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THE BI&ITISH DAIRY FARMERS' CONFERENCE. Visit to welshpool. a.or tnore than ten years the British Dairy Of j ers' Association has held, in the month of May a Tnovat,'e couference, the locality selected ffQj. affording some special features of interest t(j6 'dairy farmers' point of view. Last year in lg(S?^ei'ence held its meetings in Lancashire, and Chee Switzerland was visited. The Cheddar ^'ricts °f Somerset, the che ese-makiug JIortcts of the south-west of Scotlaud, certain CQ ons of East Anglia, the North Riding of York. 0{ j and Westmorland, the east and south t^e^ and, and other localities have in turn given effe^SSociation a welcome. A two-fold purpose is ew et^ by the confereuce. On the one hand it ^Ut ^ra&es an influx of dairying experts into the **» o*Ct v^s'ted' and tlius affords the local farmers vje Pp°rtunity of comparing notes and exchanging in v8 men interested in the dairying industry ^t)rTri°US parts of the country. On the other the .8?ecial facilities of inspection are accorded to ^efVliS'tors, are thereby enabled to pick up ^Hcli suogestions, and to acquire information I Profit of which may be susceptible of practical and able application. fererth Wales was the scene of this year's con- Wet "le arrangements for which ware com- IiWiby a committee of which Mr J. Marshall a^e w&s chairman. Members of the Associa- aggea^ others who took part in the proceedings B.Jo'0, e(^ at Chester on Monday evening, and at w clock the following morning they were con- a sPec'a^ trai11 to Welshpool, which was a^out 11- Here the opening meeting took t]je j,la the Town Hall, under the chairmanship of J^r arl of Powis, the president of the British Dairy ^rin •rs' Association. His lordship was supported by JQ ClPal Reichel, Mr J. Marshall Dugdale, Mr W. ((Jg^ter Addie, Capt Mytton, Mr C. S. Denniss peral manager Cambrian Railways Company), ^owell, Mr D. Richards, Mr T. Green, Aino Secretary (Mr W. C. Young, of London). Jojj those also present were: Mr and Mrs A.tu Ainsworth, Darvven; Mr and Mrs W. G. 4.11 Kent; Mr and Mrs W. P. J. tyol) "r°ok, Wollaton Messrs Wilton Allsebrook, aton) Notts.; Charles Armstrong, Abeigele; A- Avis, Stoke Bardolph, Notts.; George 6^ am. London; W. E. Bear, London; Miss Bell, Denbigh Messrs George John Bell, L. n n 5 J. Benson, Midland Dairy Institute Miss °8TV°rth, Coleshill; Messrs W. Bowler, Man- Brierly» King's Newham John Brown, ^ell Wells; Miss D. Brown, Tunbridge r C. Brown, Appleby; Miss Martha Q'Weston; Messrs Edward Brown, Cavers- lltr Brown, Liverpool; D. E. Byrd, Tarpoley j Mrs T. Carrick, Haydon Bridge Mr and ]Un r; J. Clarke, Walthamstow; Mr N. Coates, Jtr "j ^'Mesden, Bucks Miss Coward, Ulverstone A. Coward, Midland Dairy Institute; Mr etst Curteis, Uckfield; Mr Alfred Deverell, °rth; Mr R Dobell, Wem; Mr and Mrs R. ^ond, Mancbilne; Mrs John Drummond, Charles Eley, Etchingham; Mr Jji'a J* John Emerfcon, London; Mr and I Emerton, London; Mr George ^alif' ^^mford; Mr and Mrs A. Fleming, ton.ax5 Mr and Mrs A. J. Follows, Edgoas- /iss Foster, Chephire Dairy Institute; Oijj- Mrs T. Gibson, Barnet; Mr and Mrs Alex. Qeor Worthing; Mr T. Haley, Huddersfield; Mr John Hardy, UttoxeterMr John Harrison, Jlf 5 Miss Harrison, Cheshire Dairy Institute itigg ^awes, Buckingham Mr Thomas and the Herbert, Leicester; Mr William Higgins, Samuel Hudson, Wem Mr Samuel it. jqL Hull; Mr A. H. Johnson, London Miss J. to °8tone, Worcestershire Dairy School; Messrs. itirb;a»T<i F. V. Jones, ADglesea; Mr and Mrs T. Leicester; Mr and Mrs R. Laird, Kirbv d > Col., Mrs., and Miss Le Cornu, Jersey; Mr rs J. Leggett, London; Mr R. A. Lister, itjg p 7 > Mr George Little, Huddersfield Mr and W. J- Lloyd, London; Professor Long, Ches- t) \r' Lord and Mrs J. W. Lord, Northiam; Mr Ala.cNicholl Mosfcyn; Miss M. M. Macqueen, Sri ^hire Dairy School; Miss M. F. Maidment, ex Dairy School; Miss E. A. Maidment, Dur- b College of Science; Messrs. J. H. Marks, H. J. Monson, Agricultural College, Thomas Muirhead, Dunfermline; T. ^.ti Beeby; M. O'Callaghan, Limerick; W. tL ^™er, Hull R. J. Peake, Piesfcon P. Peters, ■ Jobn Piatt, Wem; Jonathan Iter, Falkenhim; George Reynolds, Bucking- j^lj^seph Richardson, CreWfi; Thomas Rigby, Miss Rigby, Sutton Weaver; fidntond Riley, Hessle; R. Roberts, Menai 'liQ'N'3 Miss E. A. Roberts, Denbighshire and 'Sh*1"6 Dairy School; Mr Rd. Salisbury and Miss Liverpool; Mr Hy. Simmons and Miss ^>18, Wokingham Messrs F. B. Smith, South JljQ Agricultural College; A.J. Stanton and W;as Stonem, London Edward Tatler, Ealing 'aylor, Hull; Mr and Mrs E. Terry, Tun- G Tr ells Messrs C. W. Thompson, Framfield %t' L>ton, Raithby; F. Wallis, Lincoln; Miss ^PplgL Entree; Messrs Samuel R. Whitley, WilI Y; James Wilcox, Putney; Thomas < ty.?18, London William J. Wilson, Llanelly G. So* lln, Halbeith, Fifeshire; Mrs Winter, Ban- Ca Mr w. H. Woods, Preston. ^HLEJJ^11. MYTTON, in bidding welcome to the 1*^ he^fS^ent an(^ tiie members of the Association, °Cal a(l been asked by the members of the ^elcoj^^ttee to extend them a most hearty 5aPplav,6 the occasion of their visit to Welshpool *8 Wei en^anced the pleasure of extending "hip when he remembered that his lord- *live t0 ,^s predecessor had always been keenly interests of agriculture generally, and + l2-> th w ^.° r^,s important branch of agriculture, had ^n^ostry, as shown by tho facilities rfe.n given for the establishment of the Qnf a^ry School (applause). This school It d ?rtunately at the present time closed, ^Per^tin its existence it received the co- • alea g1 of the University College of North j1 the'P aT3Kor. It was carried on by gentlemen who did their best to promote the ?,oitiGlltnf,Ustry and he could not allow that S8 the to pass without referring to the terrible ^rriSo °0Unty had sustained by the death of Col. >»ol wi who was one of the directors of the >ho |jL °3^lamented death everyone in the county {8 a. 0:, W blm deplored that day (hear, hear). It be sct msfortune that at a critical period of 8 eXIstence the grant from the Board of it kUre was withdrawn and not increased, for ^^bly^i COIitinued the school would have been ar). t? ^ave done some very good work (hear, A 6 ^°Pe<^ that the result of the kind visit ilcrpSS(^a'on Welshpool would be the means -asin^ the interest already taken in the I ^OUDI0 ^'le manufacture of cheese and butter. SUPP'y c0UllCy f^r exceeded the heiy a,1(l although foreigu trade was ruining "tOl1ld. OSpects, he hoped their visit to Welshpool r tl*3 e^cia' (hear, hear). He again desired n le,Rl a hearty welcome to Montgomeryshire K{ £ Iause)- bOlltillU who was received with loud and ehaH A applause, thanked Captain Mytton on Association for the able and cordial tlid nlu w^ch he had accorded the welcome, and ^ehed^^ink that if the Principality had been K Q(1 a ou £ h from end to end they could have J tlje t1*1?1"6 ting or a tnore suitable man to ful- becaS than Captain Mytton—(applause)—not also hUSe tlle interest he took in agriculture, Otjgj(k ecause of the practical knowledge he had kear on the various branches of the *efp lndustry (applause). Captain Mytton Prisonri"t5 • lamented death of Colonel o0{. *1 ?'r friend and neighbour, and there rp0t lflissa fK ^armer in the district who would |hat Was ,h.6 Colonel's cordial and cheery smile, ^■y for 18 )ordship was sorry to say, a very sad er» the 6 Vls^ the Association, for they came ^had^°Unt7* 'as deploring the loss of a man inter ,tified himself so thoroughly w^th the If556 °'? ^le couutV anfl the district (hear, owpri was. to Colonel Harrison's efforts th:1t Ass'.ail(? 3n a rctT large degree, one of the 2* ^atiojis of jihire horses, repx*esentat-ive3 Wer»lle^ vvore likely to see during their visit. [ e Assoc.} J'r0ud' those who lived in Wales, that Pfe-sidp^u1 vis-ited the Principality, and as 'oeal p • v,Tiahed to thank tiie members of Or their °,atni(tee, who made the arrangements, ?ramrne fUnsParin.? efforts in providing a pro- "eaf). IJP fU, K'eat and pleasing variety (hear, i^0y a df^l"eu that the members would 5*Ped advn 'r Ulvisit to North Wales, and he "eir visit ? a?es "would accrue to tha district from agea tnv.of^ause^' thought such advan- large v, fome, because when they had v 1'ty j umber of gentlemen of undoubted .• ,tQeJr midst they would probably tr SeneralK? i wifc1^ Dew ideas, and bene- hope<j y by interchange of opinions. ft?'1,,8e of tho nV use^ui ^ints would be given in the f1'Ve'1 to tho .on^erence, that assistance might be II the (ja; 8e lnterested in agriculture, particularly re he Wa y arming of the district, and he felt iJ0te Inigh bght wen he said that a great deal 8 than had done in the direction of dairy farm- en done already (applause). Every- one in Montgomeryshire must have been proud when at the Chester Royal Show cheese made in Montgomeryshire was successful in carrying off several prizes against Cheshire cheese (applause). He thought the farmers of England were beginning to awaken to the fact that if they were to better their position with regard to the markets of the larger towns, or even to maintain it, depressing as it was, or to re-gain the position which had been snatched from them by foreign competitors, they must make 'lp their minds to give a regular and a uniform supply (loud applause). Why was it that American cheese competed successfully against their British cheese ? why was it that Danish and Brittany bufctereommauded a better price in English markets than did British butter 'i It was because the successful butters were of regular and uniform quality. Efforts were being made in various parts of the country to secure co-operation and combin- ation among the butter makers, and a scheme was before the country promulgated by Lord Win- chilsea- (applause) a man who was doing his best for his fellow-men, and he thought LordWinchilsea was deserving of the gratitude of every agricul- turist for the efforts he was making to-day (Jowl applause). In former years they used to abuse the railway companies, but they knew now that the railway companies were prepared to give them cheaper rates if farmers only sent their pro- duce in larger quantities and at regular intervals. but as long as the farmer chose to send his stuff in small quantities, and at irregular intervals, so long would the foreigner be able to successfully compete with him (loud applause). A famous statesman once said, Educate, educate, and more recently another statesman of different politics said, Organise, organise, organise." Well, he was not going to talk politics on that occasion, but he thought the farmers would do well to adopt both those suggestions (applause). But with regard to combination there was a difficulty to deal with, a difficulty more in the nature of the British farmer, a sort of feeling of suspicion or distrust of his neighbour, he might almost say a jealousy. tfthpydoffbtcd what he said on this point- he should like to mention one or two in- stances. Afriendofhis.whowasaverylarge agent, and who had to look after properties in several parts of England, once said to some far- mers who paid very high rents, You have a sea board of your own here, why don't you establish your store on the coast, hire a steamer, and then take your produce straight into the Londcn mar- ket." The farmers all agreed with him that the suggestion was excellent, but, they added, the only difficulty is we fear we shall not bo able to get on amongst ourselves" (laughter). Another instance came from an entirely different part of England, a district which happened a year or two ago, to have a particularly successful crop of barley. The foreign barley was a failure that year, and a gentleman, who knew a great deal about brewing, and was interested in the business, went to the farmers and said, Combine together, and you'll bo able to command a large price for your barley this year." He then went to the brewers and told them that there was excellent barley to be had in this particular county. The brewers sent down to purchase the barley, but instead of finding that the farmers had combined together they found that every single farmer in the district had undersold the other, the result being that the brewer got his barley cheap, and the farmer got very little profit. (Laughter and applause.) He thought this all extremely unfortunate state of things, (hear, hear.) It was with considerable diffidence that he had offered to make these remarks and in conclusion he would again thank Captain Mytton and the members of the local committee for the cordial welcome that had been offered the Society. Although the weather was not very bright he did not think anyone who got a wet coat would resent it but would welcome "he rain because the farmer was in so much need of it. He hoped they would allow him to say to the residents of the district what a pleasure it gave him to return amongst them once again (loud and continued applause). He had greac pleasure in asking Mr Forrester Addie to read his paper (loud applause). Mr ADDIE then read the following paper :— I wish to claim your indulgence for a short time while I endeavour to discharge the duty which I have been requested to undertake of preparing and reading a paper on the above subject, first acknow- ledging that I consider it a great honour that I have been asked to do so. The County of Montgomery, some 495,000 acres in extent, presents more diffi- culties to the dairy farmers than perhaps any of the counties or districts which have been previously visited by the members of your Association, in consequence of its varied character, the county consisting for the most part of high mountainous land or rich valleys, through which rivers or large streams flow, beautiful both from an agricultural and artists' point of view, and may I here express the hope, that the members of the Association who have done North Wales the honour of visiting this locality may, not only gain some further experience, but also be reinvigorated in health by the purity of our Welsh mountain air. For the purpose of pre- paring this paper I sent out to representative farmers in the county the following list of ques- tions :—1. Is dairying carried on to any extent in your district r 2. What breed of cows is used for the purpose ? 3. Is there any difficulty in finding the requisite labour for carrying on dairy 4. Is the milk sold or made into butter or cheese ? 5. Is butter sold fresh or salted to put into tubs ? 6. Is cheese made from new milk or skim ? 7. Is there any difficulty in disposing of the produce ? 8. What was the average price obtained for butter or cheese during 189E ? 9. Has any improvement been made during recent years in the manufacture of butter or cheese ? 10. Can you suggest any im- provement in dairy work, or in the mode of market- ing and selling the produce? 11. Any other re- marks. And 1 am very much indebted to each of the gentlemen who kindly sent me replies, and my object now is to embody as concisely as possible the valuable information 1 received, taking it in the order of the above questions. 1.—Tho county is one essentially for stock rearing, and though dairying is carried on on most of the medium-sized and small farms, and some of the larger ones, it is only done so as an auxiliary occupation. 2.—The breed of cows used are mainly Here- fords and cross-breds. The Herefords are no doubt a good beef making breed, and by crossing them with the shorthorn an animal best adapted for the double purpose of dairying and rearing is obtained. The old smoky-faced Montgomery- shire cattle were good dairy stock, but the breed is now almost extinct. Shorthorns are to be found on the English border, a'd in the mountainous districts black Welsh cattle are used, and are highly prized in these districts for their hardihood, milking, and beef qualities. 3.—Considerable difficulty is experienced on the large farms, where help beconi"" necessary, in getting good dairymaids, and tho 1 iges asked are out of proportion to the work to be doue. The complaint is general that it is difficult to get good milkers, that the maids are young and mostly in- experienced, and that the men decline to do it. On the smaller holdings where the work can be done by the wife and daughter the difficulty is not so great. 4, 5, little milk is sold except small quantities in Welshpool, Newtown, Ac. One or two farmers have occasionally entered into con- tracts to send milk to Manchester, aud recently the Birmingham Waterworks at Rhayader have caused a demaudfor a considerable quantity of milk, which is supplied by enterprising men. Mainly, how ever, the milk is converted into butter. A few years ago almost entirely tub butter, but now fresh butter is made during the period from Novemoei to June, and salt butter in large and cumbersome tubs of 120 to 140 pounds each from June to October. 1 am glad to say, however, that the system of tubbing is not so much practised as formerly and more fresh butter is being sold, till the end of June, when the supply often exceeds the demand. Very little cheese is made, and what is manufactured is almost entirely cheese for home consumption. 1 and 8.—There is great difficulty in disposing of tiie produce, which is not to be wondered at in conse. queues of the inaccessibility of the larger portion of the county from good markets, there being only one main" line of railway through the county, some districts being as much as 20 miles from any station. But probably the main reason is that the couuty being comprised largely of small holdings, where only a few cows are kept, the butter is therefore brought to the market in small quantities of very variable quality. The butter so brought is purchased by "higglers," who with dirty hands pack it in a rough and ready fashion into still dirtier boxes and hampers, the gooa, bad, and indifferent lots altogether, and consign it to customers in the large towns where it is brought into competition with the clean and neatly packed foreign biittei. ?ou wonder that foreign butter P^d and that Welsh butter gets a bad name ? Even t the butter were good when ",ade the tieatm receives would completely spoil it. Inl was a heavy fall in the price, and larg l of tub butter were sold as tow <as 16d. 3er lb. 1895 fresh butter sold rather badly, and in the spring only making 6d. to 9d, but in the autumn silt tab butter sold much better than the previous I year, making 9d. to lid. per lb Fresh butter last year averaged throughout the year Is. per lb. There can be no doubt that in addition to the difficulty of inaccessible markets already alluded to, the main reasons for the low price of butter have been the quality of the article effered for sale, the want of uniformity, and the lack of enterprise on the part of the producers in not sufficiently real- ising the necessity of making a better article. There are several instances within the county where butter of the best quality and uniformity is made, securing for the makers prices much in advance of those named above, and I am glad to say that several Montgomeryshire farmers have been successful in the butter classes at some of the London Dairy Shows. 9.Sume improvement is appreciable during the last two or three years in the manufacture of butter, but this improvement is mainly confined to those who attended the different dairy classes, and in no sense has this improvement extended to the general body of producers. In 1889 a few public spirited gentlemen in the county formed a Limited Company to conduct the Sylfaen Dairy School, in connection with the movement so well set on foot by the University College of North Wales for teaching the manufacture of butter and cheese. Although not a financial success, still the school has conferred very distinct benefits on the county, has drawn general attention to this important subject, and several pupils now hold high positions in other counties. The School was carried on by the directors until last year, when in consequence of the withdrawal of the grant of £80 made by the Bangor College from the Board of Agriculture, and the refusal of the County Council to take over the management, the Company most regretfully felt unable any longer to carry on the school. Montgomeryshire, like I believe, other counties in Wales, as compared with most of the English counties, is very considerably handicapped in having so small a share of the Local Taxation Grant given to it for technical education, as although the sum amounting to £3,500 is received for this purpose, only £250 is devoted to technical instruction, the remainder having been given to the building and maintenance of intermediate schools. However laudable intermediate education may be, it seems somewhat unfair that a purely agricultural county should only have devoted to it for dairy purposes the sum of about £100 out of the above £250. In this sense dairy education is much retarded, and until there is a thorough awakening to the needs of making a better article that improvement which is so desirable to cope with foreign competition, and to obtain better prices will not take place. I believe co-operation in manufacturing and marketing will be most likely to remedy the evils of low prices and an inferior article, and farmers generally are gradually getting more alive to this and to be more favourably disposed to adopt such a system. 10.—Under questions 7 and 8, I have referred to tie want of uniformity, and while there are other matters to be considered which I shall speak of later on, still, in my opinion, this main point has to be borne in mind in suggesting any improvements. I believe the best plan of dealing with this is by a modification of the factory system, either by pur- chasing the milk, 01 better still buying the butter unsalted and grading it, as is done in Normandy. It will be at once obvious that in such a county as Montgomery with great distances apart, and no railway communication, there are great drawbacks to carrying out a scheme of this kind successfully. If purchasing the milk be adopted I would venture to suggest a plan which I some time ago put before a meeting of farmers held at Llanfyllin. In most parishes there are at least one or two people who make good butter. Arrangements ought to be made for them to purchase the milk from the adjoining farmers, the person selling the milk undertaking to deliver it, and receive the skim milk back for the use of the stock on their respective farms. I think in order to make such a scheme work the milk should be sold outright at so much per gallon of a given standard weight, the producer undertaking to do the manufacturing and take all risks. Of course, in order to make this pay the manufacturers, the milk would have to be sold at a reasonable price, and until the farmers in Mont- gomeryshire either make a better article them- selves or sell their milk at a reasonaole price to some one else who will make it, not much improve- ment will take place. I believe if producers got 3!d. per gallon, and re- ceived back the skim milk, it would pay them much better than the present plan. Three prices, however, might be agreed upon, taking d. as the lowest figure for May, June, and July." Such a scheme would involve the manufacturer in providing the best appliances, suitable buildings, and a good dairymaid. Better buildings, there can be no doubt, however, are gradually being provided by the land. owners. The objection to the above plan is that it would not give absolute uniformity, and the only safe way of securing this is by the adoption of the factory system, and for the farmer to sell the butter to the dealer according to quality, unsalted. The dealer would then grade it either first, second, third, fourth, or fifth quality. All the first quality is put together, the second the same, and so on. A mix- ing machine is then used for blending it, which brings all to one consistency and quality. This is the system adopted in Normandy, and in one or two places in England, and I see no reason why, in some parts, this should not be tried in Montgomery- shire. There are many disused corn mills and other buildings with water power in the county, which might be devoted to such a purpose as I have sketched out, or would lend aid to those who might prefer to try some other form of co-operation. The conveyance of the manufactured article would, no doubt, have to be iaeed; but, with light railways on the move," and greater sympathy being shown by existing railways, this difficulty would be overcome. I should like to take this opportunity of welcoming amongst us to-day Mr Denniss, the general manager of the Cambrian Railways. Other developments also, besides making butter, would be certain to follow. Cheese being more convenient to market and de- liver at any distances than fresh butter, I think attention should be directed to the making of the better-class small fashionable cheeses that are suitable for a family trade, or in hotels and res- taurants. Greater consideration should also be given to providing a milk supply during a longer period of the year. At present very little attempt is made to do so In the winter, the consequence being that butter is rushed into the market when the prices are lowest, or put into tubs with very much the same result, the tubs being disposed of in a whole- sale manner, no attempt being made to regulate the milk supply over the whole of the year. I might refer to many more points affecting our dairying in this county, but, as my paper, is al- ready too long, I will only name that of proper feeding," which is too little understood. Eight out of every ten farmers know nothing of how to feed, or, if they do, very little consideration is o-iven to this important point, with the result that the "butter ratio" to the quantity of milk produced is rarely if ever thought about. 11.-—There can be no doubt that the Welsh are naturally clever and intelligent, and if they would only earnestly realise that it would pay better to make a first-class article, I have little doubt but that they would regain a large share of the dairy industry .than they have at present, and for which this county is eminently fitted. Mr THOAIAS RIGBY said he had very great plea- sure in proposing a hearty vote of thanks to Mr Addie for his most excellent paper. He had touched upon many interesting points with a faith- ful hand, and he believed that after reading through and thinking over the statements therein contained, at the same time discussing them in their own minds, that they would derive great benefit as visitors to this most beautiful country. The paper was accurate and graphic in the description he had given of the county of Montgomery. It was a hilly or mountainous county, somewhat thickly studded with various small timber trees, and was chiefly uf a pastoral character, with a full average rainfall: some good land in the valleys, and a good natural stock of cobs, ponies, and caru horses, Herefords, half-bred Welsh cattle, some useful hill sheep for breeding and feeding, some dairy farming, but not much arable land. The inconvenience of the markets of the county, the little railway accommo- dation, the inaccessibility of the larger portion of the county all combined to describe a hard life of toil and hard work; but its men were hardy and strong, its women industrious, hard-working, and striving, and their love of home and country equalled those of most favoured and most fertile lands (applause). Not much to the credit of the county was Mr Addie's description of the skill of their dairymaids, or their traffic as managers or diplomatists, in large or small matters. Tub butter was packed in large cumbersome tubs, holding 120 or 140 Ibs. each. Very little cheese was made, and that was chiefly skim cheese for home use. The saddest part of the picture was that the main reasons for low prices of butter, quoted at 6d, 9d, and lid per lb., was the want of uniformity, aad the lack of enterprise on the part of the producers in not seeing the necessity of making a better article. The schoolmaster must certainly have been abroad, or his work and teaching had not been appreciated (laughter). Quality was one of the most potent conditions in any marketable commodity, it would realise the best price per lb., and always be more readily saleable. There was by no means' a dis- position in their countrymen to buy foreign produce before English (applause). If the working classes bought Danish butter or even foreign-made margarine before country butter, fresh made weekly, it was because it was better, more pleasing to the eye, and more economical to use. Good, well-made, best butter was wholesome, nutritious, easily digested, and assisted more than any other kind of fat to renew the system, and build up health and strength and good energy (hear, hear). Milk should be got and kept in as cleanly and as sweet a state as possible. For butter-making the cream should be at once taken out of it by the mechanical separator, then ripened or soured, not over quickly nor too much, but in a temperature of about 60 to 65 degrees on an average. It should be churned say at two days old and by rule of thermometer, without a. chance of allowing it to go to sleep, the butter should be then taken out of the churn when about the size of pin-heads, gathered together, washed, dried, and moulded. It was necessary that those who studied dairying should do so under competent teachers (bear, hear). He was glad to say that there were a number of qualified teachers with them that day, who had come with the object of learning additional facts. Dairy farmers in this country must remember that quality would rule the prices, and next to that they should endeavour to send to market week after week butter of one uniform make. What they wanted was uniformity, and this was only attained by a higher knowledge of the subject. Rule of thumb had done good service in the past they had had a good class of butter makers there were some who were makers and had made butter of the best quality, nevertheless the matter of uniformity had often been a source of complaint, in fact it had been a general complaint. Now that they had a more general knowledge of the science and theory of butter making they might regularly discharge the duty of dairymaids with the certain hope of bringing about better uniformity in quality (hear, hear, and applause). In conclusion Mr Rigby ex- pressed regret at the closing of tho Sylfaen Dairy School, and said it gave him greater pleasure to propose this vote of thanks because he had known Mr Addie for many years as a practical agricultur- ist (loud applause). Mr J. MARSHALL DUGDALE, in seconding the motion, said he greatly regretted they were com- pelled to some extent to curtail their proceedings owing to the lateness of the train. Mr Addie, whose facilities for getting information from all parts of the county were quite uniqm, had read them an excellent paper (applause). He did not, however, think things were quite as bad altogether as Mr Addie had contended. He (the speaker) believed there was any quantity of excellent butter made in Montgomeryshire and he was quite as certain that it never went into the market at all. The main part of the butter which went into the market was that made on the small holdings where only a few cows were kept Mr Addie was quite right when he spoke of the difficulties of transport by rail and road. Such a system as was in vogue at present was very easily criticised, and thpy must remember that the small farmers had through the depression which had fallen upon them held their own as well as any ia the whole of the United Kingdom (loud applause). There was no doubt room for education, but how could they go in for education when they only got the magni- ficent sum of £100, from the County Council (laughter and applause). jje thought they should get trained teachers, not people who had been studying the matter for ten weeks only people who knew the requirements, who could go among the farmers and tell them how they could turn out a butter which would sell in the market. He believed it could be done (hear, hear.) They could not go among the comparatively poor and tell them to buy new implements, but they could instil into them the first principles of cleanliness (applause.) They could tell them how to make the best use of the implements they already possessed, they could tell them how and when to churn and if this was done he had no doubt they would be able to improve the uniformity and general quality of the butter throughout the county (applause.) Mr. Addie had always advocated in the county the mak- ing of cheese, and lots of people rather pooh- poobed the suggestion. But cheese was made at the Sylfaen Dairy Farm, and, from his own ex- perience, he knew that cheese could be made in Montgomeryshire and at a better selling price than butter (applause.) To his minti it was a scandal to find Devonshire cream going to Aberystwyth and Llandudno (loud applause.) Mr WILSON, of Llanelly, supported the resolution, and referred to the success of the factory system in Carmarthenshire. Last month they paid 4d a gallon for milk, and after separating the milk returned the skimmed milk to the farmers to rear their stock upon. That paid .farmers extremely well, when butter was selling at 7Jd. Donkeys were very useful for conveying the milk to the factory. They were useful animals and in order to encourage the general use of them be was offering a prize for donkeys at the next Llanelly show. He thought small farmers might do well by going in for donkeys (hear, hear). There was about only one drawback he had heard to the factory system. At present, the farmer's wife made and sold the batter, she therefore got the money and with it purchased the household requisites and if there was a balance left she gave it to the husband. If the tuilk was sent to the factory the husband received the cheque whilst the wife never saw it (loud laughter and applause). Then came the question of labour. If they started factories some argued that the woman's occupation was gone. That was not the case. If she liked she could rear poultry, which could easily be made to pay (hear, hear). Or she could look after bees which also paid extremely well. A hive of bees generally cost about £2 15s, and from one hive he recently obtained honey which he sold at £21 (applause). It was these small things that helped the small Welsh farmer to pay his rent (hear, hear). Then he saw no earthly reason why they should not have glass houses in which to cultivate cucumbers and tomatoes, and the cultivation of these articles of consumption in Carmarthenshire had proved very successful. His opinion was that unless people helped themselves they could not expect auybodv <o help them (applause). They were told they could not get a sufficient grant from their County Council for technical education, but he thought the remedy lay in their own bands, for they should turn the present representatives out at the first oppor- tunity (laughter and applause). Professor LONG, in supporting the resolution, said that looking at the present price of dairv pro- duce, he could see no light nor profit marLnn": also. that ttlthough under such depressing influences tliev all seemed to enjoy themselves amazinalv (laughter) He expressed preference for the blending house system rather than the factory system. More care should be exercised in the selection of milking cows (hear, hear). He was also convinced that one acre of vetches was worth two acres of ordinary and uumanured grass, both in summer and winter (applause). Thcv to cut down their food bills extensive, and endeavour to cultivate leguminous foods! He BUpported Mr A(!<il;' V,T strongly indeed vit.h reirard to the blending house system, and also with roc-ard to the manufacture, of fashionable cheese '(applause). 1 hose who were in the habit of travelling noticed that in our large hotels they could call for one, three, or six foreign cheesos, and get them. But if they asked for Cheddar. Cheshire, or Caerphillv cheese they were told that they (tho hotel keepers) never heard of it (laughter). He was prepared to say that the latter were quite as good when well made as any of the foreign cheese (101H] applause). He advised them to produce their own cheese in this county of Montgomery, and they could thell do the same as France did, viz., inlmmselv increase their income, and at the same timc add to the prosperity of the dairy farmer in .-enoral (cheers). The motion was then put to the meeting and carried unanimously, amidst lond applause. Mr FORBESTKR ADDIE RESPONDED, and in so doing returned his hearty thanks for the kind reception of his paper, which, he repeated, he considered it an honour to be asked to read. The -ileasnre was enhanced because of the kind remarks of Mr Rigby, and by what had been said bv Mr Marshall Dug- dale, who had taken such a great interest in dairy farming in the county (applatise). Mr GEORGE BARHAM,' in proposing a vote of thauks to the Ea-rl of Powis for presiding in such an able and kindly manner, said he felt certain his Lordship and Mr Addie took the deepest interest in the welfare of agriculture (apphllse), He believed tiiere were several small farmers who did not know when they took their butter to market how much per gallon their milk had realised (hear, hear). the motion was endorsed with applause without being seconded, and Lord Powis, in response, said it was perfectly unnecessary for him to speak of the pleasure it gave him to preside on that occasion (cheers). His services in tho future had only to be commanded and he should be happy to readily comply with the request (loud applause). The meeting then terminated, and in the middle of a heavy thunderstorm the visitors were driven in a long procession of vehicles to Coedydinas, Lord Powis's home farm. On arrival there was an in- teresting parade of fat cattle, the bulls being par- ticularly admired by the experts in bull flesh. The well appointed and neatly kept store houses and cattle pens were visited and considerable in- terest was taken in the dairy department which forms such a material feature of the farm which is under the management of his lordship's bailiff Mr. George Macqueen, whose daughter Miss Margaret is dairy instiuctress at the Lancashire County Councii Farm at Hutton. The farm is about 1000 acres in extent, much of it being high lying and surrounded by covers in which there is abundance of game, but about 200 acres of it is situate in the fertile valley of the Severn. The farm steading is also iii the valley. The buildings are commodious and well arranged. With the exception of the buHs and calves the stock were all in the fields. A fine herd of about forty Ayrshire used to be kept on the farm, but as the land was considered good enough to carry the more aristocratic shorthorns, the Ayr- shires have been gradually displaced by the red, white, aud roans." At the head of the herd stands oaiauiander, 66277, a dark red. bred by Mr. J. Deane Willis, and got by the old Captain of the Guard, now in service at Uppermill. To follow him and use with his heifers Jasper, 65693, was pur- chased at Birmingham Sale in 1895, where he had taken first prize in his class. Jasper was bred by Mr. Atkinson, in Westmorland, and sired by the Newton-bred bull Asterisk, 62094. He is a massive heavy fleshed bull, and the sire of over twenty nice coloured good haired calves, which were seen in the buildings. Another capital young red bull was purchased last autumn at Dun- combe Park Sale. He is a son of the 1000-guinea bull New Year's Gift, and is out of a Kirklevington covv. He looks like growing into a strong bull of good quality. In a field to the right, as the party approach, were the dairy cows, among them being a few two-year-old heifers in milk. Mr Macqueen's practice is to put the heifers to the bull at from twelve to fifteen months old, so that they calve before they are two years old, as it is found that this practice makes them more certain to breed and become better milkers, if they do not grow so very big. Amongst the cows we notice Lady Worcester de Breos 2nd, of Lord Swansea's breed- ing, a big framed good fleshed rcan; also Cowslip 32nd and Cowslip 33rd, a handsome pair, bred at home and sired by Duke of Barrington 26th, a bull of Mr Sheldon's breeding, used for three years in the herd, and the sire of many of the best cows Silver Snoes, Duchess Amy, Duchess Dulce, and several other good-looking daughters of the Duke are noticeable. In another field there were about half a dozen autumn calvers—some of them grand- looking cows—and fifteen very pretty red yearling heifers by Salamander, just the sort that are wanted there. In a field beyond the steading was a lot of very useful two-year-old West Highland heifers, bought at the Perth Sales, and being mated to the red shorthorn bulls. On the high part of the farm were many grand specimens of this useful cross, at different stages of their beef-making career. In another field were five Shire mares of a good stamp, three of them with foals by Bury Victor Chief; and in a field near the stackyard about twenty yearling Shropshire rams, for sale next autumn. The Castle household is supplied with nearly all that can be produced at home (the surplus being sold) in the shape of beef, mutton, pork, butter, cream, milk, poultry, and eggs. The crops at Coed-y-Dinas have suffered a good deal for want of rain, but some black tartarian oats, sown in February, were looking splendid, and seemed like growing long enough in the straw. The man- golds were being hoed, but the fly and drought have been against the swedes growing. The rains that have fallen during the last few days have, how- ever, caused a wonderful improvement in the appearance of ail the jrops. A flock of 240 ewes, with their produce, is kept, most of them being Shropshires but on the higher land a cross of Shrop and Clun Forest sheep is kept which make good butchers' sheep, and are hardy to winter. After sheltering for a short time a move was made to the saw-mills and timber yard, where, as at Coed-y-dinas, the Earl of Powi3 and Mr Addie took especial pains to give any information of interest to the visitors. The drive was resumed through the park to the castle, where after a brief interval, a recherche luncheon was enjoyed in the ball-room, the caterers being Mr and Mrs Richards, of the Royal Oak, Welshpool. The menu was:— Mavonaise of Salmon. Lobster Salads.. Plain Lobsters. Prawns in Aspic. Gelantine of Turkey. Pressed Beef a la Gelee. Roast Chickens. Tongues. Braised Ham. Bechamel Chickens. Roast Beef. Quarters of Lamb. Raised Leveret or Pigeon Pies. Roast Turkey Poults. Wine Jellies. Venilla Creams. Genoese Pastries. Cherry Tartlets. Gooseberry Tartlets. Cheese Cakes. Strawberry and Lemon Ices. The Earl of Powis presided, and amongst those I present, in addition to those mentioned as being present at the conference, were Mrs A. C. Humphreys-Owen, Mrs Forrester Addie, Mr J. H. Addie, Professor Winter (Bangor), Messrs C. E. Howell, Edw. Jones (town clerk), W. Soott Owen (Cefngwifed), H. Warburton Lee, Lntener, Roberts (Ystym Colwyn), J. M. Jones (Varchoel), D. Pryce (Great Weston), T. Rowley Morris,, C. Galloway, C. S. Denniss (general manager of the Cambrian Railways), E. Green (the Moors), T. Green (Pool Quay), E. R. Owen (Garthmyl), R. Morgan (Bahaillon), C. Shuker, Langford (Chirbury), &c., &c. After luncheon, Mr MARSHALL DUGDALE pro- posed the health of Lord Powis, referred to his lordship's hospitality, and thanked him on behalf of the visitors for the interest he had taken in the proceedings. Owing to ill-health and absence in Egypt, his lordship had not been able to attend many of the meetings of the council of the asso- ciation, and that, lie believed, was his first public appearance since his return to this country (loud applause). The toast was drunk amidst loud applause, and the PRESIDENT, in responding, said it had struck him that a small collection of stock would be of interest to the visitors, and they were welcome after rising to view the stock, the gardens, and the castle if they chose to do so (loud applause), lie wished to thank all those who had sent stock, espe- cially those from a distance (applause). He only wished he had been able to attend the Council meetings, but circumstances, over which he had no control had kept him away, and he had only re- cently returned to England, and was glad to say lie was very much the better for having been abroad (loud applause). He regretted the absence of Ladv Powis who was kept away bocause she had the "measles (laughter and loud applause). The company then adjourned, some to visit the extensive gardens, other to view the interior of the Castle, rich in historic relics, others to view the cattle,' and other stock. Shire horses were exhibited by Messrs David Richards, Royal Oak, Welsh pool John Lewis, Trwstllewelyn Thomas Green, The Bank, Pool Quay; Morris Evans, Wernllwyd, Berriew Edward Jones, Bank Farm,'Pool Quay; W. Roberts, Ystym, Colwvn; and Edward Green, The Moors. Hackneys by Messrs. T. Green, E. Jones, Christopher Naylor Leyland, Leighton Hall; and E. R. Owen, Garth- myl. Pomes by Messrs Naylor Leyland, J. Mar- shall Dugdale, W. Langford, Chirbury M. Kinsey, I Huttmgton R. Davies, The Moat, Welshpool; and E. R. °0wen. Shorthorns by Messrs Marshall Dugdale and W. Davies, Stalloe. Herefords by Messrs W. Langford, W. P. Jones, Churchst-oke; and D. Pryce, Great Weston. Black Welsh cattle (referred to in Mr Addie's paper read at the Town Hall), by Messrs Marshall Dugdale and E. Vaughan, Llyss'un. Welsh sheep by Messrs Marshall Dug- dale John Morris, Garthbeibio; aud E. Vaugan, Llys'sun. Kerry Hill sheep by Mr Langford, Chir- bury Clun Forests by Mr W. Owen, Shamasford, Montgomery. Shropshires by Mr E. Vaughan, Llyssuu. Butter anu cheese by Messrs Roberts, Ystvm Colwyn; and J. Morris, Gartbbeibio, Ac. The disrlay was small, though typical of the differ- ent breeds, and appeared to be a source of much interest to the visitors. This concluded the programme for the day as far as Montgomeryshire was concerned, aud as the members' drove away to Welshpool St ation to catch their special train for Chester, hearty cheers were given for the Earl of Powis, who bade them a hearty adieu. The arrangements made for the reception of the visitors reflected great credit on the local com- mittee. Mr Forrester Addie way unremitting in his attention and courtesy to an. On Wednrsday ninc, C) train was, taken for Wrexham, where, at 9.45. in the PubaV Hall, Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn didiv-rod :1!, address of welcome from the local committee. -Mr James T. Iiobbs, jur., then read a paper oil Th- reariuf of stock on a (lairy jarUl, winch was followed by another paper by Mr Edward Brown on The rearing of poultry on a dairy farm." At the close of the discussion carriages were taken at noon for a drive through the collieries and briek- works to the Home Farm, Wvnnstay, where luncheon was provided by Sir Watkin Williams- Wvnn. At 2.30 the party drove to EytolJ io spe the farm and herd of Mr Frank Lloyd, and after- wards they inspected Mr Thomas learnall's dan-y farm at Royton. Wrexham was again reached ui time to take the six o'clock train for Chester and this brought the second day's business to a close. On Thursday morning at 8.50 a special tram con- veyed the party from Chester to Denbigh, where Colonel Cornwallis West delivered an address of welcome in the Drill Hall, and a paper was read by Mr M. A. O'Callaghan on Ihe advantages and disadvantages of butter factories and creameries on co-operative principles." After the discussion the party drove to YSTrad to see the farm and the dairy herd of Colonel Hughes, by whom luncheon was provided. For the afternoon a drive was arranged to the Flintshire and Denbighshire Dairy School at Lleweni, and afterwards through the picturesque vale of Clwyd to Mr Percy P. Pratt's stud farm at Brynllithrig. The drive was con- tinued to St. Asaph station, whence a special train at 6.20 took the party to Bangor, to which city the headquarters of the conference were transferred. The whole of yesterday was devoted to tours of inspection. Carriages left Bangor for Vaynol, where at Mr Asshetou Smith's Home Farm the party SUA- the black cattle, wild white cattle, or Brahmin cattle, Angora goats, and St. Kilda four-horned sheep, besides inspecting the daily and farm buildings. The drive was continued through Lord Penrhyn's park and the model village of Llandegai to Gorddinog, the residence of Colonel Platt, who entertained the members to luncheon. The shire horses and the famous herd of black cattle belonging to Colonel Piatt were inspected at the home farm at Madryn. Mr Thomas Rooerts's farm at Tanfynwert, Aber; was next visited, and the party afterwards went to T/tirmeilwn to see Mr Humphrey Eliis's herd of black cattle; Bangor be- ing reached again at about 6 p.m. In the evening a conversazione was given by the University College of North Wales, at which the Mayor of Bangor delivered an address and the college buildings were open for inspection. This brought the proceedings of the conference to a close. It will be seen that the more serious business of the gathering was pleasantly interspersed with lighter functions, aud with excursions, in the ciurse of which many glimpses were afforded of Welsh agriculture and of the picturesque surroundings amid which the farmers of North Wales pursue their calling.

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