A LOOK ROUND. Here It Comes [BY SEKTINEL."] WE have had a talk before about the expectcd Peace Offen- sive of Germany, and have made it clear, we hope, that it is quite a different thing from an offer of peace. Germany has never made an offer of peace yet. She has only said, "Stop fighting; come and sit round a table and we will talk about terms." The poor Russian Bolsheviks were foolish enough to do so, and the Germans immediately pulled Russia in pieces for their own benefit. But Ger- many has tned several Peace Offen- sives "—that is to say, she has tried to weaken the wi II of the Allies and divide them from each other by talking of her readiness to make peace, and hinting that France or Italy or Britain might get something good if either would be selfish and disloyal enough to leave its Allies in the lurch. Peace Offensives come when the fighting is going against Germany and her Allies, or when such successes as they obtain are too costly to be followed up. The Germans have struck three heavy blows at the French and British Armies since March 21st. They have pushed our Armies back but they have lost, in all probability, nearly a million men in doing so. They know that this cannot go on, for the Americans are pouring in, and soon the Allies will be stronger than they. So they act like the bully who is a coward at heart, and, after each blow that they strike, exclaim, Now, will you give in ?" And each time that they get- a resolute Xo for an answer their heart sinks a little, nearer to their boots. At pre- sent they are in particularly low spirits, t' for the Austria 11s, driven by them to I attack the Italians, have taken a really nasty knock from those brave friends of ours. With only three ounces of bread a day to eat, the Austrians are in no condition to stand the news that their Army has had a licking. So Crocodile Kuhlmann, the German Foreign Secretary and Hertling, the Chancellor, have been put up to start the Peace Offensive once more. With; tears in their eyes they protest that war was forced upon a peace- ful Germany by Russia, backed by France and egged on by Great Britain. They complain that there is no sign that the Allies, and especially England, j-ire prepared to make peace, in spite of the German "victories," and they make a. nice, modest little demand that Germany shall have (a) "the boun-j t varies drawn for us by history"; (b) f overseas possessions corresponding to our greatness and (c) "freedom for carrying our trade on the free seas to all continents." As regards the responsi- bility for starting the w7ar, it is enough bility for starting the war, it is enough to point out that Kuhlmann was the official sent over here bv the German Government to play the spy 011 their Ambassador, Prince Lichnowsky, and that Prince Lichnowskv himself has said: "We pressed for war. \Ve insisted upon war. The impression became even stronger that we desired war in all circumstances. Berlin went on insisting that Serbia must be massacred." And Germany began the war by massacring Belgium. In face of these well-known facts, it is double- uu'd hyproerisy for Kuhlmann to say tuat Russia planned the war, France instigated it, and Britain unchained Russia-" (J ^u' war aims" of Germany, < here IS ouh one fact to be noticed. She Ha mis the boundaries drawn for us by history. These boundaries, according to the German ideas put forward bv < .erman writers, include not onlv Alsace and Lorraine, which she snatched froln "(-e 111 1871, but also the Northern I rovinees of Russia mid the Flemish ul hcUjiiun. which includes Ant- werp. Xeebrugge. and Ostend. That is nearest thing which we have had yet to a German offer of peace. Ger- many wants to keep all she had before the war, and to get these great and important additions. The wrongs of Belgium are, not to be righted, as^cven vou promised that they should be. but Belgium is to be torn in pieces. And the Kaiser is to get into his hands Antwerp—" the pistol pointed at the heart of England," as Napoleon called it. So now we know. To make peace on these terms or anvthing like them would be to confess that we had had the soundest drubbing in our ustory and that is just what wo have not had
I FEELING THE PINCH. Austria Learning What German "Loyalty" Means. [BY OBSERVER."] OUR cartoon this week illustrates in more ways than one the plight of Germany's partner in the crime of 1914. Austria is feeling the pinch of a fourth year of war very badly. and, being nearly at the end of her resources, she turns to Germany for help. A very natural pro- ceeding. It is only the ether day that the Kaiser telegraphed to the Emperor Karl that the Central Powers must support each other "in all the theatres of war." and a reasonable interpretation of that phrase surely would embrace support of each other in internal economic matters as well us at the battle front. A loyal pooling of resources for all purposes is a fii-st essential of an effective war alliance; the Allies have recognised that from the start. The Germans have given the principle lip service, but now that its operations are, to put it mildly, incon- venient to Germany, it is quite another story. Jaded and Helpless. All through the great war one part has been assigned to Austria with generous b ZD hand—she has been expected to provide in unlimited quantities that food for powder" on which the German military machine depends. For a long time the people of the Dual Monarchy have been war-weary. More than half the Austrian Empire," Mr Lloyd George said the other day, sympathize with the objects of the countries with whom that Empire is at war," meaning, of course, that many of the peoples who constitute what is called the Ramshackle Empire have no longer any heart in the war, because they know now that the victory they were promised so soon is as far off as ever, and that, even if it were achieved. their plight would be worse than it was in the beginning, since they would all be 9 tD more firmly shackled than ever to the oppression ,¡ of strongly-entrenched mili- tarism. Why, then, do they go on y n with the war There is only one answer to the question: It, is because Germany says they must, and Germany holds the whip hand over her Ally and orders what she pleases. For this submission Austria is being made to pay a fearful price. Left to her- self, it is very unlikely that she would have embarked on the offensive against Italy which has led her to such a complete disaster. She did it because Germany needed a military operation on a large scale in Italy that would divert some of the strength of the Allies from the Western Front, and would, if successful, help the political offensive which Germany was hoping to develop before the American Armies in France are filled out to really effectual proportions. Austria obeyed and has failed, and some of those who offer apologies for her failure say that this was partly due to the' decline both moral and military of the Austrian troops, and to the fact that Hindenburg could not or would not release any German divisions from the Western Front to replace them. If that is the case, we can imagine that the Austrians will be feeling rather sore about the Kaiser's dictum that the Central Powers must support each other in all the theatres of war." Germany Takes All. But that is only one particular in which it seems that Germany's idea of loyalty to her alliance is fairly elastic. Austria, in dire straits for food, turns to Germany for supplies. She knows that Germany has plundered and is plundering the Ukraine and Roumania and Bessarabia for foodstuffs, and, being a partner in the business, she looks for a share of the plunder. Impossible to render any assistance," was the first reply. Only when it seemed likely that the supplies for the Austrian Armies would have to be seized for the benefit of the civil popula- tion did the Germans grudgingly consent to send along 5,000 tons of grain, and even then they stipulated for its return in Julv. That is the characteristic way in which Germany always has and always will treat the under-dog, and it is good that the Austrians and Hungarians are learning at last by bitter experience what German loyalty really amounts to. Read what- a Member of the. Hungariau Parliament said about it only a fortnight ago The Germans have a. queer lmtioi: iiiyalty. They respect private jiropertv ;it home; there is no soldier who would touch it. The moment they leave their country and enter the country either of an enemy or a friend they forget everything about loyalty and lay hands on the property of their own ally. They do not fulfil their treaty obliga- tions. Against that picture just range in imagination a picture of loyalty to each other as practised by the Allies. The British Empire has never failed to respond to a single appeal from any one of its Allies for help in the great war. Men, materials, clothing, food, ships, all have been provided, and to-day the great American nation is acting in the same spirit of real loyalty. Well may we rejoice, seeing the miserable plight of "the Ram- shackle Empire," that the loyalty which binds together the Allies is sterling stuff and not a wretched substitute Made in Germany."
STUDIES IN HEAD GEAR. [British Official. The Military Governor of Jerusalem greeting a Moslem Pilgrim.
i DECIDEDLY PECULIAR. offla"?. Chinese coolies are employed in Labour Battalions behind the lines in France Our picture shows the taking of the roll call. Each man's name is written:on a streamer attached to' a sort of umbrella, revolving on a stand. 4 1.
OXEN DOING THEIR BIT. [British Official. French soldiers travelling in a wagon drawn by oxen. Oxen move slowly but have great powers of endurance. They" pull" with their heads, are lightly shod and are not hampered with traces.
A SHEAF OF WAR STORIES. Great Deeds Performed by all the Services. I Names, Piease! Sir Arthur Lawley. who is at the head of the Red Cross work in France, has a delightful story of "two old buffers (as the boys call very superior officers) who voluntarily acted as stretcher-bearers. The "old buffers" were two generals. They were on the look-out over No Man's Land early one morning after a erap when between themselves and the German lines 20(1 yards away they saw a khaki-clad figure bearing another on his back. As b he neared our wire entanglements he got into difficulties, and the two generals took a stretcher, went down to meet him, and themselves carried the wounded man-- a private—to safe quarters. Some day, per- haps, we may learn the names of those two very human" brass-hats." Never Say Die! This surely is the motto of that brave Harringay lad Private Robert Edward Cruicksbank, of the London Regiment, who has just won the V.C. by sticking it most wonderfully after he had been badly wounded. The platoon to which he belonged came under very heavy rifle and machine-gun fire at short range, and was led down a steep bank into a wadi, most of the men being hit before they reached the bottom. Immediately after reaching the bottom of the wadi the officer in com- mand was shot dead, and the sergeant who then took over command sent a runner back to Company Headquarters asking for support, but was mortally wounded almost immediately after the corporal having in the meantime been killed, the only remain- ing N.C.O. (a lance-corporal), believing the first messenger to have been killed, called for a volunteer to take a second mes- sage back. Private Cruickshank immedi- ately responded, and rushed up the slope. but was hit and rolled back into the wadi bottom. But this is where Never say die! oomes in. Instead of lying still with his Blighty he tried again. He rose and rushed up the slope, but, being again wounded, rolled back into the wadi. After his wounds had been dressed he rushed a, third time up the slope and again fell badly wounded. Being now unable to stand he rolled himself back amid a hail of bullets. His wounds were now of such a nature as to preclude him making any further attempt, and he lay all day in a dangerous position, being sniped at and again wounded where he lay. Did he lose heart ? Not a bit of it. He displayed all the time the utmost valour and endurance, and was cheerful and uncomplaining throughout the whole of a truly terrible experience. Two Fights with Submarines. After having fought a successful combat with a U-boat in the morning, a British steamship was attacked the same evening by another submarine, which she beat off after narrowly escaping being torpedoed. In the first fight the submarine opened a rapid fire on the steamer, but the shots fell wide. The vessel responded, and after her third round saw the submarine submerge. A few minutes later a torpedo passed just under the ship's stern. Then the submarine again broke surface, and, steaming at high speed, reopened fire at closer range. The ship's gunners replied, and after just missing the enemy with two shots their third shot struck the U-boat's conning tower. Cheered on by the remainder of the crew the gunners con- tinued to reply to the submarine's fire, and were rewarded by seeing the German's after gun put out of action, and the gun's crew disappear with haste down the hatch The effects of these shots were too much for the U-boat commander, who withdrew all his men from the deck, and manoeuvred for a better position, whence he could discharge a torpedo. However, another shot struck the submarine and caused her to lose speed. Suddenly the U-boat took a decided list and, rolling heavily, sank in a couple of minutes. The British vessel continued her voyage, and just after sunset was attacked by a second submarine, but again the torpedo went wide. On the steamer opening fire the submarine made off. Hun Idea of a Joke." It was in '14, when there \vere count- less minor scraps and trench-snatching episodes," said a man with all ugly scar on his face. One day we were pestered by a Hun sap, so at nightfall we went over and bagged it. Like many another place, it was easier to take than to hold, and at dawn the Huns counter-attacked and drove the remnant of us back to our old position, distant some twenty-five yards. We had some rations in our hole, but we were out of cigarettes. Presently a Hun shouted, Hi, English You were in such a hurry to leave that you forgot your cigarettes. We like jam, and if you have any we will give you the cigarettes if you throw the jam over first.' One man, Wilson, called out, Done! and threw a tin of jam over. There was a. delay, and we could hear the Huns laughing. We begaii to fear they would not keep their part of the bargain. Then one stood up and threw a tin of Goldflake." Wilson held out his hands to catch it. The tin exploded as he caught it 1 Poor Wilson I can still see his two handless stumps out- stretched and bleeding. I caught a frag I ment of the tin in my face. That was a Hun joke.' Just Before His Holiday. The other day a certain squadron officer of the Royal Air Force woke to recollection of the fact that, for the time, at all events, that was his last morning in France. He was due to leave for England before lunch. The desire to strike one more blow at the enemy was strong, but heavy clouds and rain seemed to forbid. After breakfast the rain ceased. At 9.40 this determined officer's machine left the aerodrome. At 9.58 he met five enemy scouts piloting Pfalz machines and one enemy two-seater, six machines in all, just east of Ploegsteerte. He shot down two of the scouts and so pur- posefully chased two others that their pilots lost their heads. The machines collided and both smashed in mid-air. This R.A.F. officer than attacked the German two- seater and shot it down in flames, thus completing the destruction of five out of the six enemy machines. Much to his annoyance, the sixth machine managed to escape him whilst he was dealing with the other five. He then returned to his aero- drome, took an early luncheon, and started for England just before noon. Samples from the R.N.A.S. The R.N.A.S. is merged into the Royal Air Force now, but it will ever be remem- bered as a branch of the fighting forces which greatly distinguished itself while it had a separate organisation. Two officers, whose work is just a sample from bulk, have just been awarded a Bar to the Dis- tinguished Service Cross for very recent exploits. One is Lieutenant S. T. Edwards. On May 2nd this year, while leading a patrol of four scouts, he encountered a hos- tile formation of eight enemy scouts, and drove down one enemy machine completely out of control. Soon afterwards he engaged another formation of six enemy scouts, driving down one to its destruction, while his patrol accounted for another. He only broke off the fight owing to lack of ammunition. He has destroyed or driven down out of control many enemy machines since he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, and has at all times, as the official record says, shown the greatest gallantry and a fine offensive spirit." The second case is that of Lieutenant A. R. Brown. One day last April while leading a patrol of six scouts he attacked a forma- tion of twenty hostile scouts. lie per- sonally engaged two Fokker triplanes, which he drove off; then, seeing that one of cur machines was being attacked and apparently hard pressed, he dived on the hostile scout, firing the while. This scout, a Fokker triplane, nose-dived and crashed to the ground. Since the award of the Distinguished Service Cross he has destroyed several other enemy aircraft, and has shown great dash and enterprise in attacking enemy troops from low altitudes despite heavy anti-aircraft fire. Hot Work in a Tree. Lieut. Donald Finlayson, of the Yeo- manry, has won the Military Cross for gallantry in his duties as an observation officer during an enemy attack. The tree from which he was observing was twice hit by shells, but he did not vacate the post until intense machine-gun fire was directed on to him. He then took up a position in another tree close by, but he was observed by the enemy, and heavily fired on by machine guns. He nevertheless re- mained at his post, and, tying himself to a branch of the tree lest lie should be wounded and fall off, he continued to observe and report the dispositions and movements of the enemy all through the day. A Gurkha Hero. A Gurkha Rifleman has won the V.C. for bravery, resource in action, and utter contempt for danger." An enemy machine- gun had been doing mischievous work against our men, and a handful of brave Ö <fl fellows, including this Gurkha Rifleman, crept forward under fire with a Lewis gun to tackle it. No. 1 of the Lewis gun team opened fire, and was shot immediately. Without a moment's hesitation Rifleman Karanbahadur pushed the dead man off the o-uii, and, in spite of bombs thrown at him and heavy fire from both flanks, he opened fire and knocked out the enemy machine-gun crew. Then, switching lnt> fire on to the enemy bombers and riflemen in front of him, he silenced their fire. He kept his gun in action and showed the greatest coolness in removing defects which on two occasions prevented the gun from firing. During the remainder of the day he did magnificent work, and when a with- drawal was ordered he assisted with cover- ino- fire until the enemy were close on him. A°very high standard of valour and devo- tion to duty!