some- what painfully on the due conduct of public worship, and they are the more observable because there is so much that is on right lines. Late comers are far too, many; six o'clock does not mean a quarter past six, no more than the advertised time for starting a train means a quar- ter of an hour later. All through the impressive and tenderly worded prayer offered by the Rev. J. Humphreys, there was an incessant whispering and shuffling of feet in the vestibule, all the more audible from the fact that the doors leading from it to the Church were open during the greater portion of the prayer. Again, could not two or three responsible officials sit in the gallery ? Their presence might possibly aid in doing away with certain things—small in themselves but quite out of place-there indulged in by some of the younger attendants, who should certainly know better. Sweet-eating strikes one as indecorous in God's house;, a girt within the writer's observation com- placently munched up a fair parcel, threw the paper under the seat, and gave nothinc to the offertory. The penny had gone elsewhere! One other grumble;. though we know that a sincere worshipper needs no, particular attitude to I pour forth his prayer to God, yet, on the other I hand, it seemed strange. to see so many sitting up- right, some staring about, a few whispering to each other during prayer. Such as these might surely take a hint from their many neighbours, whose devotional attitude is more in accordance with the object. I The church is mos.t tastefully painted and decorated, on the wall ends of the gallery, which runs round three sides of the building, are verses of Scripture, surmounted with the sacred mono- Sr*L™ organ is placed in a chamber behmd the pulpit, it contrasts most favourably with any other organ in the town, and the lady player certainly does not err on the side of too loud play- ing,. indeed a little more forte would occassionally be acceptable, but as it was a solemn funeral service on the occasion of my visit, the whole music was most suitable. The entire congregation stood during the rendering of the Dead March. As the collection is not taken during the singing of a hymn, but in a quiet interval, might it not be possible for the organist then to play a simple voluntary 1 It is done in many city churches and gives an opportunity for the introduction of a few divine notes from the great masters. The singing was excellent, and the rendering of Aberystwyth left little to be desired. If there were a few hymn books available for strangers it might be well, most of the congregation seemed to bring their own. Mr. Humphreys' voice is audible in all parts, and his quiet, clear delivery leaves little to be desired, though it was unfortunate that the Salvation Army s efforts outside were in evidence at the same time for a few moments. The sermon lasted just 45 minutes, and, as reported in last week's issue. was one thoroughly in harmony with the occassioa. Activity and life, both on Sundays and other days are in full evidence here, and both pastor and people will welcome the day when a suitable school- room will be available on the ground at the side of the church, which the congregation has secured. PHILLIP SIDNEY. Next week we shall complete the first series of Round the Churches with the article on Shiloh chapel; the second series will begin later in the year and deal with the remaining churches and chapels. We have pleasure in stating that next week the first of a series of descriptive articles, under the heading of ROUND THE TOWN will appear from the pen of Philip Sidney. They will be of speeial interest for visitors and residents alike.—EDITOR, Welsh Gazette."
UniDcrsitp College, ABERYSTWYTH.
UniDcrsitp College, ABERYSTWYTH. Early Recollections of the College will he con- tinued next week. The article has been held over this week for want of space. DR. HERFORD. Degree Day at the Victoria University was held in the Free Trade Hall, Manchester, on Saturday, the Vice-Chancellor, Principal Bodington (York- shire College) presiding. Among the recipients of honorary degrees presented to the Vice-Chancellor was Professor C. H. Herford for the degree of Doctor of Letters.
. SUCCESSES OF STUDENTS.
SUCCESSES OF STUDENTS. The following is a list of the success of students at the 1899 Degree Examination of the Welsh University:—• GREEK. Intermedate.—Raymond Cumberbatch Allen, Alice Boddy, David Thomas Davies, William Samuel Davies, Howell Thomas Evans, Lewis Lloyd Evans, Thomas Griffiths, William Harries, John Edward Hughes, Thomas Jenkins, Watkin Samuel Jones, Francis Knoyle, Hugh Charles Lewis, Jessie M'William, Robert Jenkyn Owen, John Howard Price, Morgan Richards, Aubrey Roberts, Richard Williams. Ordinary.—David Davies, George Davies, Gwilym Aneurin Tudor Davies, John Sidney Davies, Edward, Evans, Edward Jones, Sydney Oliver Morgan, David John Perrott, Samuel Morris Powell, Richard William Roberts, Camilla Louisa Thomas, Benjamin Scott Williams, Hugh Hughes Williams. Special-Eirene Theodora Lloyd. Oscar Stephen Symond, John Bennett Williams. Honours—Class I.: William Christopher Words- worth. Class II.: Evan Derry Evans, Harold Madoc Jones. WELSH. Intermediate.—William Harries, John James, Margaret Jane James, Robert Thomas Jenkins, Dafydd Rhys Jones, Margaretta Morgan, Goronwy Owen, David Price, Henry Daniels Thomas. Ordinary.—William Davies, Morgan Hugh Jones, Mary Parry, Peter Williams. PURE MATHEMATICS (FACULTY OF ARTS). Intermediate.—Thomas Edward Carpenter, David Timothy Davies, Thomas Charles Davies, Herbert James Edwards, Alice Edith Evans, John Evans, Lewis Lloyd Evans, William Harris, Sarah Gwen- doline Jones, Watkin Samuel Jones, Gad Llewellyn, Agnes Parry, David John Parry, Mary Parry, Isabella Scett, Annie May Sharpies, Alice Sweaney, Catherine Thomas, Henry Daniels Thomas, John Thomas Walters, Richard Williams, William John Williams (Dowlais), William John Williams (Swan- sea), George Arthur Wood. Ordinary.—Howell Thomas Evans, Ithel Jones, Kenneth William Murray Middleton, Watcyn Owen, Margaret Elizabeth Phillips, David Daniel Richards, Margaret Grace Williams. Special.—Owen Lewis Humphreys. APPLIED MATHEMATICS (FACULTY OF ARTS). Ordinary.—Kenneth William Murray Middleton. PURE AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS (FACULTY OF ARTS). Honours.—Class 1: Norah Helen Bodkin. MATHEMATICS (FACULTY OF SCIENCE). Intermediate.—John Davies (Major, Llandyssul), John Albert Davies, Leonard Charles Dice, Edgar David Evans, Evan Jenkin Evans, Thomas Rees Francis, Evan Dalton Griffiths, Thomas Aneurin Griffiths, Minnie Elizabeth Hill, Gladys Gertrude James, Abel John Jones, Alfred Morgan, Vhomas Ernest Nash, Thomas John Rees, Henry M'Phail Third, Hettie Williams. PURE MATHEMATICS (FACULTY OF SCIENCE). Ordinary.—Gwendoline James, Benjamin Mor- gan, Ivor Thomas. Special.-Charles O'Brien. APPLIED MATHEMATICS (FACULTY OF SCIENCE). Special.—William Burton. j
NEW QUAY. FISHING INDUSTRY.—Our boats had a good time last week. Seventy-three dozen mackerel were landed being from 7 to 12 dozen per boat and were sold at from 2s. to 4s. per dozen an New Quay. Abefayron had from six to twelve dozen.
I ICAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. I I
CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEKLY AND FORTNIGHTLY EXCURSIONS. Commencing Wednesday, May 24th, and every Wednesday in June, July and August, Cheap Weekly and Fortnightly Tickets will be issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Dolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Portmadoc, Cricc- ieth, Pwllheli, Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Rhayader, Builth Wells, Newtown, Montgomery, Oswestry,. Ellesmere and Wrexham, to London (Euston and Paddington), available for the return on the following Wednesday or Wednesday week. Similar Tickets will be issued from London dur- ing the same period, available for return on the following Monday, Wednesday, Monday week or Wednesday week. C. S. DENNIS, General Manager. Owestry, May, 1899.
CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY from, all L. & N. W. and G-JIV. Stations in LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO *Birmingham, *Wolverhampton, *Walsall, Peter- borough, *Leicester, *Derby, *Burton-on-Trent, *Stafford, *Coventry, Manchester, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Bewsbury, Huddersfield, Liverpool, Birkenhead, Wigan and Warrington FROM Oswestry, Llanymynech* Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown,, Llanidloes, Igachynlleth,, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Postmadoc, Penrhyndeudraetb, Csiccieth, and Pwlheli, Similar tickets ase issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, DolgeDey, Harlech, Penrhyndeudraeth, Portmadoc, Criccietb, and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. *Tickets to these Stations are not issued from Welshpool. Passengers retarn OR the Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. THOUSAND-MILE TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the coupons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. The price of each is R5 5s Od 1,000 miles, and P.2 17s 6d, 500 miles being about lid per mile. Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, to Mr W. H. Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates for authorising the use of the tickets by purchasers' family, guests, or employees can be obtained, price 6d each book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNIS3, General Manager. Oswestry, March 1899. Good, CDeap, A" Quick Printing BXBCUTBD AT TUB ="Gazette"= Printeries, PRICES ON APPLICATION. Posters. Handbills. Memorial Cards. Orders by Post receive prompt and careful attention. Business Notices. TAILORING ESVABLISHMENT, 13, PIER. SITREJT, ABERYSTWYTH. DAVID JAMES. Suitings, Coatings, Trouse rings, &c., in the best fashion and at re asonable prices. Cricketing and Boating Su its made to order on tha Shortest1 Notice. FOR WELSH WOOLLEN GOODS GO TO ROWLAND MORGAN, LONDON HOUSE, ABERYSTWYTH. WM. THOMAS, COAL AND LIME MERCHANT, ABERYSTWYTH. BRICKS, SLATES & PIPES of every description always in Stock. DAVID MORGAN, DRAPERY AND MILLINERY ESTABLISHMENT, ,18, PIER STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. DAVID EVANS, WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & OPTICIAN, 30 GREAT DARKGATE 8 T., ABERYSTWYTH, (Opposite the Lion Royal Hotel,) Invites your attention to his Choice Stock of JEWELLERY, Comprising all the Latest Designs and mast Fashion- able Patterns in GOLD, SILVER, PEBBLES & JET SILVER PLATE SUITABLE FOR PRESENTATIONS. GOLD AND SILVER WATCHES IN GREAT VARIETY. ..4C! H. H. DAVIES, PHOTOGRAPHER, PIER STREET, (Removed one door above.) ABERYSTWYTH. HH. D., having removed to larger premises, • begs to inform the public generally that h» is now enabled, with the be ter facilities at his disposal, to execute all orders p omptly. In thanking his numerous patronisers for their kind support in the past, he trusts that his care and attention will merit a continuance of the same. MRS. M. E. DAVIES, CONFECTIONER, pIER S TREET A BERYSTWYT HAVING given up the Confectionery business, begs to thank her numerous customers for their past support and to state that she will still retain her DINING ROOMS which she trusts will continue to receive a share public patronage. I 1. AND G. LLOFD, COACHBUILDERS, ALFRED PLACE, ABERYSTWYTH. Carriages made to order on the shortest notice. Experienced Men kept for all Branches. CARRIAGES FOR SALE. SUMMElt FASHIONS. C. M. WILLIAMS BEGS respectfully to announce that he is now showing a good selection of NEW GOODS SUITABLE FOR THE PRESENT SEASON. NEW HATS AND BONNETS. NEW MILLINERY. NEW FEATHRRS AND FLOWERS. NEW RIBBONS AND LACES. NEW DRESS MATERIALS. NEW GOWNS AND SILK SCARFS. NEW SILK UMBRELLAS, &c. NOTED HOUSE FOR-STY-LISIT HATS AND BONNETS. SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO MOURNING ORDERS. GENTS' NEWEST SHAPES IN HATS AND CAPS, TIES, SCARES COLLARS, CUFFS, &C. Inspection respectfully invited. C. M. WILLIAMS, GENERAL JQRAPERY ESTABLISHMENT, 10, PIER STREET, ABERYSTWYTH.
The Sale of Margarine.
The Sale of Margarine. At Southwark, before Mr. Slade, Thomas Evans, of 97, London-road, was summoned by Inspector Edwards, of St. George's Vestry, for selling butter to the prejudice of the purchaser, and further, with exposing margarine for sale without the requisite label. Mr. Slade imposed fines amounting to £ 10 and 14s. 6d. costs.—Defendant: What protection have we when an inspector bounces us like this.- Mr. Slade: Next case.—Defendant: I've got no money to pay I am not the proprietor of the shop. Mr. Slade: One month's imprisonment on each summons in default of payment. »
Indigestion. One of the most obstinate forms of dyspepsia is that which results from the imperfect digestion of starch, the symptoms being fermentation and head- ache, and there are three tprincipal causes of this trouble—rapid and insufficient mastication, the drinking of tea, and over-eating, which causes undue delay in digestion on account of the stomach being overtaxed. Now for the remedies. The benefit of slow mastication is obvious, but the habit is difficult to acquire; the substitution of coffee (infused) in the place of tea will prove a godsend to many sufferers; and abstemiousness is within reach of all who will but realise the truth of Dr. Abernethy's statement, "We live upon one-fifth of what we eit, and retain the other four-fifths at our peril." We have one more remedy, however, to iffer, which is both valuable and interesting. Extract of malt converts starch into sugar almost as readily as the ptyaline of the saliva. If we like porridge and cannot digest it, we should use a tea- spoonful of malt extract with it, or we can add a little to our coffee or cocoa for the purpose of aid- ing the digestion of other starch foods. In these brain-working days we must reduce the demands made upon our vitality for digestion or else reduce the mental output. If we are obliged to work our brains hard, then we must perforce ease our diges- tive organs or pay the penalty. This hint may prove of great value to brain workers as well as others.—" Golden Age." ♦
JEWS AS A NATION.
JEWS AS A NATION. At the recent meeting of the Zionists at St. Martin's Town Hall, Dr. Herzl, who spoke in Ger- man, gave an interesting sketch of the aims of the Zionists. He began by saying that the Zionists desired to prepare in the ancient father- land, Palestine a legally assured home for the Jewish people. This they considered the complete and final solution of the Jewish question. Three things were pre-supposed. First, the existence of Jews as a nation the institution on democratic lines of a Parliament of the Jewish people at Basle for two successive years bad proved this to demonstration. Secondly, the suitability of Palestine for re-settlement; the success of exis- ting colonies and the testimony of unimpeachable authority disposed of this query. The assurance of a legal basis for the re-settlement of the Jews could be achieved on the following lines. The English system of leasehold tenure, unknown as it was upon the Continent, could, he hoped, be applied to the present instance, and such a legal arrangement, with the sovereignty of the Sultan placed beyond question, affected with the Turkish Government. Then the regulated immigration into Palestine of Jews would not be regarded as an encroachment upon Turkish possessions, but rather as a consolidation and enhancement of their value. He had been fortunate enough to secure most powerful advocates for these ideas and proposals, but he must remain absolutely silent concerning certain important and history- making pourparlers. The Jewish Colonial Trust, launched to effect the purpose, was an assured institution—a fact with which men of figures would have to reckon. Though none supposed that all Jews would go to Palestine, the decrease in the Jewish population in Western Europe would raise the economic value and would end the ever- present Jewish question. They would carry culture to the East, and Europe would profit from this work of theirs.
. Gardening Scholarships.
Gardening Scholarships. Mr. T. A. Organ, chairman of the L.C.C. Technical Education Board, states that the purpose of giving to a few London boys an oppor- tunity of receiving instruction in practical garden- ing has been so successful that the Board has decided to double the number of these scholarships and will award four more within the next three weeks. Many applications have already been re- ceived from persons who are anxious to engage the lads who have been trained. Candidates must be not less than fourteen, and not more than sixteen years of age, and their parents must not be in receipt of more than L250 a year. The necessary forms may be obtained from the Secretary of the Board, 116, St. Martin's-Lane, W.C.