OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. I • PESTS OF THE TURF. We are requested by a gentleman employed in educa- tion to notice that our great schools are inundated with 4droulars tempting the pupils to engage in betting specu- lations. He forwards to us one, upon which he has laid his hands, in which the usual delusive promises are held out; the investor of £10, it is assured, will certainly re- ceive a remittance of zC70 at the expiration of a week from the date of his investment, and so punctilious does the swindler who forwards the circular profess to be, that he apologises in advance for any delay that'may occur in making his payments, which, he says, will sometimes occur, in consequence of his absence from home at race meetings. The promises made by the class of thieves who issue these circulars, and who apparently make a living out of their dupes, are so transparent that it might be supposed that none but absolute idiots could' be misled by them. Yet, from their number, it seems pretty clear that the trick succeeds, and that there are more fools than rogues in the world, inasmuch as it must take a good many fools to keep one rogue as rogues like to be kept.-Pall-mall Gazette- CHURCH RATES. To those of the clergy who hold "strong" opinions In favour of church rates, we may commend an address lately delivered to his congregation by the vicar of Leamington, the Rev. Mr. Craig. This gentleman- yfiser than many of his brethern—recognises the fact that the Church of England is in a state of transition," and justly believes that the time is fast approaching when the compulsory collection of church rates must come to an end. He therefore advises his people to pre- pare themselves for the exercise of the liberality and self-sacrifice which characterise Nonconformist bodies in reference to the maintenance of religious worship. It Is time, Mr. Craig thinks, that Churchmen "should educate themselves in the principle of giving, so as to be prepared to sustain those burdens which must inevi- tably fall upon them." It could be wished that others of the speaker's co-religionists—both clergy and laity- were impressed with this wise foresight, and animated by the same spirit of justice. Having got rid of church rates in Birmingham, and there being no chance whatever of their re-imposition, we are not directly interested in this question; but, for the sake of the Church at large, for the peace of the country, and on the ground of justice to Nonconformists, we cannot cease to hope that next Session may witness the abolition of an irritating and obnoxious impost which is a constant source of weakness and danger to the Church itself.—Birmingham, Post. BROADHEAD'S ADMIRERS. The extraordinary perversion of Sheffield sentiment has doubtless some cause, as has every other morbid manifestation of human corruption. It may have been originally due, in some degree, to a belief that they were unjustly regarded by the law but it would be prepos- terous to assert that trades' unions are now so hampered that they can only support themselves by assassination. If so, the inference would hardly be in favour of trades' unions. We are glad, indeed, to see that some of them are recognising the duty of excommunicating these Sheffield patriots, who consider their crimes to be a kind of mechanical reaction from the state of the law, and in no sense due to their own depravity. But the most surprising thing is that the admirers of Broad- head seem to find considerable sympathy beyond their own society. Broadhead, we are told, on retiring from the meeting which had passed the congratulatory resolu- tions, and repudiated with disgust the insulting notion that they could ever have expelled their leading assassin, met a deputation from non-union sawgrinders. These persons seem to have been struck with admiration for his exploits-something, we suppose, like that which some idolaters are said to feel for any destructive and mischievous agency. They were anxious to emulate the glories that have encircled the men within the sacred pale of the society. They proposed to found a society of their own, and, hoping apparently that Broadhead had been expelled by men who were not worthy of him, begged him to come and assist their inexperi- ence. He would, doubtless have been delighted to guide the feeble footsteps of these youthful aspirants. Unluckily for them, the original sawgrinders had refused to listen to the cowardly suggestion of deserting their leader. But it is evident that, below or outside the choice circle which receives the immediate inspiration of the prophet, there is another ready to welcome any one whose teaching may prove a little too strong for Stomachs of such digestive power. There is a fertile soil ready to accept any seeds of doctrine that may be dispersed from the Sawgrinders' Union-a class which will thankfully pick up any crumbs that may fall from their table. We may well believe that Sheffield is unique in the possession of so many persons ready to risk life and liberty, and environed by exoteric admirers. But, though we may hope in a very diluted form, the virus must probably exist elsewhere. -Saturday Review. THE GRAND JURY SYSTEM. We simply record the fact, as another indication of opinion, that the grand jury at the Central Criminal Court put in a presentment showing how their time had been wasted and the public service injured. They point out also what is of equal moment, that a great number of constables had been withdrawn from duty to appear before the grand jury. Endorsing the presentment, we can only repeat what has been so often said before, that, with stipendiary magistrates, grand juries in the metro- polis have become obsolete, and ought to be abolished.— Telegraph. T NEW DOMINION OF CANADA IN DANGER. Apparently the new dominion of Canada is a good deal like the hero of Tom Hood's nautical ballad-its death is going to happen in its birth. The scheme never had much show of stability, and it is rapidly losing what little force it at first possessed. Lower Canada is jealous of Upper Canada, and the maritime provinces are warmly hostile to both. The chiefs are quarrelling over the spoils the people are dissatisfied with the nominations. By the cable we learn to-day that large bodies of troops are to be sent to Canada from England to repel a threatened Fenian invasion. This pretext is, of course, all bosh. The real mission of the military will doubtless be to suppress the internal disorders which are expected to arise after the coming election, and to bolster up as far as possible the do- minion scheme. It is a hopeless case. Popular dis- affection is so great that, despite aU the efforts of the old country, the present election will probably be the last as well as the first, and when it is comfortably over the people will be ready for annexation, naturalisation, or any other "ation," rather than the perpetuation of the new dominion.-New York Herald.
WHAT IS THE ROAD TO HONOUR ? Permission to wear a foreign order, says the Daily Telegraph, can only be granted by the Crown-that is, by the ministry of the day. How far it is good policy to let alien potentates decorate British subjects is a moot question but where licences are accorded, the least we can expect is fair discrimination. The present ministry lacks that sense of equity. A number of gentlemen pro- ceeded lately to Vienna, for the purpose of investing the Austrian Emperor with the Order of the Garter; and among them were the Marquis of Bath and Sir Henry Storks. The Emperor Francis Joseph desired to confer the Grand Cross of the Iron Crown upon Sir Henry, and the Grand Cross of Leopold upon the Marquis. The British Government withheld the requi- site permission from the distinguished soldier,and granted it to the man who is distinguished for nothing but his rank in the peerage and for the steady support he lends to his party chief. The Marquis of Bath is simply a marquis. He has never done or said anything likely to lift him above mediocrity. But Sir Henry Storks has performed many useful ser- vices. When an able man was wanted to restore order in our Eastern hospitals, twelve years a»o he was sent to Smyrna; when tact and Strength were needed in the Ionian Islands, he was selected to do the work; and when the Government of Jamaica fell into disorder the tried peacemaker was taken away from Malta, and shipped off at an hour's notice to the most troublesome, of West. Indian colonies. Lord Bath was never entrusted with any duty higher than that of presiding over a State ceremonial. Yet it is the ornamental personage who is allowed to accept a coveted honour, and it is the really efficient public servant who is denied the permission. There is also a subtle rudeness in the refusal; since the Austrian Court wished to show its gratitude to the gallant officer for his courteous attention to the Empress Elizabeth during her sojourn in Corfu. Thus, while the Govern- ment, therefore, has acted shabbily towards Sir Henry, it has behaved insultingly towards the Empress com- bining flagrant injustice with the perfection of bad taste. The narrowest family clique in the palmiest days of pure Whiggism could not have done worse.
— ■» ■ —L. SERIOUS SCAFFOLD ACCIDENT—IN Martin's- road, Camberwell-lane, on Monday, eight men who were at work upon a scaffolding were precipitated to the ground and seriously hurt. The cause of the accident was the putlocks breaking'out. ,1.. -J ,# < I » f? ft- 1. K
THE SULTAN'S'RETIJRN: The Levant Herald publishes the following manifesto, which the Sultan has addressed to the Grand Vizier on the occasion of his return from Europe :—. The marks of sympathy and good-will which I have received during my journey from the Sovereigns and the great nations of Europe have been such that I can never forget them. In returning to the capital of my domi- nions I-wish to convey to my faithful subjects the plea- sure which I have experienced, and to make them sharers in it. They know that the first and dearest of my wishes is to witness the daily growth of, the prosperity and peace of my empire, and the well-being of all my peoples, and their consummation in every respect. The satisfac- tion of: m heart increases the more when I find all my subjects, like the Governments and the nations whose hospitality I have been enjoying^ appreciating the sin- cerity of my intentions. There is no sweeter recompense for a Sovereign than ,to. see- his subjects respond by affection and devotion to his efforts for the tranquillity and prosperity of the country. The public marks of attachment and fidelity which I have received once more on this occasion from the entire population, are, therefore, most agreeable to me, and I esteem them at the highest price. The senti- ment of duty which renders it incumbent on me to insure protection to all interests and to guarantee the general welfare of all my subjects has derived a new strength from this welcome, and has become invested with the character of a sacred debt. "My solicitude will, therefore, continue to be de- voted to fostering those elements which everywhere serve to bind commonwealths together; to the ad- vance of public instruction, the extension of means of communication, the good organisation of the military and naval forces, and the development of public credit; and my firm will is that all my Ministers and all the functionaries of the State should devote themselves to that object, each within the limits of his proper sphere. "I desire that you should make known to all the pleasure which I have experienced from the sincere de- votion manifested towards me by all classes of my sub- jects, and the gratification displayed by foreign subjects, our guests, on the occasion of my return to the capital of my empire."
f' NATATOR," OR THE HUMAN FROG. Mr. Buckland, in Land and Water, writes as follows On Saturday last I was invited by Mr. C. M. Adams, the polite and active secretary of Cremorne- gardens, to give some account, in Land and Water, of the subaqueous performance which is now being ex- hibited to the visitors of these gardens. A huge human aquarium (for I can call it nothing else) is placed on the stage. It is made of iron, with a plate-glass front, and measures nine feet by five. It contains four tons of water, the depth of water being about six feet. It cost nearly XIOO. When I arrived, the 'human frog' had just begun his performances, and through the plate-glass I beheld a human form twisting itself round and round with the velocity of a cockchafer on a pin, and looking like a huge jack fighting in his last efforts to get rid of the fatal gorge-bait. Getting close to the aquarium, I bebelcl I Natator go through the following subaqueous performances. Firstly, he stands on his head his head touches the bottom of the aquarium, his feet are at the top, like a couple of huge fishing floats. This is called the minute trick.' and is performed first in order to show the length of time that Natator' can stay under water. "The Natator's' second performance is to swim up and down the tank several times-20 are the most- without coming at once to the surface to brea-the. He twists himself right round, and gives a slight push with the foot at each end of the tank, so as to reverse his motion. This is a very difficult trick, inasmuch as the aquarium is not long enough for him to take a full stroke, and he has to stop his force at either end as well as he can. The performance of this feat requires from 40 to 45 seconds under water. Thirdly. Natator' sits down, tailor-fashion, at the bottom of the aquarium, and grins at the people through the plate-glass front. He also opens and shuts his eyes under water, to show that this can be done. He also opens his mouth quite wide under water this, he tells me, is very difficult. Great practice has enabled him to do it, without swallowing a drop of water. He throws out air-bubbles once, and once only this is necessary to enable him to sink to the bottom of the water. While there he neither emits air- bubbles, nor, being under water (of course), takes a fresh supply of air. "Fourthly. He again descends, and eats, under water, a sponge-cake or a bun. He opens his mouth to show that he has really swallowed it. It is most difficult to swallow cake under water without also swallowing water. It required three years' practice to do this performance with safety; for if, when under water, he should happen to cough, the water would enter, he would instantly be choked, and a serious accident would ensue. Fifthly. Ascending to the surface, a soda-water bottle is handed to him he dives with it to his perch at the bottom, and drinks down the contents, viz. a halfpenny- worth of milk he chooses milk because of the colour, and in order that the audience may see that he actually drinks it from the bottle this is a most difficult trick, as it is hard to swallow the milk without the water getting into the mouth. "Sixthly. A lighted pipe is handed to him he takes a: few whiffs above water, and then descends with it when under water, he manages somehow to keep it alight, and to emit bubbles, which, coming to the sur- face, burst in little puffs of tobacco smoke. Coming to the surface, he shows that his pipe is still alight.. I" Seventhly. He does poses plastiques under water, placing himself in various attitudes, and then the piano strik-es up the tune of 'Froggy would a wooing go.' The human frog' dances to the music, frog fashion, at the bottom of the water, all the while singing the song It, is very curious to see the bubbles of air from his mouth, rushing up to the surface in greater or less numbers, according to the number of words in the verse of a song which the spectator should follow in his mind. This would be an interesting study for Professor Wheatstone or, Faraday, to see how many bubbles of air were necessary to form an individual word. Natator' tells me he can hear the piano quite plainly when under water this was indeed evident from the way his bubbles kept time with the music; and he also tells me that if anybody speaks very loud outside the glass, he can hear them plainly. This bears on the question of fish hearing under water; but it must be recollected that a fish's ear is very differently constructed to a human ear. t4, Eighthly. I Natator I swims with a jerking motion like a shrimp, with a steady but sudden rush like a jack, with a lazy, sleepy floating like a 100 year-old carp in the Royal ponds in Virginia Water and, lastly, being apparently seized with a fit of the 'merry-go-rounds,' performs a series of head-over-heels gyrations round and round, like a man practising upon a pole between bars in a school of gymnastics. He remains in mid-water, without touching the top or bottom of the tank, the whole time, and does not once come to the surface; this might well be called the 'porpoise trick.' The most number of head-over-heels turns that he performs (and this generally every night) is 24, and he requires about 50 seconds to get through them. "The performances concluded, 'Natator' allowed me to examine him in my medical capacity. He is a young man, 20 years old, 5 feet 74 inches in stature, and 9 stone 6 pound in weight; he is lightly built, but ex- ceedingly well made and muscular, His pulse on coming out of the water gave 148 beats to the minute; 20 minutes after they were 92 to the minute. I listened to the lungs and heart, and observed several strange phenomena, showing how wonderfully nature can accommodate the machinery of the heart and lungs in an air-breathing animal (I hope Natator' will forgive the expression) to long stays in an element only suited for the existence of fish, and other cold- blooded vertebrata, and this without interfering with the good health of the individual. I shall not now enter into particulars of the auscultation, except to state that the breathing with the diaphragm was very marked; but I should be much pleased if Dr. Cotton (whose skill with the stethoscope in cases requiring accurate diag- nosis in lung disease) would turn his attention to nature's mode of getting out of a difficulty. t With all this hard and very peculiar work, Natator' (whose name, he has no objection to my stating, is Cooper, well known to professional swim- mers) has excellent health. When he first began to practise long stays under water, some four years since, he used to suffer from severe head aches, but now these have quite disappeared; he never has rheumatism, or other ache or pain in any form, though he goes through his performance at half- past ten every night, and sometimes twice a-day. The water in his aquarium he generally manages to keep at a temperature of about 62 degrees, but the warmer the water is the longer he can stay m, and the easier his perform- ances become. The longest time he has ever remained under water at a stretch has been 69 seconds, and last Saturday week he remained 64 his ordinary tricks re- quire from 10 to 30 seconds under water. I strongly advise my readers to witness this performance which is most curious, and at the same time quite original." .• .1 1 "f > f v-f i" A ROMANTIC) CASE. CONCEALMEXII OFSEX FOR FIFTEEN YEARS. An investigation of a very extraordinary character took place on Wednesday evening before Mr. Bedford, the Westminster coroner, at the Prince of Orange Tavern, Brewer's-green, relative to the death of a woman un- known, the supposed illegitimate daughter of a Scotch nobleman, who after having dressed as a man for the last 15 years, her true sex was discovered while dying at a common lodging-liousd, No. 5, Perkin's-rents. William Gillard, superintendent of the lodging-house, said he had. known the deceased for the last eight or nine months by the name of Fred. Mitchell, or Scratchem," the latter being a nickname owing to a fidgety disposition. The deceased had dressed as a male, which he believed her to be until he ac- cidentally discovered her true sex. She slept in a sepa- rate bed in a room in which 22 men also slept, but not the slightest suspicion was' created as to her being a woman. Her habits were very strange, and her mode of obtaining her livelihood a mystery. She was exceed- ingly well educated, and drank nothing stronger than tea. She would bring in her food in a newspaper and eat it privately. There was not the slightest sign of insanity about her. Shortly before twelve o'clock on Friday night last she retired to bed apparently in good spirits, and at half-past ten the following morning had not risen. About one o'clock she appeared to be insen- sible, and foaming at the mouth. Medical attention was called in, and while carrying out the doctor's orders he found to his surprise that Scratchem" was a woman. She died at a quarter-past eight in the evening. He found some letters in her coat pocket, which he turned over to Mr. Fitzgerald, the proprietor ef the house. The letters were produced, the envelope of one bearing the address 11 Mr. George Ogle, 17, St. George's-square," and another was addressed to a lady in Ebury-street. Mr. Hunt, surgeon, of Titchfield-street, deposed to being called to the deceased on Saturday last. He found her lying on her back in bed, apparently labouring under the effects of some narcotic poison or apoplexy. He gave instructions as to her treatment, but she never rallied. He had made a post-mortem examination. He thought when he first saw the deceased that she was a man for she had a most masculine face, with a slight beard, and there was no development of her breasts. She had a feminine hand. There was no external marks on the body, which was well nourished. On opeding the head he found a most extraordinary condi- tion of diseased brain, both lateral ventricles being broken down. The cause of death was softening of the brain, which must have existed for a very long time. It was singular that she had not exhibited symptoms of insanity. She was between 50 and 60 years of age. Mr. George Ogle said the black-bordered note belonged to him, and was an answer to one sent by him to his aunt at Cheltenham, relative to the death of his mother. About April or May last the deceased presented herself, hat in hand, before the window at witness's father's house, and solicited alms. She said she had been in very much better circumstances, but got gradually lower and lower, and was then lodging in Westminster, some- where near Old Pye-street. She said she had been a bank clerk. Witness's father gave her some bread and meat and other things, and witness gave her a coat, in which was the letter produced. They believed the deceased was a male. She had a very delicate hand, white hair cut short, and walked with a stick. The Rev. A. White, Roman Catholic priest, said he saw deceased dying in an Irish lodging-house, when the letters produced were given to him by the proprietor. That addressed to a lady was in the handwriting of some one in Edinburgh, and the lady took an interest in deceased, as she was accustomed to attend a chapel near the lady's residence. The letter was written by some half-witted sister to deceased, who inquired How is my brother ?" meaning deceased; and he (witness) was astonished when he heard of her real sex. There were rumours that they were the illegitimate children of some Scotch nobleman. One day last week the deceased ealled at the lady's house and inquired about her sister, when the letter was given to her. The coroner, on viewing the letter, said, Why, it is signed Claude, and yet written by a female. That is remarkable." Further evidence was given showing that a gentleman had identified the body as that of a supposed poor man whom he had relieved occasionally for the last 15 years. The coroner remarked that they should not obtain any further information in this very extraordinary case. Police-sergeant Lambert, inspector of lodging-houses, said if he had had the letters further inquiries would have been made. A verdict of "Death from Natural Causes was re- corded.
THE QUEEN'S VISIT TO SCOTLAND. The Queen left Windsor station at ten o'clock on Tuesday night for Scotland, and was accompanied by their Royal Highnesses Princess Louise, Princess Beatrice, Prince Leopold, Prince and Princess Christian, and Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein. The suite in attendance included Lady Churchill, Lady Susan Mel- ville, Lord Charles Fitzroy, Sir T. M. Biddulph, Colonel Gordon, the Hon. Mrs. Gordon, &c. A special train, con- sisting of an engine and 14 carriages, including the royal and six other double and single saloons, was provided by the directors of the London and North Western Railway for the conveyance of the Qaeen to the north. Her Majesty's saloon and the other carriages were richly fur- nished and equipped, and the whole of the. train was fitted with the system of electric communication invented by Mr. Marten, the company's electrician, who was in attendance. The Queen and suite on quitting the Castle drove to the Windsor station of the Great Western Rail- way, where they were received by the various officials and attendants, and conducted to their respective car- riages. Her Majesty and her Royal Highness Princess Louise occupied the Royal saloon, which was the seventh carriage from the engine and in the centre of the train. The double saloon at the rear of this was exclusively for the use of their Royal Highnesses Prince and Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein and their infant son with his two nurses. Prince Leopold, with Mr. Duckworth and Colonel Gordon, sat in the next saloon, the adjoining carriage being set apart for Lady Churchill, Lady Susan Melville, Lord Charles Fitzroy, and Sir T. M. Biddulph. Behind this was a saloon for the Minister of State and railway directors, the Queen's fourgon and breaks bringing up the rear. The train arrived at Carlisle at half-past seven on Wednesday morning. The Queen having alighted, and the Royal children having kissed her Majesty on the cheek, proceeded to the County Hotel, by the covered way, accompanied by his Royal Highness Prince Chris- tian, and followed by the rest of the Royal party. Scarlet carpet was laid in the entrance and along the lobbies and staircase up to No. 17, where a plain break- fast was served. Four other rooms were set apart for the use of the Royal party. Coffee having been served by the attendants, the Queen and family were left to themselves. Her Majesty, who looked remarkably well seemed to be in very vivacious spirits. After breakfast the Queen and suite returned to the station, and the train left at 8.40, being due at Kelso at 10.40. The Queen reached Kelso at 11.20 a.m., and met with a splendid reception. The town was richly de. corated, and an address was presented by the inhabitants. Her Majesty then proceeded to Floors Castle, on a visit to the Duke and Duchess Roxburghe, with whom she remained till Friday night.
A *EIfH MILITIA.—A meeting of local magis- trates has been held for the purpose of taking steps to secure a permanent military force in Drogheda. One of the speakers, referring to the observations of the chair- man, that troops could be had on a short notice, said that if another Fenian rising were contemplated the very first act of the insurgents would be to tear up the rails in order to prevent the arrival of soldiers. A me- morial to the Lord-Lieutenant, praying for a continuance ,of military protection in Drogheda, was adopted. TYPHOID FEVER.—IN many districts in and around the metropolis this malignant fever has been and is Still ragmg. At Child's-hill, Hampstead, a rural dis- trict with apparently every condition of health, it has obtained such serious hold, and has committed such ravages that the place is avoided almost as much as if the black flag had been hoisted. With a population of 1,400, many of the principal tradesmen have been ear- ned off within a few days, including the baker and the publican. The disease has visited most of the houses in the place. Great surprise was felt at its gaining such ground in such a place, but Dr. Lankester, after a per- sonal inquiry into the facts, attributes the outbreak to the almost total disregard of sanitary laws. The drainage he states, is particularly defective and dangerous. Great difficulty is experienced at the outset in dealing with the case, as the district is just out of the operation of the sanitary laws which govern the metropolis. Dr. Lankester states, however, that there is a willingness shown to allow it to be made a district of the parish of I Hampstead, and if this were done it would immediately be brought within the scope of the much-needed regula' tiona, T J tiona, T J i'; ".] } 's
A BREACH OF PROMISE CASE. In the Nisi Prius Court, Leeds, the case of Stott v. Calvert was heard on Monday. Serjeant Tindal Atkin- son and Mr. Shepherd were for the plaintiff and Mr. Digby Seymour, Q.C., and Mr. Shaw for the defendant. Mr. Serjeant Atkinson said his client was in humble circumstances, working in a factory, and the defendant is a master plumber, painter, and glazier, carrying on business at Skipton. About 1860 or 1861, plaintiff being then about 19 years of age, and defendant about 21 years old, they were introduced to each other, and a mutual attachment appeared to have sprung up between them. Defendant subsequently paid her a great deal of attention, and was received by her friends as her future husband. They walked out together, but as they lived in the same town, there was none of that interesting correspondence which, in the hands of his learned friend (Mr. Seymour) was often made such capital of (a laugh). The parties seemed to have contented themselves with the frequent opportuni- ties they enjoyed of meeting each other, and matters progressed with the clear understanding that the parties were to be married shortly afterwards. The father of the defendant, it was understood, was opposed to the match, but as human affection was stronger than parental authority, the young man was well able to say to his father, I am arrived at that age when I am able to 'lorm my own judgment in a matter which so nearly con- cerns my future happiness, and when I can make my own selection." Defendant appeared to have acted øn that principle, because, though his father had discountenanced the proposed match, be kept up his visits, and the mother of the plaintiff consented that her daughter and defendant should go together to York, to a review of the West York Rifles, the girl having a relative in that cathedral city. Defendant, who was a musician in the band of the corps, had in York every opportunity of pursuing his intimacy with her. The end of it appeared to be that the poor girl yielded to the solicitations of the young man, and shortly after she returned home she communicated to him that she was likely to become a mother. Defendant replied, I wish you had told me that at York, because I would have married you there." The confinement duly took place, and, in the presence of witnesses, it was affirmed, on the part of the plaintiff, that defendant said "he intended to marry her he did not care what the world might say, for he intended to carry out his original promise. He subsequently paid her money, but after- wards married his cousin, who was a girl in more affluent circumstances in life. The defence was that there had been no promise of marriage that the case was one of purely youthful indiscretion, which had been condoned by the defendant paying for the support of the child. The jury found a verdict for the plaintiff damages X40. This concluded the business of the assizes.
THE PROMISED LAND: POOR DELUDED COLONISTS. A short time since the public was startled by the intelligence that a band of American citizens, with their wives and families, had left their native country for the purpose of settling in Palestine. It appeared strange, indeed, that a people with almost unlimited resources at home, with a magnificent country at present only scantily occupied, should seek to effect a settlement in a country which was in the height of its prosperity before the Christian era, and which was subject to forms of government and inhabited by people so widely different from those which existed in America. The descriptions, however, which were given of this land of promise of the Old World were so attractive, and ap- peared to be so well fonnded on fact, that large numbers of American people not only believed what they heard, but became possessed of an uncontrollable desire to take possession of Old Palestine, a country which to them appeared so rich, not merely in Biblical assertions, but in that material wealth which is essential to the progress and prosperity of a country and the happiness of its people. Religious enthusiasm had, no doubt, something to do with the matter, for the great founder of this modern and peaceful crusade had told his hearers of the approaching advent of a time when Judea would attain to its former high position among the nations of the world, and a reign of righteousness and peace would be inaugurated. The originator of the scheme was one G. J. Adams, the president of the colony and of the Church of the Messiah "-a so-called church founded by himself He always pretended great enthusiasm in all that concerned Palestine, and used all his exertions to gain converts to the belief that its restoration to fertility, and wealth, and glory had begun. By means of his representations he succeeded in inducing a number of people to attempt to form a colony in that country. Previous to embark- ing in the enterprise they, however, despatched Adams with a companion named M'Kenzie, to visit Pales- tine, and report upon the probabilities of the success of the scheme. On their return these deputies gave the most wonderfully-brilliant accounts of the coun- try, telling, as it is now alleged, exactly the con- trary of the real state of affairs. In consequence of these glorious statements, the whole of the little com- munity prepared for their voyage, leaving their comfort- able homes and dearest kindred, selling all their property at his peremptory injunctions, though in most instances at about half its value, and depositing all their money in his hands to provide lands and the other necessaries for the settlement. On the 11th of August of last year they set sail from the State of Maine, and arrived at Jaffa on the 22nd of September following. Although speedily undeceived as to the flattering statements advanced by Adams, who adroit-ly managed to throw the blame of any misfortunes on to others, the little community was again inspirited by its leader, in whom unbounded confidence was shown, and the hsuses of the colony were erected with hopeful views for the future. Farming had been represented to them as the most lucrative employment, and among many other like delusions they were solemnly assured that they would be able to reap three rich crops (60 and 100 fold) in one year from the same piece of land. Thus all hopes were centred on the crops, and in spite of dis- appointments, increasing sickness, and want, the colo- nists still struggled on, hoping to be eventually repaid by a rich harvest. They sowed some 490 bushels of wheat and barley, and a quantity of different kinds of vegetables. Before harvesting the creps looked well, and it was estimated that there would be a yield of about .8,000 bushels of grain and about 2,800 bushels of potatoes. All these brilliant hopes were disappointed, and disappointed most miserably, for the crops eventually turned out so bad that not even sum- cient was gathered for seed. The reason of the failure seemed to be that the ground had been badly chosen, and the imported seed did not suit the "country. More- over the settlers did not understand the native method of tilling the ground as the climate required, and fcr which their machines were unfitted, while, influenced by Mr. Adams, they refused to listen to the proffered ad- vice of experienced residents. They were in conse- quence left in a strange land utterly ruined, most of them stricken with fever and ague, brought on by the influence of the climate, and with starvation staring them in the face, for even where failing health did not prevent it, they could not compete with the natives in any kind of work at the low rate offered- from 12 to 25 cents, per day—on account of the intoler- able heat at midday. Out of the 156 souls who sailed from America 17 have died, and lately by means of private charity 54 have been returned to their native land. The remainder, with the exception of a small clique, which Mr. Adams has congregated around him, are longing to return also. The leader to whom the band owe all- their misfortune, it seems, de- nies all assistance to those who will no longer sub- mit to his tyrannical rule. So they seem to be fated to a slow course of starvation until charity extends a helping hand to them. Means are required for their transmission to their native land and also for their sup- port until the voyage is made, as it cannot be under- taken before the beginning of next April, for the mem- bers of the colony were to arrive in New England during mid-winter, without means and places of shelter, the sudden and tremendous change of temperature would doubtless, without exception, prove too much for their enfeebled constitutions and shattered health. In the good cause of returning these wanderers to their native land we trust Englishmen will not hang back. They can hardly do so in the face of the intimate ties between this country and America, and with the remembrance still fresh of the benefits conferred by our Transatlantic brethren on the poor in the Lancashire cotton districts. Considerable sums have already been subscribed by American resi- dents in Paris, and Messrs. Baring Brothers, of London, have consented to receive subscriptions in this country in aid of the misguided and unfortunate colonists. Mr. Beaubrucher, United States Consul at Jerusalem, has forwarded us a document stating that he has carefully examined the facts connected with this unfortunate enterprise, and certifies that the persons for whom charitable assistance is asked are" honest, laborious artisans, worthy of the deepest sympathy, and who will be exposed to all the horrors of misery if succour be not promptly acceded by generous and compassionate societies and individuals."
EXTRACTS FROM OUR COMIC PAPERS. (From Punck) I SEE THEM DANCING! I see them dancing on the mill, In Bridewell garb. I see Among rogues dancing, dancing still, Dishonest tradesmen three. I see, &c. r V Three out of fifty-eight are they, For weight and measure short, All fined, and those three couldn't pay, At Tower Hamlets Court. I see, &c. Dance on, dance on I've steeled my breast; That vision I can bear. I only wish I saw the rest, All of them, dancing there. il p-r.inr; I see, &c. BORDERING ON DISTRACTION. The Queen on the Borders." An agreeable variation from the usual announcement of her Majesty being on the slopes. We might have been certain that she would be welcome to Floors, which made a great floral display, and beg to suggest that, from its pre-eminence at the present time, it ought to be known as First Floors. A FUGITIVE THOUGHT.—Considering the number of persons who are advertised for in the second column of the Times as having run away from their homes and friends, it might be as well to head that part of the paper, The Flying Column." SEA-SIDE NEWS.—A waiter, at one of the hotels of a fashionable watering-place, lately decamped with the entire silver and plate laid for a breakfast party. It is said that he also ate all the toast, and "left not a rack behind." A LITTLE GAME THAT DON'T PAT.—By the judgment of Baron Bramwell, the operative tailors have lost the game of picquet they have been carrying on with their masters, and had better now pocket their losses, give up play, and go to work again. WE know not whether Sheffield has many Wise Saws," but she certainly has very foolish Sawgrinders. ECHO FROM SHEFFIELD.—Beales and Co. are getting up a dinner to the chiefs who led the van." What about those who ought to be in it ? A DANGEROUS CHARACTER.—A man who "takes life cheerfully. (From Fun.) CONSOLATION. < T. The course of events may be trusted, Howe'er it may happeR to run And I'm not altogether disgusted With anything under the sun. It is folly to be a regretter That Fate seems a little perverse,— When I fancy things might have been better, I know that they might have been worse. Let the luck of a life be collected You'll find, if you reason it out, That if one thing is worse than expected, The next will be better, no doubt. So let me suggest to the fretter, Who thinks Disappointment a curse, That if many things might have been better, They certainly might have been worse. WHAT NEXT? An announcement of a marriage appeared in the Standard the other'day, and wound up with this de- lightful bit of gentility :— After the interesting scene the happy couple were re- ceived at the hospitable mansion of Mrs. M. G. Blank, widow of the late Lieutenant-Colonel M. G. Blank, and sister of the bride, by a select society of the converted." How genteel! Not the converted tag-rag and bobtail, but the upper ten thousand-the crhne de la creme-a select society of the converted. There was very little humble pie "-ety at that marriage feast "KNOW, ALL MEN, BY THESE PRESENTS."—We see that the Sultan has presented a handsome gold and diamond snuff-box to the enterprising lessee of the Italian Opera, Covent-garden. We are happy to note this very deserved recognition of mana-Gye-rial ability. SPORTING INTELLIGENCE.—Although there is a very poor supply of grouse for the sportsman this year, we believe that September will offer him plenty of birds. We are informed on good authority that a Partridge was seen in the neighbourhood of the Lambeth Police-court only last week. THAT WERE A CONSUMMATION."—A friend of ours, who has been the victim of false prophets, says that he wishes the turf were on its last legs." SEASONABLE.—What to eat, drink, and avoid just now—grouse champagne and work CURRENT LITERATURE.—" Books in the running brooks." (From. the Tomahawk.) THE MANSFIELD TESTIMONIAL. NOTICE.—We beg to announce that a very wide-spread sympathy having been found to exist in favour of Sir William Mansfield, who has, in the opinion of many, been very unjustly censured for doing an unpleasant duty, a committee of gentlemen has been formed to give some practical effect to this feeling in favour of a brave and kind-hearted officer. We have consented to receive subscriptions towards a fund for the purpose of compensating this maligned hero for the severe losses which he has incurred through the mal-administration of his store-room by his extravagant aide-de-camp. We beg to inform our readers that we shall be happy to receive subscriptions, either in money or in kind, at our office. Pickles (mixed or West Indian), jam or marmalade, tapioca, and Betts' British brandy, thankfully received. Loaf sugar and Yarmouth bloaters taken for purposes of exchange. No dripping can be accepted. We shall publish from time to time a list of subscriptions. FIRST LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. Jocko.-—A United States postage stamp. A Field-Marshal, his Family, and a Few Friends.—A pot of marmalade (medium quality). The Mite of an A id-de-camp.-Three dozen Yarmouth bloaters, 65 pounds of wax candles, and two cans of treacle. FURTHER AID IS EARNESTLY REQUESTED, Sir William Mansfield having lost, since the last appeal, no less than a whole leg of mutton. TRULY, France is to be envied for something more than its witty women and its delicious claret. How easily contented is that happy-minded nation! For weeks every mind has been on the rack of expectation, waiting for the fresh measure of liberal reform, which their Em- peror was about graciously to concede. The letter which is to free France, is published, and behold-it announces the necessity of making parish roads in the country We know that the Government of Louis Napoleon rests on no less true basis than the love of his subjects, else should we be tempted to think that he was bent on showing there are many roads to ruin AN OLD FOX TO SOME VERY SOUR GRAPES. What! the famed Prussian Eagle at Salzburg be canght Not a bit of it! Let all the fatherland rail Do you think, then, that Bismarck has never been taught, That he's done-it they once get the salt on his tail ?
THE TRAITOR Lopez, the double traitor, who first betrayed his country, and then deliberately sold his adopted'master for a handful of gold, is reported to-have- been assassi- nated at Puebla. Abhorring the, dastardly crime, we cannot fail to see something of poetical justice in that termination of an infamous career.. The Emperor Maxi- milian had the misfortune to fall, from the very outset, into the hands of scoundrels. It is recorded of this very Lopez that one day, when Seeing from the foe and in danger of immediate capture, he was saved by a mounted soldier, who gave hini a seat on his. horse. Hard pressed by the enemy, Lopez, seeing them draw nearer and nearer, stabbed his preserver in, the back, and throwing him from the saddle rode off—aft act of villany almost sublime in its detestable meinness. Marquez, another trusted Imperial servant, is credited with the commission of every cruelty. Yet Lopez was enrolled in the Legion of Honour, and, we believe Marquez is also adorned with the red ribbon. How could any ruler expect to succeed witli-fmeh instruments 1 How can a land which breeds such men and gives them a career hope for regeneration and pea^.—Telegraph.
ONE OF THE OLDEN Timx.-A lady of high rank, the Countess Dunin-Wonsowierz, has just died in Paris, who had nearly attained her 100th year. She was the granddaughter of Stanislas Auguste, the last King of Poland, and niece and sole heiress of the cele- brated Prince Poniatowski. The Countess was much attached to literature, and in former days her soirees were attended by persons eminent for intellectual acquirements. She was first married to Count Potocki. After a few years of widowhood she married Count Wonso- wierz, formerly aide-de-camp to Napoleon I., by whom she leaves a son, Count Maurice Potocki. The two children by her first marriage are dead. It is said that the Countess has written some very interesting memoirs, which will be published.
A DANGEROUS CHARACTER. At the Thames Police-court, on Monday, Richard Wright, an eccentric, intemperate man, who has lost both legs, was brought before Mr. Benson, the new magistrate, charged with violently assaulting George Hunt, a boy about 12 years of age. The prisoner is without home or occupation, and has been maintained by good-natured persons, who have given him food, money, and strong drinks. He has committed great excesses in his drunkenness, and on one occasion he broke all the windows and carboys In a doctor's shop with the two sticks he uses to assist him in walking on his wooden legs. On Saturday he was intoxicated, and was followed through Stratford, Brom- ley, and Bow by a large number of boys, who were shouting, jeering, and laughing at him. He resented this treatment by flourishing his sticks, and he struck one boy named Hunt a fearful blow on the head. The boy's cap was cut, and he was severely injured. The prisoner said the boys would never let him alone. Mr. Benson Because you get drunk and make a fool of yourself. The prisoner said that some of the boys pulled him about, and one bit him on the back. A Policeman I have seen the prisoner standing with his back against a wall, swinging his sticks, and with 300 or 400 boys facing him. Mr. Benson said the prisoner was a dangerous, ill- conducted man, and that if he did not get drunk and make a nuisance of himself he would be an object of pity, not of violence. The prisoner must not repeat such dangerous tricks as the one now charged against him. If the boy's head had not been defended by a cap he might have been killed. He sentenced the prisoner to three days' imprisonment. The Prisoner What am I to do, your worship, when I come out of prison. The boys won't leave me alone ? Mr. Benson Keep sober, and the boys wiR not molest you. ._— ————
THE HEALTH OF LONDON. In the week that ended on Saturday, August 24th, 4,597 births and 2,837 deaths were registered in London and twelve other large towns of the United Kingdom. The annual rate of mortality was 24 per 1,000 persons living. The annual rate of mortality last week was 21 per 1,000 in London, 19 in Edinburgh, and 26 in Dublin 23 in Bristol, 27 in Birmingham, 30 in Liverpool, 29 in Manchester, 26 in Salford, 22 in Sheffield, 33 in Leeds, 22 in Hull, 33 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and 24 in Glas- gow. The rate in Vienna was 22 per 1,000 during the week ending the 17th inst., when the mean temperature was 2*4 deg. Fahrenheit higher than in the same week in London, where the rate was 24. The following proportions of the above rates were re- w ferred to diarrhoea in the different towns :-In London 3-3 per 1,000, in Sheffield 4-6, in Newcastle 6'3, in Liverpool 7'0, in Birmingham 8'8, in Leeds 9*0, and, the highest, 10'3 in Manchester and Salford. In London the births of 1,154 boys and 1,101 girls, in all 2,255 children, were registered in the week. In the corresponding weeks of ten years 1857-66, the average number, corrected for increase of population, is 1,972. The deaths registered in London during the week were 1,247. It was the thirty-fourth week of the year, and the average number of deaths for that week is, with e a correction for increase of population, 1,312. The deaths in the present return are less by 65 than the estimated number. The mortality exhibits a considerable decrease when compared with the number of deaths (1,391) in the preceding week. The more favourable return is not owing to a decline in the number of deaths from diarr- hcea, as last week the disease proved fatal to 188 children and 8 adults. In the six previous weeks the numbers were 115, 170, 196, 217,189,200. Last week 43 cases occurred in the West, 50 in the North, 13 in the Central, 39 in the East, and 51 in the South districts. Ten deaths from diarrhoea were registered in the sub-district of St. Mary, Paddington, 8 in Kensing- ton Town, 10 in Islington West, and 6 in Lambeth Church second part. In the other sub-districts, the malady was not so fatal. The deaths of 13 children ,and 5 adults from cholera were registered. In the corresponding week of last year, the deaths from diarrhoea were 129, and from cholera 265. A plumber, aged 71 years, died on 23rd August, at 1, St. diarrhoea were 129, and from cholera 265. A plumber, aged 71 years, died on 23rd August, at 1, St. Ann's-road, Kensington, of "coup de soleil, cerebral effusion," A journeyman gilder, aged 27 years, died on 23rd August in the Middlesex Hospital of "acute glanders." Two females, aged 78 and 54 years respec- tively, died last week from shock caused by fright at the severe thunderstorm which occurred during the early morning of Tuesday, 20th August. The deaths of four persons who were killed by horses or carriages in the streets were registered one of these unfortunate persons was an old woman, whose age Is said to have been 110 years. » f"ff.:t iri l ''li-
DEATH OF PROFESSOR FARADAY, The public will hear with sincere regret of the death of Professor Faraday, which took place on Sunday, near Hampton-court. Michael Faraday was born in 1791, in the parish of Newington, Surrey, and, like many others who have illustrated the page of British history, was entirely a self-made man. After being instructed in the mere rudiments of knowledge he was apprenticed to a book- seller and bookbinder, and continued to work at his trade till 1812. During this early period of his life, however, he showed the bent of his genius, for in the intervals of his employment he not only read with avidity such works on science as fell in his way, but applied himself to the construction of elec- tric and other machines. Having been present at some of the last lectures delivered by Sir H. Davy, Faraday wrote to that distinguished chemist, asking him for encouragement, and at the same time enclosing notes of the lectures at which he had been present. Sir H. Davy answered the request of the young aspirant promptly and kindly, and in 1813 he was admitted in the Royal Institution as chemical assistant to Professor Brande. Faraday soon became the favourite pupil and the friend of his patron, whom he accompanied in the autumn of the same year in a visit to France, Italy, Switzerland, &c., returning to his place in the Royal Institution in 1815. He now pursued his investigations of Nature with great ardour and published the results in various scientific journals. In 1820 he discovered the chlorides of carbon, and, the year following, the mutual rotation of a magnetic pole and an electric current; in 1823 the discovery of the condensation of gases; in 1831 and following years the development of the induction of elec- tric currents and the evolution of electricity from magnetism. The establishment of the principle of definite electrolytic action, the discovery of diamagnet- ism and the influence of magnetism upon light, obtained for him, in 1846, the Rumford medal and that of the Royal Society. In 1847 he announced to the world the magnetic character of oxygen and the magnetic relations of flame and gases. When Mr. Fuller founded the Chair of Chemistry, in the Royal Institution, in 1838, Mr. Faraday was appointed first professor. In 1835 he received a pension of £300 a year from Lord MelbourneV Government in recognition of his important services to science. In the following year he was appointed scientific adviser on lights to the Trinity house, and was subsequently nominated to a similar post under the Board of Trade. He was chemical lecturer from 1829 to 1842 to the cadets at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. In 1823 he was made a cor. responding member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris; in 1825 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society; and in 1832 the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Laws was conferred on him by the University of Oxford. Be was a Knight of the Prussian Order of Merit, of the Italian Order of St. Maurice and Lazarus, and one of the Eight Foreign Associates of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Paris. In 1855 he was nominated an officer of the Legion of Honour, and in 1863 he was made an associate of the Paris Academy of Medicine. Although the late professor chiefly confined himself to experimental researches, there are theoretical views thrown out with regard to static induction, atmos- pheric electricity, the lines of force, both representa- tive and physical, which axe well worthy of consideration. His papers on the conservation of force, and on the division of gold and other metals are amongst his latest productions. His lectures adapted for young minds, delivered at the Royal Institution during Christmas time, will not easily be forgotten. The ease with which he descended from the heights of science and conveyed in the minds of his youthful listeners the scientific principles of "common things" was not the least of the many gifts possessed by Dr. Faraday. But it is in connection with electricity and its relations with almost all physical, chemical,' and physiological phenomena, that his fame will principally depend. His investigations on this subject led him to the presumption that electricity, magnetism, and light are but one and the same force, varying in effect accord- ing to circumstances, but obedient to laws which will OM day be discovered.