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PERSHING AND THE CADETS.
PERSHING AND THE CADETS. General Pershing was, when a Lieuteir7tal in the United States Army, appointed rail-i tary instructor at the University of Nebraska where his fine quality of enforcing discipline and creating a true esprit de corps among the cadets resulted in the university having bj general admission the best cadet corps outside of West Point. Colonel Hayward, now Ct,ai- mander of the 15th New York Infantry, wsf 8 cadet at Nebraska under Pershing, and lid is quoted in the World's Work as follows: Pershing was as severe a disciplinarian as a kindly man can be. He was always just. He had no pets. Punishments for derelic- tions of duty came no swifter than his rewards for faithful performance. Pershing's personality and strength of character dominated those cadets as I have never known in the case of any individual be- fore or since, in or out of the Army. We loved him devotedly, and yet I am sure the awe in which I stood of him during all those years was shared by every other cadet. When Pershing was at last to leave us the cadets who had served under him desired a distinguishing1 badge of some sort. A num- ber were in favour of a gold medal, others something else. But some boy had a real brain-throb, with the result that a select com- mittee headed by John W. Dixon, now one of Judge Morgan J. O'Brien's law partners, called on Lieutenant Pershing at his head- quarters in the armoury and asked him for a pair of his breeches. "'What in the world do ou want with a pair of my breeches? He was then informal that they were to be cut up into strips,* the yellow cavalry stripe in the centre and a bit of the blue breeches on each side, and made into service- ribbons. He was plainly affected. After a pause he said: I will give you the very best pair I own.' We took them and made service-ribbons of them. So far as I know," concludes Colonel Hayward, those were the first ser- vice-ribbons worn."
TAILOR WHO REVIEWED TROOPS.
TAILOR WHO REVIEWED TROOPS. A little known story of the American War of Independence has been brought to light in the New York Times. It is that of a tailor who patched up the clothes of Washington's ragged army, and who was, as a result, ac- corded the unique honour of passing the sol- diers in review. It was after the battle of Princeton, on January 3rd, 1777, when the soldiers, hungry, footsore, and in rags, marched into the village of Pluckemin, in Somerset County, N.J. After the men had been well fed and rested for several days; prompt and effective steps were taken to sew up and patch their exceed- ingly tattered garments. To this task a man from the ranks rose as a host in himself. This was Private Robert Little, a lean and stalwart Scotchman. Big Bob Little," as he was familiarly known, temporarily laying down his musket, took up needle and shears, and very soon performed miracle-s of improve- ment in the appearance of the rank and file. This good work he could not have accom- plished had he not been gleefully helped by many young neighbouring farmers, who rode around far and near collecting gratuities of homespun cloth from farmers and others who did home weaving. So well had Big Bob" and his coadjutors succeeded in this, and so delighted were the officers with the improved appearance of the men, that the Colonel-in-Command, hearing that the approaching February 22nd was "Big Bob's" birthday, he determined as a compli- ment to Bob to have a dress parade on that day. The parade was in full swing to the en- livening music of fife and drum, and the men, it is said, marched with heads erect and proud step, once more having clothes without very bad holes in them; company after com- pany marching past the step of a tavern which served as the saluting base, whereon stood the Colonel, and by his side the tailor, whose handy needle had done so much to reanimate the spirit of the troops.
HIS UNFORTUNATE FACE.
HIS UNFORTUNATE FACE. A bright-eyed, rosy-cheeked young sailor I was explaining to some friends ashore, says the Morning Post, how he came to possess much more of un-Excised tobacco and cigar- ettes than it is permissible to pass into civilian society. Well, you see," he said, one of our chaps was painfully unfortunate with his face. He'd never done anything wrong in his life, but when there was trouble of any kind on board he always looked guilty. He simply couldn't .help it. The matelots called him Crimey Jim. They called me Alice. When I found we were to go on the same leave I loaded up pretty heavily with tobacco, and then kept close to Jim. Sure enough, when we tried to pass out of the dock gates the look that came over Jim's face would have hanged a saint. Here, come in- side, matey,' says the thin policeman, and while he stripped Jim about naked I told the fat policeman all about mother and my little sister who was ill, and the presents I was taking them. Then the fat policeman says, 'Righto, sonny; carry on. Love to mummy,' and I just walked down the street and sat on the bundle of tobacco until they let Jim out."
A PEN-PICTURE OF NAPOLEON.
A PEN-PICTURE OF NAPOLEON. Here is an extract from a description of Napoleon Bonaparte at Elba, printed in a provincial paper in February, 1815, and ascribed to a "Mr. North, a young man at the Bar Bonaparte has the squarest figure, I think, that I ever recollect to have seen. He is extremely corpulent, his faft is a perfect equare from the effects of fat, and as he has no whiskers his cheeks are thrown more into relief. This description, joined to his odd little three-cornered cocked hat, would cer- tainly give him the appearance of a very vulgar person if the impression was not counteracted by his erect soldierly carriage and the peculiar manner of his walking, which is confident, theatrical, and even a little ruffianlike; for he stamps the ground every step and at the same time twists his body. He was dressed that day in a green coat turned up with dirty white, buttoned with one button across the brkast., single-breasted like a Quaker's, no embroidery, no epriulet, but lying quite close everywhere, with Kersey- mere breeches and waistcoat and white cotton stockings. His neck is short, his shoulders -very broad, and his chest open. Hit features are remarkably masculine, regulas and well formed. He seemed in good humour, and had more or less a smile upon his open mouth, which, notwithstanding a beautiful set of teeth, could not conceal that expression ) which men, immoderately exalted in their own opinion, generally carry about that fea- ture. His skin is coarse and weather-beaten, though quite unwrinkled, and his colour bad and sunburnt would spoil his handsome fea- tures were they nOli already altered by fat. His countenance is not of that pensive, medi- tating t-ast which his picture fcives him, but
bulletin ACo. 3. !National Health! j Campaign j o No fewer than 375,078 i children under five years died in England and j V/ales during the years 1911-1914, a figure i representing a quarter I of the total deaths at ¡ all ages. Most died from I preventable diseases" I What are you do- C, I irfg to make sure that your home is kept free from epidemic disease? With j all respect the promoters i of the FIRST AID Nation- • al Health Campaign sug- ] gest one sure way to j I i safeguard home health. j I i The regular use of I j WM1 | 1 Disinfectant Soap ¡ I has been proved time and i time again a preventive I of infectious and epidemic ■ disease in the home. | I i FIRST AID Is a modern disinfectant soap not to i be confused with carbolic and similar soaps. FIRST AID is a scien- tific product of guaran- teed efficiency. It is i delightful in use and of • unusual economy. 0 Sold at 7^d. in triple 0 tablets (each cuts into 0 | three handy pieces). ;3I&> !i^|- s I i Made only by Christr. Thomas & Bros. Ltd., Broad Plain, Bristol. • The First Aid Book, 40 • I pp. of useful hints, post i free, on mentioning your usual dealer's name and address. M2I f ducational. Woodlands Day A Boarding School for Girls (Preparatory for Little Boys) OAMDEN BOAD, BRECON. Principals: Miss Park-Brown and Miss Wright, A.R.C.M. Uanal Enghtb But) ecss, Na ur-i Ssndy, Needlework, French, Drnwirg. P.iosit.g, H..ftl!,t1 Eie oisefi, Dancirg. Mns c speciality. oilOHxHAND cid BOOK-KEEPING Outside Students may attend for any of the above snbjpcta Next Term begins May 7th. t'RIVATH. TUITION MR. W. P. J. I,r.BBOCQ, M.A., F.L.B., F.A. Met. Boe, (Honours, Christ's CoUrge, nana T)REPARE8 PUPILS for Oorr- i missioua ID tij, Army and Navy, and for Law, Srtedipo!, Civil Sbrvioe td oilier Entrance Examination'. Private lessons in Botany, practical Botany wnr, nae of Microscope, bl-ttheni4tint, French. Nat^.e Study, etc.
I IBITS FROM BOOKS.
I I BITS FROM BOOKS. THE BISHOP AND THE OLD HUNTING PARSON. In Mrs. Stuart Menzies' most readable book," "Sportsmen Parsons: in Peace anc War" (Hutchinson), there are some good stories of the old-style hunting parsons. Ir one of them Mr. Menzies describes how a I culprit escaped from the lecture that a scandalised Bishop had prepared for him. The Rev. John Froude, M.F.IL, vicar oi Knowstone, in Devonshire, was summoned tc appear before the Bishop of Exeter, but de- clined. The Bishop, therefore, in no amiatUe I mood, determined to visit the vicar. With regard to this visit Mrs. Menzies says: j A little bird must, I think, have arrived I in advance of the prelate, for when he was shown into what I believe was termed the "parlour" he was kept waiting for some time. This did not improve the Bishop's state oj mind, and I feel sure he must have been* re hearsing to himself some of those very teliinc reprimands which at the time seem so con- clusive and from which we depart entirely, saying something quite different when thi actual moment arrives. His patience and dignity were strained to breaking-point when, while striding up and down the jooin, the dooi suddenly opened and a female requested hire to "f,lk this way, please." Complying with this request, he found himself in the presence of Mr. Froude, rolled up in blankets, with a shawl over his head, sitting close into the fire, apparently hardly able to speak in conse- quence of a violent cold in his head and chest. Under ordinary circumstances, no doubt, thE I Bishop would have made polite inquiries into the state of the Vicar's health, but nothing was further from his mind on this occasion, and he at once opened the conversation by plunging into the reason of his visit, saying pompously: "Good day, Mr. Froude. I have come to ask if certain stories are true that-" Mr. Froude: Oh, yes, yes, my Lord, I quite agree with you, very cold, yes very cold travelling; do 'ee sit down now and have some hot brandy and water. There is nothing like it for keeping off the shivers!" Bishop (indignantly): No, thank you, I never partake of anything between meals!" Mr. Froude's cold was evidently so bad it had made him for he rang the bell, and when it was answered by his housekeeper Mary requested her to bring hot brandy and water for the Bishop, adding, And, Mary, he likes it strong Bishop (now most uncomfortable): -NO! i No! Mr. Froude, I have not come to drink hot brandy and water, but to ask you about certain charges." But here again he was interrupted. Mr. Froude: "Yes, my Lord, it is my only doctor, and if I had been wise and tnken it at first I should not have been sitting Tiere now like any old woman, as deaf as an adder-" This was the last straw. The Bishop made a solemn bow and dignified exit to his car- riage, and gave orders for home. If history is to be believed, as soon as ms Lordship had disappeared Mr. Froude's cold suddenly disappeared, and just to shake off the last remnants of it he Jumped into the saddle and was away.
I.—I I A BITTER DRAUGHT.I
— A BITTER DRAUGHT. From the Memoir of Henry Kenelm pigby," by Bernard Holland (Longmans), we quote a pathetic instance of a father's domestic trouble following on. his own change of religion: In his first year at Kensington he endured a new and bitter loss. Marcella, his eldest daughter, was of all his children nearest to himself in mind, tastes, and interests. He had given her a strong education. She had learned, with her brothers, Latin and Greek from their tutor, a Cambridge convert and a fine scholar, and she had read much history and literature for her ege. She loved the outdoor life, and especially riding, and was rather fond, too, of dress and jewels. But the sudden deaths, in 1856, of her youngest and her eldest brother had a tremen- dous effect upon this girl of nineteen. If this is life," she said, it is better to give one's whole self to reJigton." She had also been much impressed by her father's defence of the monastic life in his books. She now asked his leave to become a Nun, and he re- fused to give it. Mareella quotM bisv own writings against him, silently handing to him a volume of his I Compitum." Kenelm Digby was not I the first, nor will be the last, father who has I entered the Catholic Church, and has then seen his children go beyond him in devotion. That same attraction which brings some into I the Church draws others on further still. It is, in this sense, a dangerous religion. But those who belie-ve in, r.nd therefore join, the I Catholic Church, must be prepared to take all the consequences of their action.
AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION MARKS.
AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION MARKS. An aeroplane marked with concentric rings or parallel stripes, or both, fights on the side of the Allies, whereas one with any form of black cross (Maltese or otherwise) is on the side of the Central Powers, says the author of "The Aircraft Identification Book" (Crosby, Loekwocd, and Son): The early British naval seaplanes used to employ the design of the Union Jack, but this I was subsequently replaced by a red circle, or more recently by a red centre, surrounded first by a white ring (or the natural colour of the fabric), and then by a blue ring—which is the standard for the Army. The positions for these markings are near the tips on the upper surface of the upper I plane, and in similar positions on the under- side of the lower plane. A similar mark .'s also placed on each side of the fuselage, between the aviator's seat and the tail of the machine. I The ring markings are not, however, em. ployed on the rudders. In this latter position it is usual to employ striped markings—e.g., Great Britain uses vertical LUie (next to rudder post), white, and red stripes. France has red, white, and blue vertical stripes on ¡ her aeroplane rudders, with circles of reverse colouring to the British in other positions. The Belgian, Rumanian, and Serbian colours are like the French, though formerly the Bel- gians employed their national colours of black, yellow, and red—the black being at the centre. The Russian marks corresponding to their flag are white, blue, and red. They also adopted the circle system. The Ita.ian circle mark has a red centre, surrounded by a white ring and green outer circle. The U: B.A. mark on the planes was origi- nally a five-pointed wlute star, with a red centra, on a circular background of blue, but I is now changed to red, blue, and white circles. The rudder marks are red (next to rudder nosil. white, and blue .vertical strioes.
SCIENCE NOTES & NEWS.
SCIENCE NOTES & NEWS. A PUZZLING STAR. In the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Is a note on a near neighbour of our solar system—that is, near as the stars go. This is a tiny star between the twelfth and thirteenth magnitudes in brightness, which was picked up by van Maanan at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the latter part of 1917, upon plates taken in a search for a possible faint companion to a rapidly moving brighter star. Upon comparing photographs taken a couple of years apart, no such companion could he found; but one ei the inconspicuous stars was found to have shifted its position i-e7- considerably, and to have the remarkably large proper motion of 3.01 seconds annually. T'iiis motion, which is ex- ceeded by only a or so of star". made it probable that the star was relatively us in space. Observations for parallax were promptly begun by tin? discoverer, and from sixteen p!ates taken with the Great Mount- Wibon reflector he finds the larue value 0 second, with a probable error of c,y cy-.e- thirneih of its amount. This mean's, savs Professor Henry Novris Russell in tiie Scientific American, that the star is at a DISTANCE OF ABOUT THIRTEEN uaHT YEARS. and nearer than nil but perhaps twenty of the rii.nons of stars which appear to our'eves to be brighter. If it were not so vcry near'us we not slee it at. all; for it is one of the jam tost objects of which we so far have Knowledge, being onlv 1-6.COOtl: n' as the eun. Even Barnard's recently-discovered '• runaway star1' is two or three times as yright as this, and the only fainter star which so far known is Innes's companion to Alpha C-.nt:uiri. Ilie spectrum of this wonderful star is of type F, similar to that of Canopus, and indi- catcs a Ingher surface temperature than that of the sun and direct measures of the colour show that it is also whiter than the sun. indi- cating again that. it is hotter. But if it is hotter than the sun, it ought to shine more brightly per square mile, probably two or three times as brightly, at the least; and this would mean that its superficial area was less than 1-10,000th that of the sun, and that it was
NO BIGGER THAN THE EARTH!
NO BIGGER THAN THE EARTH! Now there is no doubt that a body the size of the earth, if it could be heated so that its outer atmosphere was at a temperature of some 8,OOOdeg. Cent., would be very similar to this tiny star in brightness, colour, and spec- trum. But there is very good reason to doubt that enough heat could be produced inside it to supply the loss by radiation from the surface. We know too little, however, of the sources of the heat which the stars radiate so fiercely into space to make it safe for us to dogmatise upon questions of possibility. All one can say is that either the star in question is hardly larger than the earth, or else it is much larger but for some reason does not shine as brightly per square mile as might be supposed from its spectrum and cOlcnr-leaving it to future in- vestigation to solve the riddle. MARVELS OF LIFE. Whenever it rains, the path along a certain sea wall is nearly impassable in consequence of many puddles of water, writes a correspon- dent. Some time ago I happened to notice that immediately these dried up the earth became covered with large patches of what looked like a vivid green slime. In reality it was composed of countless millions of minute plants. Where the germs of this vegetation came from is one of the marvels connected with the dynamic force of life, which is most probably in evidence everywhere throughout the entire universe. On examining some of this apparently spontaneous giowt-h under a microscope a new wonder appears, which completely bewilders the mind. Thousands of still more minute living creatures are seen, going about and fulfilling the purposes of their existence, in what must seem to thein an interminable forest of gigantic trees and ferns. Then after a few hours more of sun and wind, all this teeming life passes away and ceases to be. It is useless to speculate on such subjects, they are far too vast for the human brain to attempt to grasp or fathom. FIRE-RETARDING PAINTS. Tests made at the United States Bureau of Standards show that, while practically all paint coatings have some fire-retarding action, none of those so far tested afford very great pro- tection. All the samples in question were materially damaged by application of flame for a few seconds. Both sodium silicate and whitewash rank comparatively high. These have the advantage of cheapness and can both be used on the same surface. However, according to a bulletin of the Bureau, no treatment of wood after erection can be ex- pected to serve as an effective fire protection, and the use of such materials should not be made an excuse for omitting any of the usual precautions against fire. TESTING OCEAN CURRENTS. During an expedition on behalf of the Carnegie Institution, Dr. A. G. Mayor noted that in the tropical Pacific, whenever the ship met with a decided counter-current run- ning in an easterly direction against the pre- vailing westerly drift, the water became relatively acid. This easterly current is often encountered in the region of such low-lying coral islands as Palmyra and the Phoenix or Union Groups, and is dangerous to vessels at night, as there are no lighthouses, and the vessel may be driven on a reef before the presence of the* current has been noticed. Whether the water is relatively acid or alka- line can easily be determined by the use of some such indicator as thymolsulphonephta- lein. One has only to mix the water with a few drops of the dye, and if the mixture is greenish-blue it is alkaline, while an approach towards acidity produces a more nearly yellow colour. This method may also he used to determine when a ship passes out of a cur- rent of tropical origin, which, being warm, L alkaline, into, another current of colder water, which, on account of its low tempera- ture, is less alkaline than the sea-water of the tropics. the tropics.
I I I he ticnnan, Austrian, and Turkish dis- tinctive mark is the well-known German Mal- I tese cross on a white grouad. This Maltese cross was universally used on enemy planes t until June, 1918. During that month the marking of every enemy aeroplane on the western front was changed, and parallel-sided crosses were substituted. This change took place in one night, with the obvious purpose I of trapping any Allied aeroplane carrying German markings, if there were any so marked. Also, it is stated, the new marking is not so likely to, be easily confused with that of the Allies. Turkish aeroplanes bore a white star and crescent on a red ground, tjut later the German cross was adopted. I
r=-=-====-=- ¡ t » h" 'ft.. -( .tj,,é'" The Children's I Future -y- A EDUCATION is one of the things on whicl-i it will not pay jrou to e.:cnomsse. When your little ones reach school age you will be g!ad ] to be able to give them the best possible start in life. Then again. as they grow older the time may come when the posses- sion of t-vo or three hundred pounds may make all the diiterence to their future. It m;i.y decide whether your boy can continue his training tor on-? o the great professions—whether your girl shall enter for an advanced I course, or go abroad for a year-or two to study languages. Without the monsy you will net be a! Ie to give ina ch'Idrcn the chance they deserve I ani which you will want them to have. Make sure that you WILL have the mon Begin now to buy j Cy?^rM( £ Ams and buy them week by week. If you make a habit of buying ,—. 47 Certificates Rh.GULARLY, you will not feel the immediate fy* i loss of th, money. Invest it In Savings Certificates and your savings will increase at the rate of 5 tC¡)0 Compound Interest. u* .¡¿; There is no safer, more profitable, or more convenient way of laying up a fund for the future. -l- '=- _I OJ I
I AMERICAN HUMOUR.I
AMERICAN HUMOUR. I ONE PHASE OF EFFICIENCY. "And you 'have had the same servant for two years? Yes," replied Mr. Crosslots. She says she doesn't believe in changing after she has gone to the- trouble of teaching the family her ways. "-Washington Star. SOMETHING IN A NAME. Gee, whiz Isn't that Smithson who just I went by in his automobile? When I knew I him a few years ago he had a junk-shop." He still has. Only he moved it to a fashionable street and labelled the same stock 'Antiques.' "—Boston Transcript. JUST SO. I "Why have words roots, pa?" "To make the language grow, my child. Baltimore American. FATHER'S HOPE. Mother (at telephone): Mercy, John, our daughter has married the chauffeur." Father: "So? Well, maybe now he'll have some object in keeping down the repair bills." -Boston Transcript. UNCONSCIOUS JOKER. What the case was about no one seemed to know exactly. The lawyers themselves were pretty well mixed up. Then an important fitness entered the box and was presently asked to tell the court the total of his gross income. He refused; the counsel appealed to the I judge. "You must answer the queston," said the i judge sternly. The witness fidgeted about and then burst out with But—but, your honour, I have no I gross income. I'm a fisherman, it's all net." —Pittsburgh Chronicle Telegraph. ART FOR ART'S SAKE. The desideratum of things artistic," mused the guy with the temperament, would be a wedding between the girl on the front page of a current magazine and the fellow on i the collar advertisement." Indianapoli,, Star. SAFETY FIRST. Landlady:. Who are you? New Guest: "I am a performer." "What do you do? I escape from tight places." I "Without anybody seeing you do it?" Yes." Well, if that's the case you'll have to pay in advance. "-Youligstown Telegram. I CONSULTING A LAWYER. "That is my opinion. Twenty-five dollars, please." "I got the same opinion from another law- yer, and he charged me five dollars." 'I Um. You had: no confidence in him? No-no." I "But you have in me?" Y-y€s*" Precisely. Our opinions are the same, but the difference in the cost is twenty dollars, and to have confidence in vour case is well worth twenty dollars."—Philadelphia Ledger. BILKINg' SCHEME. Roderick: "Great Scott! Has Bilkins lost his mind? Van Albert: "I don't think so. Why?" Roderick: "Just look at the illumination in his house. He has every gas jet burning all day long." Van Albert: "Oh, that's just a little scheme Bilkins has to increase his gas bill this month. His wife is coming back to-mor- row, and he told her lie had been remaining at home and reading every night since she went away." ———— SHE WAS NOT ON HER JOB. Cook: "An' why was th' new maid dis- charged? Laundress: "Sure, it was because of her not tendin to I ido; she let him e-et into th' room where little Miss Bessie had th' measles." ENTERTAINING THE SLUMS. Asphode.ia Twobble went down into the tenement district yesterday to brighten the lives of poor .slum dwellers." "Iligh.y commendable. What did she do for them? "She told them about the good times she's been having at Palm T I Age-Uerald. II HIS PREFERENCE. Winkleby gazed at the new triplets with fatherly pride but not a little apprehension in his eye, nevertheless. "What are you thinking, dear?" asked Mrs. Winkleby, softly. Nothing, dear, nothing," he said, falter- ingly; "only, don't you think that it would be wiser for us hereafter to build up our little family on the instalment plan? "-llarper's Weekly. WHAT HE NEEDED. II The amateur golfer had not been doing very well, and towards the close of the round he turned to the caddie and said: Let me see! Is that one hundred and ninety-five or one hundred and ninety-six I' strokes? I don't know, sir," was the reply. What you need is an adding machine, not a caddie." BREAKING IT GENTLY. "I paint what I see," an art-student once said to his master, complacently. Well,- the shock will come when you really see what you've painted," said the artist.—- Boston Transcript. m THE PROPER RETORT. "So you want my daughter, eh?" "I do, sir." "Have you any money?" A little. How high do you quote her! Prookliin Citiz,-it. THE DOCTOR'S JEST. A woman came into the hospital the otbR day and she was so cross-eyed that the teSrffc ran down her back." You couldn't do anything for her, couit you? Yes, we treated her for bacteria." AMBIGUOUS. The Thinker: "I've got & letter from my eon out West." His Friend: "What is Tom doing now?" The Thinker: "That's what I can't makt out. He says he is engaged in the destruction, of weeds. Now, that may mean he's smoking a good many cigars, or that he is trying to in- duce some widow to make a second venture or it may mean that lie is doing farm work." DEDUCTIVE REASONING. .4 Why do people say, As dead as a door '.r11 f asked the Boob. "Why is a door nail an7 deader than a door?" Because it has been hit on the head, I suppose."—Cincinnati Inquirer. AN INAPPROPRIATE MACHINE. Detective: Did the cashier do anything to divert suspicion while his subtracting operations were going on ? The President: "Y eø the hypocrite per- suaded the directors that the bank needed aa adding machine."
THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE SOIL.
THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE SOIL. From 10 to 20 per cent, by volume of the suE is composed of air, but this "atmosphere of the soil differs from the superficial atmo- sphere in composition and is likewise more variable. The percentages of its constituents vary likewise from season to season. Investi- gations of this .mbject by two English scien- tists, Messr-5. Mussel and Appieyard, at Roth- amsted, furnish some interesting data. To a depth of 0*15 ilietre the soil atmosphere is very similar to that of ordinary air, though con- taining a little more carbon dioxide, but the total amount of carbon dioxide plus oxygen is less than in the air. During periods of active nitrification the percentage of oxygen diminishes, and this is one of the conditions which characterises the so-called" awaken- ing of the earth in spring. Besides tL,; atmosphere entangled in the interstices tc the soil there is a certain amount of air dissolved in the water and the colloids the soil contains, but this is almost entirely deprived of oxygen. From November to May the curves follow the temperature, but from May to November the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere of the soil increases with every rainfall (as does bacterial activity), which proves that the soil- atmosphere is renewed by the rain. This fact indicates that rain is superior to irrigation. As might be expected, soil which is covered with turf contains more carbon dioxide and less oxygen than arable earth. The composi- tion of the soil-atmosphere appears to be but slightly affected by variations in baremetric cressure. by temperature, by velocity of the wind, or by crop conditiors.
A PEN-PICTURE OF NAPOLEON.
In revenge ins eyes possess a natural ana un- a fTecfed fierceness, the most extraordinary thiii I ever beheld. They are full, bright and ot a brassy colour. As soon as he was come up:> the terrace he directly locked at me, And continued to do so as long as possible, and h:s stare is by far the most determined and intense I ever experienced. This time, however, curiosity made me a m (h, and I vanquished him. It is when he regards you that vo!i mark the singular expression of his eves. No frown, no ill-humour, no affectation of appearing terrible, but the genuine expres- sion of that iron, inexorable temper upon which any drop of the milk of human kindness that may have ever fallen must instantly turn to rust."