AGRICULTURAL NOTES BY A PRACTICAL FARMER. VACCINATION FOR SWINE FEVER The possibility of artificial vaccination ae ltlans of combating swine fever has much im- Pressed. the committee who were appointed Seteral years ago to consider how this serious and costly disease can be dealt with. In the final tePort which they have just issued they rc- Commend "that the attempt to extirpate the jhsease by general slaughter should be aban- doned for the present. "The immediate object of future policy 'hould be to reduce mortality from the di- ase, and to control the spread of the diroasc. order to reduce mortality, the use of pro- active serum without avoidable delay in in- fect-ed herds should be encouraged by every possible means and in particular by facilita- .111g the supply of serum. The production of ^muiie herds by simultaneous administration of serum and virus should be undertaken 1there pig owners so desire, on premises fleeted as suitable and under careful super- vision and restrictions. "In order to control the spread of disease tb., isolation of infected premises should be ltlalIltain-ed by restrictive regulations, but such j Strict-ions should allow of the introduction to •fliected premises of pigs to be treated imme- -"iitely with serum. Careful consideration ild be given in the light of further experi- "11(-c, to the extent to which existing general fsstrictions on movement may be relaxed as result of new measures. In view of the experimental results above referred to the lapse of a short period of time ^ay be relied upon for disinfection of pre- ^is-es, and should be regarded as preferable to chemical disinfection in the case of large Suaiitities of manure and of premises not Readily capable of being disinfected by arti- ficlal means." j QUALITIES OF FERTILISERS. j i I am asked to state the standards of quality j artificials. With ordinary superphosphate it should be 26 per cent. soluble phosphate of I lime; but there are higher grades in which the percentage of soluble phosphate should be guaranteed. Bone meal should be guaranteed Plre, and to contain at least 3'30 per cent. Nitrogen, equal to 4 per cent. ammonia and 45 Per cent, phosphate of lime. With steamed flour, the guarantee should be 0'80 per nitrogen, equal to 1 per cent, ammonia tild 60 per cent. phosphate. Vitriolised bones Or pure dis-solved bones should be guaranteed *0 contain 267 per cent, nitrogen, equal to 3^ Per cent, ammonia; about 16 per cent, in- t Soluble phosphate, and 12 per cent. soltibl-e Phosphate of lime. Ordinary bone compound j ought to have a guarantee of 0*82 per cent. nitrogen, equal to 1 per cent. ammonia; I 20 per cent. soluble and 8 per cent, insoluble Phosphate of lime. There are intermediate Qualities of bone compounds, but the am- ^^iii.a, soluble, and, insoluble pho-hatj;) SlhouJd I' alwaY6 be guaranteed. sir. 3S sold in various grades, ranging 2g per cent, phosphate of lime up to 45 per cent. The tobai percentage of phosphate lime should be guaranteed, also at least per cent. fineness; and at least 80 per oent. Solubility in 2 per cent. solution of citric acid ()ul.d be guaranteed. Nitrate of soda should e guaranteed pure and to contain at least 15 r cent. nitrogen. Nitrate of lime should be guaranteed to 12'75 per cent. nitrogen. Sul- Phate of ammonia should be guaranteed pure, to contain at least 20 per cent. nitrogen to 34 per cents, ammonia: and nitrolim Calcium cyan&mide) should be guaranteed 18 Per cent. nitrogen equal to 21'85 per cent. of "nmo nu. < WONDERFUL MILK YIELD. The milk-yielding performances of indi- V^ual cows attract much more attention in faerie a than in this country, and it is doubt- ^7* if we can boast of anything in our records j* equal American achievements. A Holstein has produced in 365 days 24,6121b. milk 1,1161b. butter fat. She was milked four* ^es a day by the same milker all through, lId also had the same feeder. She received 171b. of grain daily for the first jiJ months, and this <Vas gradually reduced to /jib. In addition, she had 201b. maize silage, beet pulp and mangels, and all the ^•tural grass she would eat. The test was /^ducted at New Jersey Agricultural Col- commencing when the cow was three •^rs and four and a-half months old. She •^rs and four and a-half months old. She i sighed, at the end of the test, 1,4501b., hav- I "8 gained 3001b. since the beginning. This j* .ir.Iv rep re nte a triumph of careful ^nage me rct and feeding. FARM RETURNS. Rarely if ever has the publication of the ^ricultural returns aroused greater inter- *fci' an<^ fancy that they come nearer to the *^ct position than they have done before, be- ^use farmers and others have taken more Rouble to make a full and accurate statement J the forms sent round last June, v^he returns show that in England and ales there has been a decrease in the total under crops and grass of 61.000 acres, of jbic-h 33,000 acres represent arable land and 7MHK) acres permanent grass. Wheat shows increase of 363,000 acres, or 20 per cent., ^compared with last year, the 2,170,000 acres 'er this cereal being the largest recorded °e 1891; while the increase since 1913 i^nts to 469,000 acres, or nearly 28 per cent. ^Ahe livestock returns show increases among 'l1Jl and sheep but decreases among horses sw^ne- Horses, many of which have been n ^or Army, have fallen in number by 44-000 (or 8 per cent.), the greatest relative I ^j^&ase beins among horses not used for agri- «al purposes. Cows show a decrease of I sti!|0 from the record figure of 1914, but are higher than in any other year; all other Ac ba re increased, and the total number, j t 4,000 (186,000 more than in 1914), consti- j U highest recorded. tjj be increase in sheep amounts to 263,000; «ty°Se above one year (other than breeding ) increasing by a third of a million; but Indifferent lambing season is responsible a reduction of 101,000 in the number of • The decline of 61,000 in pigs is mostly 'hQ ng breeding sows, but the total is well \'e the ten-year average. A-- < SULPHATE OF AMMONIA. efforts are to be made to increase the *h^. of sulphate of ammonia in this country. is the only chemical nitrate manure made Britain, and whereas we were the only its to manufacture it thirty years ago. it produced in all parts of the world, and ^al production has increased five times in y Pajst fifteen years. >t although Britain was the first to make rmany used nearly twice as much per ti^e in 1912, and Belgium more than three as much, with results that no doubt were factory. tw^b the object of extending the agricul- Use of this fertiliser, the Sulphate of Association are at the present time e<^ m the investigation, of a number of the successful solution of winch *<lVa serve the double purpose of being of ar>'tage to agriculture and of stimulating for the fertiliser. Among such by lfl>n; are the liability to lodge exhibited *Tnj^1>r^aI-s after applications of sulphate of 3,8 compared with other nitrogenous arl€1&ers; the comparative malting quality of t J 5 the comparative production of foliage crops; the economy in loss of nitrogen f drainage; and the comparative of nitrogenous residuum which be- available for the succeeding crop in Pamphlet issued by the association says is a tendency among farmers to re- it1 sJ^Pbate of ammonia as similar to nitrate j IVtti i11 respect of its solnbilii'ty. This leads apply it too late in the season and to 40ils.g-%rd the varying retentive quality of i. At the present moment experiments M^ba+11^ made with, a view to showing that SvrL'* ammonia may be profitably ap- mVh "»rti«at on reierrtiTe in the the latest diate by which application ammonia can be economically is ^.vari°u8 soils and crops; and whether ><Wi2*lsable to plough in: the dressing in to saMe to plough in the dressing in Promote moje rapid nitrification, L..
DRESSMAKING AT HOME, I BY SYLVIA. I An Chferall or Morning Gown. I So many women are now occupied in war work of various kind's that overall garments are much in request, and as they are also much needed for other occupations I have turned my attention to the illustration of another pattern, in No. 1,919, this week, which has several points to commend it. In the first place, it is easily slipped on; I and, in the second, is so cut that it will do either for a dress for morning wear or war- work purposes, the little cap being an addi- tion which munition or canteen workers will find necessary, whilst to the housewife it will be a. great addition to her comfort. As to materials, for any of the purposes mentioned coloured casement cloth is excel- lent, being cheap, washable, and of good wearing qualities. Drill or nurse's cloth can also be recommended for the purpose, but the PATTERN NO. 1,919. wearer or maker will choose what is most suit- able to her work, a few buttons being the only other addition required. To Cut Out and Make Up. The skirt, being a. two-piece affair, will need the material opened out to its full width- and then doubled in order to get this without a join, or at most only a corner-piece at the lower part of back. Place the centre-front to the selvedges, when part of the bodice couldl be obtained from the slopes of the skirt- widths. The centre-front should be placed to correspond with the front of skirt, whilst the centre-back should go to a fold. Allow good turnings' for seams and hems, and mark round very carefully. When making-up, join up, neaten and, press back and front seams of skirt, make and fasten off the placket opening, then hem the lower edge. Now take the bodice in hand. Face the fronts, make buttonholes in right side, and sew the buttons on left to correspond, or use press fasteners if you prefer them, and pub on the buttons as decorative finishes. Join back and fronts together by the shoulder and under-arm seams, make and sew on the collar, then make the sleeves, arrange comfortably in the armhole, stitch in firmly, and finish off. Now make the waistband, which should be cut lengthways of the material, and madie up over stiff banding. It is rounded off at one end, and is stitched along the turned-in edges once quite close and the second, time about a quarter of an inch away. When ready, secure the bodice and skirt to upper and lower edges, then face neatJy in- side and fasten off. The overall will require about 5 yards of 36-inch goods. 2 A Yoke Skirt for a Young Girl. Here—in No. 1,920—is a nice pattern for a skirt for the y«ung girl in her early or middle teens. It is of the circular order now so much favoured, with the addition of a yoke, which, relieves the plainness of the hip-portion. It is 6f PATTERN IVo. 1,920. intended for an everyday affair to wear with washing blouses, and is quite easily made up. As to materia,Is-the choice being now a little more limited than before the war-the selection must depend on circumstances and cost. To Cut Out and Make Up. The model is a two-piece affair, so you must open out your material to its full width, as I have stated above, and place the centre front to the selvedges. If very wide material is used—without right or wrong—you may find it more economical to reverse and cut one width in the other; but good turnings should be allowed, especi- ally for a hem, and the pattern must be well and clearly outlined. Now seam up the skirt, opening, pressing and neatening the &eams; make and finish off the placket-opening, and then turn up, stitch, and press hem. Next make and tack yoke over muslin, neaten and finish off the fronts, where buttonholes can either be made or fasteners be sewn on, and the buttons put on as a finish; then arrange to skirt, stitch, face in- side, and fasten off. The skirt will require 2} yards of double- width goods. HOW TO OBTAIN THE PATTERN. Onr paper patterns are specially cut tor us from designs expressly prepared for this column, and the cost of each complete pattern is 6Jd. post free. Address all letters, enclosing stamps for patterns, to Sylvia," Whitefriars House, Carmelite- street, London, E.C. Be sure and mention the number of the pattern required when ordering. Patterns will be despatched within three days w the application being received.
I ask REGISTERED TRADE MARK. I go "^3!r I RADIUM BATH SALT added to your ordinary Bath gives you a RADIO-ACTIVE BATH at Home. Both Nervous and Muscular Complaints, I such as Nerve Exhaustion, Depression, Insomnia, Rheu- matism, Gout, Neuritis, &c., yield to a course of RA-BA-SA Baths where medicines fail to give relief. 1/- per packet or box of 7 for 5/9. Of all EXTRACT FROM "THE LANCET. I Stores and leading Chemists, or, if unable uWe have tested a solution of the Salt to obtain, post free on receipt of P.O., from with the electroscope, and it certainly Radium Salt Co., Ltd., 21, Farringdon-ave., shows ionising properties. The method London, E.U. Booklet, "A Bathful of appears to be an ingenious one of preser- Health," free on receipt of name and ving the radio-activity of the salt, and address. affords a means of observing the thera- peutic effects of a radio-active Bath." RA-BA-SA BATHS GIVE SOUND, REFRESHING SLEEP. Local Agent: W. GWILLIM, M.P.S., Medical Hall, Brecon. I — JlD I «
Press & Costume Making THOMAS & ADCOCKS DRESSMAKING DEPARTMENT is under New and Efficient Management, SPECIAL ATTENTIO GIVEN TO CUT, FIT AND FINISH. A TRIAL ORDER RESPECTFULLY SOLICITED. Thomas and Adcock, —— BRECON. ——
BLANCHARDS PSLLS Are unrivalled tor all Irregularities, &e., they .speedily afford relief and never fail to a).. viate all suffering. They supersede Pennyroyal, Pil Cochia, Bitter Apple, &c. "BLANCHARD'S are the Best of all Pills far Women." Sold in boxes, lIl, by BOOTS' Branches TAYLOR'S DRUG Co Branches, and all Chemists; or post free, sarae price, froir, LESLIE MARTYN, LTD, CHEMISTS, 34, DFLLS^N LANE, LONDON Free Sample and "alnab Booklet, par J fSS, lii. Stamp
Cefn-y-Bedd and District Notes. v i [BY YSPRYD LLEWELYN."] One learns with pleasure that the Brecon- shire County War Committee baa taken up the case of Mrs Evaof, oi Oaklaudp, and that she is cow receiving a Ndifcabie Uiowacce. The "Brecon Couoty Tlwes" is to be thanked for calling attention to Kuch an important case. I Relieve therf) are other cases on the Builth Dinan that should also be investigated. The farmers arcocd Cefti y-Bedd have been very busy during the last three weeks, in tbe harvest field, and a few days' more fiue weather will t-nable many of them to siug the song of harvest home. 10 ma ay cusea the crops have proved much more bountiful than was antici- pated, and the prospect for the coming winter is very bright. It is very remarkable how people have managed with the harvest, seeing that we have heard so much about the short- age of labour 00 the laud. 10 moet cases here where a man has joined the colours, someoce has been found to take up the vacant place. Tb- geiaeral topic of discussion in the harvest field is conscription, and watly of our YOUDg boys who are kept at home by tbpir parents would bail it, as then they could tell their pareuts that they coald no longer obey their orders, that the oall of their country "must be answered." The sheep farmers of the locality have al- ready disposed of a large namber of ewes and iambs, and the general opieiou is that they are receiving ten shillings a bead more for their sheep now than this time last year. It is not the improved quality of the animals, but the fact that-prices have everywhere gone up that brings about such an increase. There will ba a re-action after the war, of coarse and now that farmers are doing so well they should prepare for it by enterprise and study of the best methods of farming and the needs and tastes of the pnbiic. Some of them have a good deal to haru iu the matter of what tbe public like. Bacon ia a case in point. The public don't like "all fatd bacon but many farmers don't think about tbi8 when pig. feeding. The reference to catch crops in yonr columns last week was read with interest by the local farmers, and it is to be hoped many will follow the advice of the organiser, A few of them have already taken up the question, and vetches and winter oats have been sown. The high prices of dairy and farm produce are causiug the people to cry out for land aud the demand for allotments and sm ill farms will be an in. crease this autumn. The only, hope that the cottager has of getting a few eggs is to keep a hen or two, and if be is not able to keep a pig, btruon must vanish from his table. The village of Nantyrarian has been repre- sented at the front off aud on since the out- break of the war. Pte. W. Offa, who was with the British Army at the battle of Mons, and was itavalided shortly after, is again at home, woonded in the eye.. He only returned last week after sixjxionths sprvioe at the front.
'ALWAYS GOOD ALIKE." FOR ECONOMY. 4 VV R' Ak F* E: R UCTIONEERS & ESTATE AGENTS.— Particulars and conditions of sale, posters, catalogues (with plans and illustrations), tenancy agreements, &c., at the "Brecon County Times" Office, where specimens cf high-class work may be seen. i;
ENEMIES BOUND & FREE. HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM. A familiar item im the picture-papers is the snapshot showing how British pnisoaiers in Germany are made to do all manner of work, Mght and heavy, though mostly the latter, under the supervision of their captors. So long as our men receive decent treatment (though there is plenty of evidence to show that they do not), there is nothing to com- plain of in their being set to manual and other work, for idleness is a poison to any man. These observations are offered as a prelude to a suggestion that we ourselves might very well profit by the example of our enemies, who, being tightly organised and officereds we are not—both in peace and war, allow nothing in the way of labour, or any other resource, to run to waste. At the moment no statistics are available; but at a rough estimate there must be in this country, interned and free, something in the neighbourhood of 200,000 Germans. Probably there are thousands more. The interned are largely or mainly composed of men of mili- tary age who, being at liberty, would be a danger to us whether here at home, or, if they could smuggle themselves out of the country and: back to the Fatherland, would join the enemy forces. Meantime, these able-bodied meu, all bored to death in their imprisoned idleness, are fed (well fed, too), housed, and guarded at the expense of the already over- burdened taxpayer. And, meanwhile, a hard winter, maybe the hardest in our history, is close upon tlJS; agricultural labour is terribly short, and food prices are rising rapidly. All this points to an obvious conclusion. These interned Germans should be turned out to a man and put to work upon the land. Where the experiment has been tried of put- ting interned enemies to work it has been found that they jump at the chance to escape from idleness and boredom and to get to the work; and that they are glad to do the work at a wage of 2d. a day, or less. Had this been done months ago, wholesale and not experimentally, it is hardly too much to say th; t the produce in foodstuffs of our neglected countryside might in the coming sea- son have been doubled. Even yet there is time largely to increase productiveness and make a profit where there is now only loss and burden — if only this business were set about energetically by our slow moving authorities. There would be no question here of displacing British labour or lowering its wage. As for the enemy aliens at large, women and children and men beyond military age, some of these are a danger, and all are a burden upon our State, already gigantically over- burdened by the war. Here, a beginning has been made at sending these superfluous and unwelcome visitors back to the Fatherland. They should be returned en masse and forth- with and why this has not been done long since is one more marvel wrought by a slow- working and unready governmental machine. There is the need here for a popular agitation to speed up the engine. By the way, the ships used for the transport of these undesirables to the Fatherland should be German ships, re- leased from captivity and officered and manned by Germans. Should any of them be torpedoed and sunk by their fellow country- men, here would be an opportunity, fresh and fine, for Hunnish dexterity in lying. AN "INTERNATIONAL" COMPANY. For the benefit of those, in case there be any still left amongst us, who think that too much fuss is being made of "German hold upon and influence in our trades and indus- tries, here is a pretty example. There is, or was, a business with the high-sounding title of the Great International Plate Glass Insur- ance and Cleaning Co., Ltd. In July, 1914, its issued capital consisted of 5,407 shares. Of these, 3,600 were held by Herr Rob Staehr, of 17, Petri Strasse, Berlin, Germany; and 1,801 by Mr. Max Kuehn, of West Heath Lodge, Hampstead, London, N.W. That leaves six shares, and these were held by gentlemen all of Berlin, Germany, save one, who gave the Hampstead address; and all of them bore names quite as British as the two above quoted. It is a neat example of Germany's idea of Internationalism, and chimes with the spirit of the German national song, which many a one of our fighting men must know by heart long since, Deutschland, Deutschland, fiber Alles." Which, being freely translated, signifies-In the comity of nations Germany is almighty and supreme, and all the others occupy the place of bottom dog. It illustrates beautifully the Teutonic notion, in trade, of free communication and fair play amongst nations. It is a sample, too, of how Germany, educated, trained, mobilised for invasion, made ready in peace time for dominance by force of arms of Europe and the world be- yond. "Weidin-aaht oder Umfall "-World Power or Downfaii-that was amongst her national mottoes, signifying German ambi- tions. And, such is her terrible efficiency and persistence, that, unless we realise betimes and act upon it, how, in the arts and industries of peace, Germany still has an iron grip upon us, and take steps to free ourselves from that deadly hold, we may beat her in the field and yet re- main her vassals. Then our fighting men will have fought and died in vain. But we are waking at last to that prospect of infinite dis- honour. ANTI-GERMAN EXHIBITS. Speaking of the German hold upon our trade, and as a sign of our national awaken- ing to the danger of it, here is interesting news for all active Anti-Germans, also for those who are limbering up for action. At the annual exhibition at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, which opened, on September 6iJh, ,and whereat the baking and various allied trades were fully represented, it was appro- priate that a Vice-President of the Anti- German Union, Lord Headley, should be chosen to preside at the opening luncheon. More- over, there was a new and welcome depar- ture in the way of exhibits. The Anti- German Union, whose membership, activi- ties, and power still grow and increase phenomenally, had a stall at the exhibi- tion, at which officers and members of the Union, including ladies, were on hand to make clear and emphasise the objects of this patriotic association; literature was dis- tributed; and the Union's coloured and at- tractive bills and carda for display in shop windows, hotels, &c., were all on show, also war trophies taken by our men at the front. The aim of these exhibits and exhibitors was, if possible, to increase the fervour of those who are already pronounced Anti-Germans, and to bring conversion and stimulate to activity those who have not ytt formed action front" towards the Germans and their vile machinations which they still continue to carry on in our midst. Lord Headley, as his address fully proved, is the most uncompromising of Anti-Germans. T..? Islington exhibition was concerned mainly with the national food supply, upon which, even now, the band of our enemy lies heavy. Anti-Germafl Union, 840, Strand, London, I W.C.
Printing Posters, Programmes, Pamphlets, Catalogues, Ca rds, etc. Cou ntyTi mes Office BRECON.
POULTRY KEEPING. A PROFITABLE HOBBY. BY 11 UTILITT." A QUAINT BREED. The silicic is a unique poultry breed, and its dainty and remarkable appearance never faift to attract attention at shows, though few develop a desire to keep specimens.. These fluffy little creatures may be said to be of no commercial value. But the hens have one claim which some of us may do well to bear in mind. They are singularly quiet, and are fine sitters, sitting well wherever placed. They hardly ever crush an egg or a chicken; and, besides remaining longer with their broods than almost any other hens, possess more warmth. They will be as gentle to other chickens as to their own; and for partridges and pheasants, and the more delicate varie- ties of poultry, their motherly services, which &re gaining recognition, are unsurpassed. A drawback to their special development for this purpose is an extraordinary suscepti- bility to scaly leg, but this can be guarded against by frequently dressing the legs. The hene are good layers of a small white egg, but —. SILKIES. 8U.J gw UJ. wuj aavci pl.V\U.lJ..u5 uv/iciij even lees, and apparently it is enough to place them on a neat containing a few eggs to d'e- velop a desire to sit. Silkies are hardy, and will lay all the year round, and, apart from the one trouble mentioned, are easily man- aged, a very small place being sufficient to house them. Black and blue silkies are known, but a snow-white is the only recognised colour. The general appearance is very fluffy and silky, and the general form is round, with cushions rising from the back to the tail. The crests are of moderate size, that of the cock flowing backwards, and the hen's being full and round, like a powder puff. The beak is slaty blue, and the comb, face, and wattles are mulberry or purple black. The small oval ear lobes are bright turquoise blue. The skin is of a deep violet colour, and the legs, which have each five toes, should be blue. Silkies arc not bantams, and it is desirable that they should keep closely to the weights of 31b. for cocks and 21b. for hens. It is not generally known that silkies make good eat- ing, but- their dark colour is against any com m-ere-ial success with them. POULTRY CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES. There is no reason why we should not have a poultry keepers' co operative society in every district in' Britain. If we had, this country would not spend millions of pounds yearly on imported eggs, but would produce all that are needed at home. If there are several producers in a district, or if the local demand is insufficient or otherwise unremu- nerative, it is advisable for poultry-keepers to combine to form an egg and poultry society with the object of securing a constant supply of perfectly fresh eggs as far as possible all the year round, and of maintaining prices at such a level that a fair price is obtained with- out raising them to such a pitch as to restrict the demand or to invite outside competition. Such a combination may take on of several forms, but the simplest is the Egg Collect- ing Club," which is a union of a number of poultry owners who agree to send in their eggs to a collecting centre, where they are tested for freshness, weighed and valued, and sold for the benefit of the whole club. It is abso- lutely essential that all the eggs should be sent to the centre, and not merely those that cannot otherwise be disposed of, or it will be impossible to secure a good market for them. The eggs can, of course, be bought back if there is a surplus. Unless a regular supply is sent it is impossible for clubs or co-operative societies to make contracts with dealers. According to the suggestions made by the Agricultural Organisation Society, Queen Anne's Chambers, Tothill street, London, S.W., from whom advice may be obtained, the eggs should be sent to the centre not less than three times a week, no matter how few there are, as fresh eggs command a better price than eggs more than three days old. Large quantities of eggs are sent to Britain from abroad, but from four to forty days are re- quired for the transport of these eggs. Conse- quently, the older an English egg is whea marketed the more foreign eggs of equal freshness compete with it, and the lower its .price will be. All bad, stale, or dirty egge should be returned to the producers, and eggs over three days old should not rank for a share of the profits at the and- of the quartes. They should be sold as cookers." A PREVENTABLE TROUBLE. Many deaths among poultry have been proved to be due to mouldy litter and mouldy food. The following are characteristic symp- toms: The affected bird stands about in a drowsy manner, and shows little desire to eat. The wings hang down, the breath is rapid, and a white diarrhoea occurs. A soft yellow growth' from the size of a pin head to that of a pea will be found, usually in the lungs, but sometimes in the intestines. These growths are directly responsible for the death of affected birds. In mature fowls the mucous membrane lining the air sacs and tubes may be covered with a membranous formation which is soft and yellowish and has an offensive odour. Early symptoms are that the bird is inactive, sleepy, and if forced to run will fall from exhaustion; breathing is rapid, appetite is diminished, and more or less catarrh is present. There is no cure for the trouble, but sinee it is caused by birds eating mouldy food, or by being allowed to scratch for food in mouldy litter, it can be entirely prevented by giving nothing but fresh clean food and keep- ing the pens and yards free from contaminat- ing material. ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. "P. R. C."—A RATTLB IN THE THBOAT.— This generally is a symptom of a cold on the lungs, due to dampness and improper ventila- tion of the roosting-house. Keep the hen in a dry, airy place which is free from draughts, give her a teaspoonful of glycerine at night, and add ten drops of sulphuric acid to a pint of water to acidulate it slightly; it should be supplied in an earthenware drink- ing vessel. A mixture of equal parts powdered aniseed, fenugreek, liquorice, and ginger is often used as a preventive at the rate of a teaspoonful to ten adult birds, mixed with the morning soft food. Stibu-rlban.To PREVBNT BIRDS STRAY- ING.—The simplest plan will be to fix along the top of the wall either two or three strandb of wire, or some wire-netting which inclines inwards. Failing this, the hens must each have six or seven of the flight feathers of one wing cut off clean at the quills. S. M. F."—STORING Bo.N-is-m FAL. -Place it where there is plenty of fresh air, with little sunshine, and spread thinly on some surface where freshly-slaked lime may be sprinkled over the cut bone until well covered. It must be raked over several times, until the lime ad- heres to every piece of bone or meat. After- wards sift over maize-meal freely in the same manner, raking freely, and using more meal to absorb all greaee and moisture in the meat. It should be further disturb-ed for two or three days, and, if necessary, more meal raked in, when it will keep a long while without spoiling. The time will in no way in- jure the fowls.
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i THE FUTURE OF IMPERIAL TRADE | A NEW ERA OPENING. One good result of the present war which is already manifesting itself is the awaken- ing of this country to the magnitude of the resources of the British Empire In men, money, and the material of munitions we are far richer than our enemies. Germany also has awakened to that fact. In fighting us she has found that she is not fighting a smail country of forty-five million inhabitants, but a mighty Empire of four hundred and fifty millions. The essential unity of the British Empire is shown by the way in which her sons from the most distant parts of the earth have hastened to the help of the Mother Country. The dusky natives of India are fighting side by side with Colonists from Australia, Canada, and South Africa in a common cause. They know that their inter- ests and ours are one, and that the defeat of the foe is essential in order to secure the continuance of their liberty and progress. They are animated by one spirit, and are pursuing a common object. Never before in the history of the Empire have its several parts been so closely united. ORGANISATION IN PEACE AND WAR. This union must not be suffered to fall apart at the conclusion of the war. If the organisation of the Empire has proved of such value in war time, may it not prove of equal value in times of peace ? It is quite i certain that after the sacrifices of blood and treasure their relationships with the Mother Country must be much closer and more inti- mate than they were before. We all know what the Dominions think on this subject. At a meeting of the Australian Natives' Association held in London on September let the Hon. F. M. B. Fisher, until lately Minister for Trade and Customs in New Zealand, said: In the interests of the Empire I suggest that the time is close upon us when the Prime Ministers of the Over- sea Dominions should be summoned to an- other conference in London. This is neces- sary not only in the matter of Empire defence, but in the interests of the trade of the Empire. The statesmen of the Oversea Dominions are entitled to ask the statesmen of Great Britain this question—whether, after this is over, Great Britain is going to put the Oversea Dominions back, in the matter of trade, on the same basis as Ger- many ? They are entitled to ask—' Are we to get preferential treatment when we have men and guns to offer in time of war, but when peace comes are we to be put on the same basis as Germany ? We venture to say that any British Government which does not answer these questions in a way satisfactory to the Dominions will cease to enjoy the confidence of the people of this country. THE GERMAN ECONOMIC PERIL. It is no exaggeration to say that the future of the British Empire depends upon the closer organisation of all its parts, not only for defence but for trade. Sir Leo Chiozza Money, M.P., the well-known Free Trade statistician, in an article which ap- peared in the Manchester Dispatch of August 31st, says It is a profound mis- take to suppose that an organisation for war and an organisation for peace are altogether different things. If a nation is thoroughly organised for peace, then, if war unhappily comes to it, it is in the best possible position to face the economic difficulties of war. It is by her genius for organisation in war and in peace that Germany has attained her position as a great military and industrial nation. We must similarly organise the British Empire if we are to reap the full benefit of the sacrifices we have made. The economic war which Germany has long waged with this country will not end with the cessation of military operations. On the contrary, it will bcome keener and more bitter than ever. In a remarkable article in the current issue of the English Review," Mr A. W. Woodbridge, who describes him- self as a life-long and convinced Free Trader," says:—"She (Germany) will as systematically build and plan for her re- venge, if beaten now, as for twenty years we now know her to have planned and built and dreamed for the destruction of the British Empire. Prosperity for her simply means greater preparation for war. How are me to meet that peril ? Only, it seems
to me, by continuing the war in the economic and political domains. In the economic field we should, for ourselves, erect a 0igh tariff wall against German manufactures and exports. We should ex- tend this to India and our Crown Colonies. So far as it lies in our power we should strive to induce our self-governing Dominions, whose loyalty in the hour of our fate has been so gloriously proved, to assist us in this movement." The Dominions will require no other inducement t: an preferen- tial tariff treatment of their products and manufacturers in the home market of the Mother Country in return for the tariff pre- ference which they already freely give to British goods. We feel sure that the recip- rocity which has hitherto been denied them will not again be asked for in vain.