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AGRICULTURAL NOTES

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AGRICULTURAL NOTES BY A PRACTICAL FARMER. VACCINATION FOR SWINE FEVER The possibility of artificial vaccination ae ltlans of combating swine fever has much im- Pressed. the committee who were appointed Seteral years ago to consider how this serious and costly disease can be dealt with. In the final tePort which they have just issued they rc- Commend "that the attempt to extirpate the jhsease by general slaughter should be aban- doned for the present. "The immediate object of future policy 'hould be to reduce mortality from the di- ase, and to control the spread of the diroasc. order to reduce mortality, the use of pro- active serum without avoidable delay in in- fect-ed herds should be encouraged by every possible means and in particular by facilita- .111g the supply of serum. The production of ^muiie herds by simultaneous administration of serum and virus should be undertaken 1there pig owners so desire, on premises fleeted as suitable and under careful super- vision and restrictions. "In order to control the spread of disease tb., isolation of infected premises should be ltlalIltain-ed by restrictive regulations, but such j Strict-ions should allow of the introduction to •fliected premises of pigs to be treated imme- -"iitely with serum. Careful consideration ild be given in the light of further experi- "11(-c, to the extent to which existing general fsstrictions on movement may be relaxed as result of new measures. In view of the experimental results above referred to the lapse of a short period of time ^ay be relied upon for disinfection of pre- ^is-es, and should be regarded as preferable to chemical disinfection in the case of large Suaiitities of manure and of premises not Readily capable of being disinfected by arti- ficlal means." j QUALITIES OF FERTILISERS. j i I am asked to state the standards of quality j artificials. With ordinary superphosphate it should be 26 per cent. soluble phosphate of I lime; but there are higher grades in which the percentage of soluble phosphate should be guaranteed. Bone meal should be guaranteed Plre, and to contain at least 3'30 per cent. Nitrogen, equal to 4 per cent. ammonia and 45 Per cent, phosphate of lime. With steamed flour, the guarantee should be 0'80 per nitrogen, equal to 1 per cent, ammonia tild 60 per cent. phosphate. Vitriolised bones Or pure dis-solved bones should be guaranteed *0 contain 267 per cent, nitrogen, equal to 3^ Per cent, ammonia; about 16 per cent, in- t Soluble phosphate, and 12 per cent. soltibl-e Phosphate of lime. Ordinary bone compound j ought to have a guarantee of 0*82 per cent. nitrogen, equal to 1 per cent. ammonia; I 20 per cent. soluble and 8 per cent, insoluble Phosphate of lime. There are intermediate Qualities of bone compounds, but the am- ^^iii.a, soluble, and, insoluble pho-hatj;) SlhouJd I' alwaY6 be guaranteed. sir. 3S sold in various grades, ranging 2g per cent, phosphate of lime up to 45 per cent. The tobai percentage of phosphate lime should be guaranteed, also at least per cent. fineness; and at least 80 per oent. Solubility in 2 per cent. solution of citric acid ()ul.d be guaranteed. Nitrate of soda should e guaranteed pure and to contain at least 15 r cent. nitrogen. Nitrate of lime should be guaranteed to 12'75 per cent. nitrogen. Sul- Phate of ammonia should be guaranteed pure, to contain at least 20 per cent. nitrogen to 34 per cents, ammonia: and nitrolim Calcium cyan&mide) should be guaranteed 18 Per cent. nitrogen equal to 21'85 per cent. of "nmo nu. < WONDERFUL MILK YIELD. The milk-yielding performances of indi- V^ual cows attract much more attention in faerie a than in this country, and it is doubt- ^7* if we can boast of anything in our records j* equal American achievements. A Holstein has produced in 365 days 24,6121b. milk 1,1161b. butter fat. She was milked four* ^es a day by the same milker all through, lId also had the same feeder. She received 171b. of grain daily for the first jiJ months, and this <Vas gradually reduced to /jib. In addition, she had 201b. maize silage, beet pulp and mangels, and all the ^•tural grass she would eat. The test was /^ducted at New Jersey Agricultural Col- commencing when the cow was three •^rs and four and a-half months old. She •^rs and four and a-half months old. She i sighed, at the end of the test, 1,4501b., hav- I "8 gained 3001b. since the beginning. This j* .ir.Iv rep re nte a triumph of careful ^nage me rct and feeding. FARM RETURNS. Rarely if ever has the publication of the ^ricultural returns aroused greater inter- *fci' an<^ fancy that they come nearer to the *^ct position than they have done before, be- ^use farmers and others have taken more Rouble to make a full and accurate statement J the forms sent round last June, v^he returns show that in England and ales there has been a decrease in the total under crops and grass of 61.000 acres, of jbic-h 33,000 acres represent arable land and 7MHK) acres permanent grass. Wheat shows increase of 363,000 acres, or 20 per cent., ^compared with last year, the 2,170,000 acres 'er this cereal being the largest recorded °e 1891; while the increase since 1913 i^nts to 469,000 acres, or nearly 28 per cent. ^Ahe livestock returns show increases among 'l1Jl and sheep but decreases among horses sw^ne- Horses, many of which have been n ^or Army, have fallen in number by 44-000 (or 8 per cent.), the greatest relative I ^j^&ase beins among horses not used for agri- «al purposes. Cows show a decrease of I sti!|0 from the record figure of 1914, but are higher than in any other year; all other Ac ba re increased, and the total number, j t 4,000 (186,000 more than in 1914), consti- j U highest recorded. tjj be increase in sheep amounts to 263,000; «ty°Se above one year (other than breeding ) increasing by a third of a million; but Indifferent lambing season is responsible a reduction of 101,000 in the number of • The decline of 61,000 in pigs is mostly 'hQ ng breeding sows, but the total is well \'e the ten-year average. A-- < SULPHATE OF AMMONIA. efforts are to be made to increase the *h^. of sulphate of ammonia in this country. is the only chemical nitrate manure made Britain, and whereas we were the only its to manufacture it thirty years ago. it produced in all parts of the world, and ^al production has increased five times in y Pajst fifteen years. >t although Britain was the first to make rmany used nearly twice as much per ti^e in 1912, and Belgium more than three as much, with results that no doubt were factory. tw^b the object of extending the agricul- Use of this fertiliser, the Sulphate of Association are at the present time e<^ m the investigation, of a number of the successful solution of winch *<lVa serve the double purpose of being of ar>'tage to agriculture and of stimulating for the fertiliser. Among such by lfl>n; are the liability to lodge exhibited *Tnj^1>r^aI-s after applications of sulphate of 3,8 compared with other nitrogenous arl€1&ers; the comparative malting quality of t J 5 the comparative production of foliage crops; the economy in loss of nitrogen f drainage; and the comparative of nitrogenous residuum which be- available for the succeeding crop in Pamphlet issued by the association says is a tendency among farmers to re- it1 sJ^Pbate of ammonia as similar to nitrate j IVtti i11 respect of its solnbilii'ty. This leads apply it too late in the season and to 40ils.g-%rd the varying retentive quality of i. At the present moment experiments M^ba+11^ made with, a view to showing that SvrL'* ammonia may be profitably ap- mVh "»rti«at on reierrtiTe in the the latest diate by which application ammonia can be economically is ^.vari°u8 soils and crops; and whether ><Wi2*lsable to plough in: the dressing in to saMe to plough in the dressing in Promote moje rapid nitrification, L..

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