THE RAILWAY SPY SYSTEM. The Daily Telegraph has the following :—" Espionage Is a practice not loved by the British public. Even the v detectives employed to surprise and discover the 61ite f the criminal classes are only tolerated because there is a species of warfare perpetually on foot between the professed depredator and the law. The detectives, and still more the private inquiry office, may be used for the most freprehensible purposes. Two railway guards have lately sited their lives, not in the execution of their duty, in playing the part of volunteer detectives. One set self the shameful task of imitating a mythic personage in the Godiva legend. He thought fit to spy into the privacy of two travellers, a lady and gentleman, who happened to be alone in a carriage, and who turned out to be man and wife; and the spy paid for his curiosity with his life The second guard was more probably bent on discovering genuine crime. The Lon- don, Chatham, and Dover Company have suffered con- siderably from thieves, who have stolen brasses, curtains, and horsehair out of the carriage cushions. The guard crawled along the carriages to detect these plun- derers, and not keeping a sharp look-out for bridges, he lost his life by striking against a girder. Now, we are far from censuring the dead man for his zeal; but the coroner was quite right when he said that if this sort of espionage were continued there would be an end of comfort in railway travelling, and he pointedly censured the practice of crawling along the carnages to watch passengers as an offence against the decency of society The amateur detective may be cfccused, but the amateur spy is wholly inexcusable. The remedy might be found in the adoption of something like the American carriages, with the proviso that those who desire to hire private coupes may secure the luxury by paying for it. At all events, society should demand that espionage, a ready means of extortion, should e. J If watching is necessary, let it be done openly d under the responsibility of official orders.'
THE ARTS, LITERATURE, &C. THE memorial executed by desire of her Majesty, for St. George's Chapel, Windsor, to mark the estimation in which she held her uncle, the late King of the Belgians, is now fixed in the place assigned to it, near the fine group which records the death of his late Majesty's first wife (the Princess Charlotte). The history of this—the last memorial added to what may now be termed the mausoleum of our sovereigns—is not generally known. Immediately after the death of the king, her Majesty summoned Miss Durant, the sculptor, and commissioned her to submit designs for a monument to his Majesty, in conformity with certain instructions then given. The lady set to work with extraordinary application, and the monument was completed early in the present year. The monument was executed at Miss Durant's studio in Radnor-place, Hyde-park, at a cost of £ 1,600. THE Athenceum observes We have great satisfac- tion in announcing that the long-expected monument to the Duke of Wellington, upon which Mr. A. Stevens has been engaged for several years, is now nearly finished, and in all probability will, ere long, be publicly shown. It is in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral. The general design of this work is not original; its details are, however, full of spirit and beauty. Our readers will recognise in the Jacobian monuments of Queen Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots, which fill large portions of the aisles in Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster, the model which has been adopted for the tomb of the great duke. The second and larger of these monuments is now most in question. The novel work exceeds it in size and splendour, but, like it, comprises a basement, with sculptured panels, sustaining a richly moulded and decorated sarcophagus, on the lid of which reclines the effigy of the deceased. A lofty canopy is supported on columns, the caps of which are carved with scales, the caps Corinthian, the bases otherwise enriched The central portion of the canopy is coffered or panellec., and rises in a semicircular arch; the portions which comprise the ends of the canopy, and are borne upon the columns, are decorated in various ways, and support at their summits groups of sculpture detached and in high relief. Above the arch the central element of the design dominates, and jis concluded by an appropriate finial. The work is magnificent enough to satisfy all observers. The figure of a horse, which was proposed for the crowning feature of this design, has been replaced by a better suited object. THE Italian Association for the Promotion of Popular Education has just announced a prize of 5,000fr. for the best original work on the model of "Self-Help," by Mr. Samuel Smiles. THE memoirs of the unfortunate Emperor Maximilian of Mexico will appear shortly at Leipsic. They were announced some time ago, and even the printing was begun during the lifetime of the Emperor. Now they are to come out, at the special desire of the Emperor of Austria. The work will comprise seven volumes, and will appear under the title of My Life Travelling Sketches, Aphorisms, Poems." The first volumes will contain his diary of a journey in Italy. The prince was then only 19, and shows himself in his notebook full of candour, feeling, and chivalry. THE lite ary papers tell us that a Royal sign-manual warrant of King Charles II., issued in the first year of his reign, new to our dramatic history, has been found in an old office-book belonging to the office of the Lord Chamberlain. Neither Malone nor Payne Collier has noticed it. In this sign-manual, continues our authority, after printing it, eleven plays are assigned to Sir Wm. Davenant, the patentee of the Duke's Theatre one by Webster, The Duchess of Malfi; one by Sir John Denham, The Sophy; and nine by Shakespeare. We have here, then, fresh and startling evidence of the pre- eminent popularity of Shakespeare ever other dramatists in the reign of King Charles II. THE present Duke of Wellington is said to be print- ing the whole body of his illustrious father's papers-for safety, not for publication. The "despatches given to the world in general are founded on these printed docu- ments. The duke's plan is to put everything into the custody of type and then to strike out such passages as affect living persons too closely, or such as it might be indiscreet to make public. Three copies only of the original impression are taken—one copy for preservation at Apsley-house, a second at Strathfieldsaye, and a third at the duke's bankers'. The duke objects to depositing one of these originals in either a public office or the British Museum. Valuable as are the published despatches," every reader will suspect that the sup- pressed passages must he still more curious and enter- taining.
SPORTS AND PASTIMES. SOME adventurous spirits have been indulging in queet aquatic sports on the Hudson, near Troy. Three men raced across the river in wash-tubs for a stake only large enough to make the game interesting, and two of them were upset. Another race was between blindfolded boatmen, in skiffs, from the shore to an island in the river. One of the contestants ran into the shore a mile below on the same side from which he had started. THE Prince of Teck has signified his willingness to be- come the patron of a grand national volunteer ball ap- pointed to take place at the Agricultural-hall on Wed- nesday, llth September next, upon a scale of magnifi- cence which, it is understood, will throw the late enter- tainment at the same place in honour of the Belgian visjt (ompletely into the shade. That Prince Teck should allow his name to be placed at the head of this move- ment is most appropriate, as he has recently accepted the post of hon. colonel of the 1st Surrey Artillery, and he will be largely supported by some of the most dis- tinguished metropolitan commanding officers. LA CROSSE AT LORD'S GROUNDS.—The Canadian Indians appeared at Lord's Ground on Saturday, and attracted a large and fashionable audience. They were divided into two companies two red flags were placed at one, and two blue flags at the other extremity. The Indians, standing midway between these, were provided with a kind ef pastoral crook, having a net in the crook, and their object was to carry a ball, much in the same way as those playing hockey, to their respective goals indicated by the flags. Much amusement was occasioned by the near approach to success and the fruitless efforts of the opposing parties to win the game. The game requires great running power, quick eye-sight, and dexterous use of the arm and elbow. The result of the play was the reds threw the ball out of bounds thrice, and the blues threw it twice. Captain Johnson, who has brought the men here, proposes that they should play again at Lord's on Friday. After that he intends to introduce his proteges to the people of Manchester and Sheffield. Mr. Day managed affairs for the con- venience of the large number of spectators with his usual ability. SPORT IN AUGUST. THE ENGLISH MOORS.—On the long range of moors extending from Pemstone and Manchester into Derby- shire and Cheshire, the sport on the 12th was much better than was anticipated, whilst there was a very great falling off in the number of guns out. The day was remarkably hot, and those engaged in shooting on the low grounds found birds tolerably numerous and fairly packed. Several of the most extensive grounds at Dunford, Woodhead, and Hazlehead were, however, not opened. Sir Lionel Pilkington's moors at Boardhill had three guns on them, and there was some very fair r shooting. Sir George Armytage, Bart., Kirklees-hall, killed 12 brace Mr. S. Hague, Calne-bridge, 10 brace and Mr. Sidebottom, 9 brace. On Wrigley and Apple- yard's moors Mr. C. Knight killed 5 brace. At Board- hill Flatts Mr. H. Tomasson bagged 5 brace after four o'clock in the afternoon; whilst on Tinker-hill, Mr. Senior and party did very well. On Tuesday there was very little shooting before 10 o'clock in the morning, and the weather being again very fine and warm, the birds lay well, and could scarcely be got to rise. Mr. Butling, Mr. Moore, and Mr. R. W. Wilson made some good bags on the Moscar moors. The shooting season will be a very short one indeed, as sportsmen are desirous of saving a fair number of the young birds for breeding. On Monday as much as w61 per brace was given for grouse, but on Tuesday they could be obtained for 12s. GROUSE SHOOTING IN WALES.—In North Wales, as elsewhere, the grouse disease has this year seriously in- terfered with the prospects of sport, but on the 12th the birds were found much more numerous and in better condition in the Bala district than had been anticipated. It was especially notieed that the disease was much more prevalent on the hill-sides exposed to the sun than on those which are almost constantly in the shade. From Glanlyn, Sir W. W. Wynn's party turned out six guns, and after a most fagging day, under a broiling sun, they bagged 60 brace. Captains Arkwright and Stevens, of the 2nd Life Guards, with a friend, bagged 26 brace, but both parties expected better sport during the week, as on the opening day" they passed over their best spots. On the evening of the 12th, grouse could be purchased in Bala at 5s. a brace, half the price asked on the Scotch and Yorkshire moors. THE SCOTCH MooRS.-The shooting season opened in Perthshire under very favourable circumstances, so far I as the weather was concerned. At an early hour of the first day of shooting the mountains were enveloped with mist, but by six o'clock the fog had disappeared, and the sun shone out brightly, and the day throughout con- ] tinned to be the hottest of the season, with scarcely a breath of wind blowing. Never before, however, or at least for the last thirty years, did the grouse shooting open with more gloomy prospects for sportsmen on the principal and best moors of Perthshire than this season, owing to the deadly results of the disease among the y birds. On the extensive moors of Drummond Castle, Glenartney, Lochearnside, Monzie, Auchinapiee, Glen- almond, and other places, there was no shooting on Tuesday, and none of the moors will be shot over this year. The reports received the last few days show that on the extensive range of shooting grounds stretching from Crieff to Locktayside the malady still lingers among the few grouse still left in many places, and that both the old and young birds are found dead daily. The fact that on several moors the whole stock of parent birds have been swept away by the distemper, and young birds are affected and dying dailv, shows too plainly that the disease has not resulted, as some maintained when the malady broke out, from the grouse feeding on frosted heather. It is now the opinion of many that the cause of the disease has resulted from atmospheric influences for while on some grounds the distemper carried off nearly all the grouse, on the neighbouring moors few birds were affected. At all events, the mortality has been unpre- cedented, and the disease appears to be as mysterious still as when it first broke out. All descriptions of low- country game are abundant, and have seldom been seen in better condition. Partridges especially, though the young covers are usually late, are plentiful in all direc- tions, and the birds are improving rapidly with the present warm weather. Capercailzie and pheasants are numerous in all the preserves, and the birds are well grown and will afford excellent sport. The prospects of sportsmen in the forests were never more encouraging. The deer are numerous, and the animals have improved rapidly in condition and appearance since the beginning of June, owirg to the richness and abundance of the pasture in the glens. The herds show a goodly number of fine stags with splendid heads, but there will be no stalking in the forests of Glenartney and Turlem this season in consequence of the grounds being unlet.
FACTS AND F ACE TIlE. A STANDING DISH AT UTAH.—A spare rib. THE LARGEST ROOM IN THE WORLD.—The room for improvement." WHY ought Theodorus to be the most primi- tive of monarchs ?—Because he is King of the ABCnians. COUNTERACTION. A balancing provision of nature for the prevention of excess, whether in morals or mechanics. ARRESTS have been made of the man who was intoxicated with successi* and the individual who was staggered by the result. A NEW YORK preacher advertises the induce- ment that his place of worship is the coolest hall in the city." Cool." THE penny postmen have established a two- penny Postman to state their wrongs in print. The men complain that they are underpaid and overworked. IT is a common saying of moralists that the lower orders of animals have not the vices of men yet it is certain that some of the insects are back-biters," and all the quadrupeds tale-bearers." I CAME off with flying colours," as the painter said, when he fell from the ladder with a palette over his thumb. "I REPEAT," said a person of questionable veracity, "that I am an honest man." "Yes," was the reply "and how often will you have to repeat it before you believe it yourself?" FELIX M'CARTHY, of the Kerry Militia, was generally late on parade. Ah, Felix," said the ser- geant, "you are always last." "Be aisy, Sergeant Sullivan," was the reply; sure some one must be last." ILLUSTRATED with cuts! said a mischievous young urchin, as he drew his knife across the leaves of his grammar. "Illustrated with cuts," repeated the schoolmaster, as he drew his cane across the back of the mischievous urchin. AN old fellow, who is always perpetrating bad jokes, persists in describing gamesters as birds of par 'o dice; and he accounts for the presence of blacklegs in a sheepfold by citing the notorious fact that lambs are always passionately fond of gambolling. A SCHOOLMISTRESS, while taking down the names and ages of her pupils, and the names of their parents, at the beginning of the term, asked one little fellow, "What's your father's name?" "Oh, you needn't take down his name; he's too old to go to school to a woman," was the reply. DURING a trial at Stafford, Mr. Huddleston, whilst pleading, was suddenly seized with a bleeding at the nose. Baron Alderson instantly complimented the learned counsel's client upon the fact, saying, You are a lucky fellow; your advocate bleeds in your cause." THE Rev. Paul Hamilton, on receiving the pre- sentation to the church and parish of Broughton, near Edinburgh, preached a farewell sermon to the ladies of Ayr and not a little to the surprise of his fair auditory, gave out his text-" And they fell upovi Paul's neck and kissed him! SURE, said Patrick, rubbing his head with de- light at the prospect of a present from his employer, I mane to do me duty." "I believe you," replied his employer, and therefore I shall make you a present of all you have stolen from me during the year." Thank yer honour," replied Pat; and may all your friends and acquaintances trate you as liberally." A GENTLEMAN was bathing the other day at the seaside, and swimming right gallantly, when a New- foundland dog sprang into the water, and insisted upon saving him. The gentleman declined, but was eventually obliged to give way for fear of being drowned, and was quietly pulled on shore by the hair of his head, he assisting by floating. The reward was a good kicking to the well-disposed brute, who was really trop bete. This would make a pendant to Landseer's (I Distinguished Member of the Humane Society." WITHIN BOUNDS.—They tell the story of a young lady of temperate habits, who was advised by her physician to take ale to fatten her up. She bought a quart bottle of the article, and drank a teaspoonful twice a day in a tumbler of water but finding that she was fattening too rapidly, she reduced the dose one-half, and thus kept within bounds.—There is another story told of a man who declared he could keep a donkey without giving him any food. He reduced him by degrees, and just as he got to a straw a day the donkey died. A CAPITAL story used to be told of the late David Roberts. An art critic who was his personal friend, published a sharp attack upon certain pictures of his just exhibited. My dear Roberts," wrote the aritic in a private letter, you may have seen my re- marks on your pictures. I hope they will make no difference in our friendship. Yours, &c. "My dear wrote the painter in reply, the next time I meet you I shall pull your nose. I hope it will make no difference in our friendship. Yours, &c., D. ROBERTS." TRUE HISTORY OF JACK HORNER.—Who has not heard of this wonderful individual ? Who does not remember of being told in his childhood about Jack Horner ? and who has not envied his good fortune when he- Sat in the corner eating a Christmas pie, Put in his thumb, And pulled out a plum, And said, What a good boy am I!' Have the children ever inquired who Jack Horner was ? Here is the tradition :-When Henry VIII. suppressed the monasteries, and drove the poor old monks from their nests, the title-deeds of the Abbey of Mells-including the sumptuous grange built by Abbot Bellwood—were demanded by the commissioners. The Abbot of Glastonbury determined that he would send them to London, and as the documents were very valuable, and the roads infested with thieves, it was difficult to get them to the metropolis in safety. To accomplish this end, however, he devised the following plan he ordered a pie to be made-as fine as ever smoked on a refectory table; inside he put the documents-the finest filling a pie ever had since pies were first made he intrusted this dainty to a lad named Horner to carry up to London, to deliver safely into the hands for whom it was intended. But the journey was long, and the day was cold, and the boy was hungry, and the pie was tempting, and the chance of detection was small. So the boy broke off a piece of the pie, and beheld the parchment; he pulled it forth innocently enough, wondering how it could have reached there-tied up the pastry, and arrived in town. The parcel was delivered, but the title-deeds of Mells Abbey were missing Jack had them in his pocket. These were the juiciest plums ( of the pie. Great was the rage of the commissioners, heavy the vengeance they dealt out to the monks. Jack kept his secret, and when peaceable times were restored, claimed the estates and received them. Whether Mr. Horner deserves the title of good boy," bestowed on him by the nursery lament, is more than doubtful; however, that's the story.—Monthly Magazine.
AGRICULTURE. 1 DISEASE IN SHEEP. A writer in the home correspondence of the Gardener'3 Chronicle says :—" A somewhat rare disease, not fatal, but of a perplexing nature, occurred amongst my ewe flock during last lambing season, the treatment of which, if not understood, might have occasioned me heavy loss. To middle of February lambing has been highly favourable; 300 lambs were dropped in four weeks, with loss of only one ewe and six lambs. This good fortune was of short duration. An eruption, some- thing like boils upon the human skin, appeared upon the udder, tongue, and lips of the ewe, and on the lips, tongue, and gums of the lambs. Within a week upwards of 200 ewes and as many lambs became affected with the disease. Boils formed upon the teats, inflammation extended deep and far about, involving the whole sub- stance of the udder; in milder cases there was one or two small pimples, with redness of surrounding parts; in numerous cases the bag appeared bordering on mortifi- cation (black brown in appearance). A black scab enveloped the old teat, which, on falling off, exposed a raw, ragged surface in one case the teat sloughed away, and the milk escaped immediately from the udder. From soreness, the ewe would not allow the lamb to suck, and the imprisoned milk caused garget to attack the udder; and this became more serious than the original disease. Disease extended deep into the gums of the lambs, causing many teeth to fall from the mouth. A heavy land farm, with only one cow, and it suffering from garget, and upwards of 50 lambs deprived of milk of the dams, and requiring artificial food, and as many of the ewes suffering acute inflammation of the teats and udder consequent upon the boils and garget. So great appeared the sufferings of both ewes and lambs that, so far as ailments of animals are concerned, I never witnessed a more pitiable sight none but a shepherd and owner of a flock in such a condition can comprehend the difficulties of my case. By the. direc- tion of Mr. Seaman, veterinary surgeon (under whose management I now placed the whole stock), the young lambs were fed with barley, malt, sweet wort, and linseed cake porridge. The older lambs had crushed beans (not bean meal), all they would eat and I have great plea- sure in stating, that so appropriate was the food, and so efficacious the medicines used by the doctor, that fatality amounted to but one ewe and two lambs. Scores of ewes suffered from garget of the most painful kind, yet but one ewe lost a part of the bag. I believe it is Mr. Seaman's intention shortly to publish a pamphlet upon this (to us) new disease, which, if.it contains the particulars of treatment, will be a great boon to the flockmaster. An artist has been employed to make drawings of the diseased parts, for the purpose of illustration." THE BEST TIME FOR CUTTING GRAIN. The Pall-mall Gazette says :—" As the harvest is now rapidly becoming general all over the country, it is as well to remind both farmers and millers that now is the time for continuing the experiments which have been made at different dates for deciding upon the best period for cutting wheat. The opinions current in the agri- cultural world are still so contradictory that nothing but a frequent repetition of these experiments will settle the matter. The subject was first publicly mooted in the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture for June, 1841, by Mr. Hannam, an eminent Yorkshire agriculturist, who asserted -most positively that wheat cut when thoroughly ripe is both less in weight and inferior in quality to that which is cut a week or even a fortnight before thorough maturity. His first experiments were made in 1840, when he took three separate samples of wheat to market, and found that the grain cut on August 4, when still 'green,' fetched 61s. per quarter, while that which was cut on August 18, and technically called 'raw,' fetched 64s., and that cut on September 1, quite ripe, fetched only 62s. In 1841 he instituted more extensive experiments, and the judges at the following agricultural show at Wetherby awarded an extra premium to the wheat which had been cut a fortnight before it was thoroughly ripe, and the price it fetched in the market fully bore out the deci- sion. He then had samples of the various kinds of wheat ground and dressed by a careful miller, and found that the produce of half a rood cut on August 26, while raw,' yielded 15st. 101b. of grain that a similar produee cut on August 30, also 'raw,' yielded 16st. 61b. and that cut on September 9, ripe, yielded only 14st. 131b.; while the weights of the grain per bushel were respectively 62 6-71b., 62 22-591b., and 59 5-71b. Further, 1001b. weight of the various samples of the grain yielded in flour 80 40-431b., 77 8-221b., and 72 19'201b. respec- tively. The advantages of the early cutting were, in fact, in every way surprising. There was a gain of above 15 per cent. in weight of flour upon equal measures of grain, and nearly 8 per cent. of flour upon equal weights of wheat in favour of the earlier cutting. The theory upon which the results are explained is this, that as the sugar in the green plant becomes changed into the starch of the grain, so if permitted to remain till fully ripe another change takes place, the starch being gradually converted into wood fibre, it being a well- known chemical fact that sugar, starch, and fibre are composed of the same constituent elements. Mr. Hannam also claimed a better quality for the raw-cut grain, Professor Johnston having analysed the several samples, and found 9 "9 per cent. of gluten in the raw wheat, as against 9*6 per cent. in the ripe. Another eminent Derbyshire agriculturalist, Mr. Fletcher, pub- lished the results of similar experiments in 1844, show- ing that the raw-cut grain brdught him in Xl 10s. 9d. per acre above the produce per acre of that which was reaped when it was ripe. Fourteen days before ripeness was the period at which he fixed the time for reaping so as to secure the largest yield and the finest flour.
MB. BRIGHT AND MB. MILL ON THE FUTURE POLICY OF THE REFORM LEAGUE. The following letters have recently been received by Mr. E. Beales, the president of the Reform League, in reply to the announcement that the League would use its organisation, consisting of 430 branches, for the purposes of registration, educating the people in the use of the vote, and promoting the return to the next Parliament of members pledged to advanced Liberal principles :— My dear Mr. Beales,-I am glad to see that it is not intended to discontinue the organisation and labours of the Reform League, although so great a step has been gained in the extension of the suffrage. On that branch of the question of reform I presume you will not feel it necessary now to agitate further, so far as the boroughs are concerned. But the concession of a wide franchise is most incomplete so long as the security of the ballot is denied. As a machinery for conducting elections without disorder, the arrangement of the ballot is perfect; and if on that ground only, it should be adopted. But there is a higher ground on which all Reformers should insist upon it. The more wide the suffrage, the more there are of men in humble circumstances who are admitted to the exercise of political rights, the more clearly is it neces- sary that the shelter of the ballot should be granted. I am confident it would lessen expenses at elections, greatly diminish corruption, and destroy the odious sys- tem of intimidation which now so extensively prevails, and that it would make the House of Commons a more complete representation of the opinions and wishes oi the electoral body. ] have a very strong conviction on this subject, and I hope all oar friends throughout the country will accept the ballot as the next great question for which, in connection with Parliamentary reform, they ought to contend. Without this safeguard there ean be no escape from corruption and oppression at elections, i and our political contests will still remain, what they now are, a discredit to us as a free and intelligent peo- ple. If the Reform League and Reform Union will make the ballot their next work, they must soon succeed. I need not tell you that I shall heartily join them in their labours for this great end. I hope the friends 01 the ballot-those who care for freedom and morality in the working of our representative system-will provide the needful funds to enable you to move on with an in- creasing force to a complete success.—Believe me always sincerely yours, "JOHN BRIGHT. "Edmond Beales, Esq., Lincoln's-inn, London." KTk d- T T Blackheath-park. e.ar feir, I have already, by sending a subscription, given in my adhesion to the determination of the Re- form League to employ its organisation in promoting the registration of the Liberals who will become entitled to the suffrage under the New Reform Act. With regard to the further object of promoting the election of candi- dates professing advanced Liberal opinions, I should be glad if not only the Reform League, but all the other organisations of Reformers throughout the country would keep themselves in existence for that purpose. There will be ample work for all of them, and I only hope v no* con^ne their support to candidates who adhere to their own particular programme, but will extend it to advanced Liberals of all shades, a close union of whom among themselves was never more needed than it will be at the first general election undei the new Act.—I am, dear Sir, yours very truly, "Edmond Beales. Esq." S. MILL.
WRECKS.—During the third week of August 33 wrecks were reported, making for the present year a total of 1,697. FXIGHTFUL COLLIERY ACCIDENT.—On Satur- day morning a frightful accident, by which 10 men were injured, occurred at the engine-house, Monkwearmoutb Colliery. It appears that 15 joiners and labourers wera removing the cylinder cover, for the purpose of putting in a new piston, and had got it lowered on to the engine. house floor, a distance of about 19 feet. Twelve 01 thirteen of the men then attempted to get the cover, weighing about a ton and a half, placed against the wall, when the floor, to the extent of about 10 feet by 14 feet, suddenly gave way, and went down bodily, carrying the men and the cover along with it, into the cellar below, a depth of about 17 feet. Ten of the men, when got out, were found to have sustained serioue injuries. (
THE COURT. Arm the arrangements were completed for the prorogation of Parliament, the Queen and junior mem- ibers of the Royal family left Windsor for Scotland. PREVIOUS to leaving Osborne, her Majesty received on Saturday the King of the Greeks as a guest. His Majesty crossed over from Southampton in the Royal yacht Alberta, Captain his Serene Highness the Prince of Leiningen, and was received on his arrival by the Queen and the Royal family in the entrance hall. In attendance upon his Majesty were Count Braila (the Prime Minister to the King), Count Radostamos, Major Metaxa and Lieutenant Funck. Mr. Herbert Fisher (Private Secretary to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales) was also in attendance on his Majesty. Colonel'the Hon. Charles Lindsay and Major General F. B. Seymour, the Groom and Equerry in Waiting, at- tended his Majesty from and to the landing place in Osborne Bay. Previous to the King's departure the Ladies and Gentlemen in Waiting upon her Majesty had the honour of being presented to the King; and the Gentlemen in attendance upon his Majesty had the honour of being presented to the Queen. HER Majesty the Queen and the Royal family, at- tended by the Ladies and Gentlemen in Waiting, were present at Divine service lin Sunday morning at Osborne. The service was performed by the Very Rev. the Dean of Westminster. ON Saturday the King of the Greeks, brother to the Princess of Wales, arrived in London on a visit to this country. His Majesty reached the Charing cross terminus at a quarter to seven in the morning, having left Dover immediately after landing by a special train. The Prince of Wales was waiting to receive him, and conducted him to Marlborough-house. After a long interview with his sister his Majesty left by the Nine F,lias station en route for Osborne. Later in the day the Prince and Princess of Wales and the Royal children ileft Marlborough-house for Woolwich, where they em- barked on board the Royal yacht Osborne for the Con- tinent, where they are expected to remain for a couple of months. The Princess, who looked very pale, is reported to have been in good spirits. Her Royal High- ness takes with her the hearty good wishes of the whole country, and earnest prayers that she may return thoroughly restored to the blessing of health. THEIR Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess Christian, who left England on the 24th of June last tfor Germany, returned to Frogmore Lodge, Windsor, on >the 15th of August, having experienced much benefit from their Continental tour. Their Royal Highnesses remained there until they accompanied the Queen to Scotland.
POLITICAL GOSSIP. THE last kind thing of many that have been said of Mr. Disraeli relative to the Reform Bill is, that he above all men has shown a real pa(y)rental interest in the measure. THE public Acts passed exceed in number 132, and the local just beyond 200. Last year the public Acts oiumbered 122-they are this year about 10 more and the locals were 363-this year they are considerably below that number. A CONTEMPORARY informs us there are only one free-1 man of the city of Bath, one freeman of the city of Winchester, and three freemen of the town of Southamp- ton now living. Good news this. We presume that is what our contemporary means. THE Sunday Gazette says :—"Lord Hubert Canning, now Lord Dunkellin, will, it is understood, be invited to = the seat for Galway county, rendered vacant by the death ef his brother and, should he consent, he is not •unlikely to be opposed. The name of the Hon. Luke Gerald Dillon, eldest son to Lord Clonbrock, and 'private secretary to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, is also mentioned in connection with the vacancy." BY a new Act passed last Session of Parliament, the office of Vice-President of the Board of Trade is upon the next vacancy to be abolished, and a secretary to be appointed capable of holding a seat in Parliament, with a salary not exceeding £1,500 a year. SIR JOHN PAKIHGTON has come to the determination of rigidly adhering to a rule by which all officers who idie within six weeks of the receipt of their application for permission to sell out shall be treated as if they had :died in the service, and the steps in succession shall be given without purchase. THE select committee on the administration of the Army Reserve Fund has not yet made its report. The 4nquiry has turned out to be more comprehensive in its Scope and more important in its bearing on the future system of the service than was anticipated, and it will ibe renewed next Session. So far as the evidence has gone it points to very considerable changes. THE Imperial Review anticipates that the present members for North Cheshire, the Hon. W. Egerton and Mr. Comewall Legli, will offer themselves at the dis- solution as candidal es for the new division to be esta- blished in the a tit re of the county. Mr. W. J. Legh, of Lyne., late M. P. for South Lancashire, will corae forward to fill one of the vacancies thus caused in North Cheshire. THE passing of a recent Act of Parliament allowing the Lords Justices of Appeal to sit separately in certain cases has rendered necessary the appointment of an additional Registrar of the Court of Chancery. The John Bull says that the senior clerk, who by statute succeeds to this office, is Mr. F. S. Teesdale while the two junior clerkships, which thus become vacant, have been conferred on Mr. Richard Henry Walker Leach and Mr. Robert Seppings Godfrey. A MEMBER of the American Congress is reported to have said, What the honourable gentleman has just asserted, I consider as catamount to a denial." I pre- sume," replied his opponent, "that the honourable gen- tleman means tantamount." "No, sir, I do not mean tantamount; I am not so ignorant of our language as not to be aware that catamount and tantamount are anonymous." A CORRESPONDENT of the Star, speaking of a "factious minority," says :—The division on the Parks Bill was- for, 88 against, 33. Of the majority, 23 were officials, and 40 were county members of the minority, 4 only weie county members. The total population repre- sented by the 33 members was 3,736,400, and the re- gistered electors 227,398, or about one-fifth of the whole constituency of the empire. It appears to have been a purely party division, two (so-called) Liberals only voting in the majority-vjz., Lord Elcho and Mr. Watkin, whose Liberalism has for some time appeared be- knighted. The Telegraph says:—"We English have just es- caped an embarrassing honour. A Japanese Prince, a brother of the Tycoon, who is now resident in Paris With his suite, graciously signified his wish to follow the example of the Sultan, and to visit London, probably this week. Of course we should have felt duly flattered at this addition of our list of Imperial visitors but it would have been perplexing in the extreme to provide suitable entertainment for the illustrious traveller, when everybody has gone out of town. Luckily there were those near the Prince who were able to make him un- derstand the deserted condition of London, and hence, happtly for the credit of our hospitality, the visit is de- tagred.
HINTS UPON GARDENING. 0 A PLEA FOR HARDY FLORISTS' FLOWERS). Nobody can be better aware than ourselves of the weak points of the old mixed-border system of flower- gardening nobody can be more in favour of judicious selections. We can see some cause why many interesting plants and classes of plants have gone out of cultiva- tion but there is one thing that we certainly cannot see, and that is, why the fragrant, beautiful, and neat classes of hardy florists' flowers-from elegantly-laced picotees to richly-stained polyanthuses—should have almost disappeared from our gardens, and be now in want of the least advocacy from us. In them we have flowers of unimpeachable merit, worthy of equal admi- ration in garden of peer or cottager. They are as hardy as our native plants, require no steaming in houses at any time of their lives, are generally pleasing in habit, whether in or out of flower, sometimes useful for the spring garden, and in nearly all cases among the very best things which the gardener can grow for cutting from; and yet, with all these undoubted merits, where are they ? Generally speaking, fallen into the abyss of. things that were." It is true they have a stanch friend here and there among tasteful amateurs, and we have all to thank Mr. Turner, of Slough, for cultivating ] them so well and successfully in an age when people generally have all run after false gods. His reward is not equal to what it should be but the fact is that to the real gardeners of England—to the very men who ought to make the most of these things-these charming plants might as well not exist fer all the use they make of them. They have, of course, been driven from the field by the bedding system but so sure as taste and perception of what is really beautiful in a garden still live amongst us, so sure will they come into it again, and take up a prominent position. There is some little excuse for professional gardeners, who have a powerful fashion to follow, in doing away with them, inasmuch as they are generally unfitted for association with bedding plants as generally disposed. But that is really no stronger a reason why we should be without them than without orchids or ferns, because these latter cannot readily be associated well with Neapolitan violets in the cold frame. Every intelligent horticulturist deplores the state of things which we deprecate. We wish to ventilate a practical suggestion, tending to render the cultivation of these flowers a pleasure and a convenience, and inter- fering with nothing in the bedding department. It is to devote a special little department to all such flowers in a pleasant part of the kitchen or nursery garden or, failing either of these, an isolated spot, where the flowers may be agreeably tended to and enjoyed at all seasons. We know of one or two of such arrangements, a source of great enjoyment to owners and gardeners but for all practical purposes they are unknown to our gardens, though there is scarcely a kitchen garden in which a capital one might not be made. The best way would be to select a border or strip with good aspect, throw it into neat beds, edge them neatly, and, if a strip, surround with a dwarf hedge—say of Santolina, which bears clipping well. But anything like an ap- proach tothefarming system of growing such things should be avoided. Being a little more precious than mangold wurzel, we do not like to see them treated on the same principle, or a dirtier one, as they are by some few gardeners, who are sagacious enough to employ them for cutting for indoor decoration—and for this purpose no flowers are better or more grateful than picotees, carnations (from the cloves to the richest florist's or ordinary seedling variety), the pinks, and not a few others. In such a place as we recommend, the culti- vator might enjoy, in addition to the plants just named, his bed of good and distinct pansies the newish little groups of perpetual mule and clove-scented pinks; the splendidly coloured perennial lobelias, if no other place were found for them the mimulus, in its more beautiful varieties the choicer pentstemons, phloxes, pyrethrums, and choice antirrhinums; bulbs of sorts a little too precious to use for general decoration; the ranunculus, in its fascinating as well as rich and decided tints; the anemones; the gla- diolus, for which there are, however, abundant uses; the belladonna lily, in perfection, if the place be warm and the soil good, deep, and light; 4he rich and pretty double primulas, now most difficult to see in good condition (they like shade); the polyanthus, in its medium class varieties not to speak of various other flowers allied to these in interest, but for which a suit- able place may not be found in the "flower garden proper." In the same place small beds of the newer geraniums and bedding and other plants might be planted out for trial; and, in fact, the whole affair made a most useful as well as most interesting thing. Here, also some of the finer annuals, like the stocks and everlasting flowers, might be grown here such charming things as Clintonia pulchella employed for covering the beds containing plants that lose their leaves in early summer; here a selection of graceful ornamental grasses grown for indoor-decoration. Many things requiring at- tention, noting, or collecting at a certain time, would be under the eye at all times, and the whole would prove one of the most enjoyable divisions ever added to a garden. In addition to it, we would fully employ all such plants for the general decoration of the pleasure and flower garden wherever they could be introduced with correct taste—knowing well that the carnation or pink which is robust enough to take care of itself on rock or borders differs, after all, but very little from the choicest border variety, and is perhaps a more useful and beautiful plant for the gardening public generally.-The o Field.
DRUNKENNESS AMONG YOUNG WOMEN. The Rev. J. Nugent, Roman Catholic chaplain of the Liverpool Borough Gaol, writes On several occasions during the past three years I have felt it my paiiuul duty to call the attention of Catholics to the frightful increase of intemperance among young women. This debasing vice has become so general among females, and public opinion is so tolerant in its favour, that I believe drunkenness pre- vails now more among the lower order of Catholic young women than amongst the same class of men. If a girl once becomes fond of drink, she soon becomes confirmed in the demoralising habit, so that filial obedience, honesty, chastity, and religion, are all in time sacrificed for its in- dulgence. If I rightly estimate the responsibility of my position, I have not only to labour to reform the fallen, but to warn the innocent against danger. The experience of three years' daily labour in this gaol has taught me that a chaplain's work within the walls of a prison is very like the man who was condemned to fill with water a barrel pierced with holes; he might fill it again and again up to the brim but each day he had to begin his work afresh. The divine philosophy of those words, it is easier to prevent than to cure,' daily more and more impresses itself upon my mind for the work of reformation in a gaol is exceptional, and the gene- rality of such cases end in disappointment. To be forewarned is to be forearmed,' and to be silent, or to cloak the evils which degrade our people in the social scale, and destroy both their bodies and souls, is one of the fruits of libe- ralisIB called expediency, and akin to infidelity. If our young women are drunkards where will be the sacredness of family life in the coming geneiation among the labouring classes ? I tremble for it with facts like the following constantly under my notice. On last Monday, August 5, 24 women were brought up in the prison van to this gaol; of these 22 were Catho- lics. Of this number only one, a woman of 63, was brought up for felony 14 of them were committed for being drunk and fighting, six of them for being drunk and disorderly, one for street obstruction. It may be asked what was their condition in life. The old woman was a widow, five were married, four worked in marine stores, six were hawkers, and six were prostitutes. The majority of them were young women, one 16, three 17, one 19, the rest under 30, except the widow already mentioned. This is a sad picture to face day after day, and to look silently upon it, watching the destroyer degrade his victims, and see the children of the Irish race robbed of that priceless jewel chastity, without one effort to save or raise an alarm, would prove a man dead to all moral responsibility and an unfaithful priest. There are times when truth must be spoken and when evils must be laid bare, no matter how painful the task. Therefore in the discharge of what I believe to be my conscientious duty in the interests of the people, I shall not hesitate to give figures like the above, though they may be distasteful to the timid and expedient."
el PENALTY FOR REVOLVER SnOOTING. A Liverpool joiner, Michael Dunn by name, was sentenced by Chief Justice Bovill, at the recent Liverpool Assizes, to five years' penal servitude for having shot a dock labourer, named Thomas Connell, with a revolver. Dunn had been ill-treating the prosecutor's daughter, and Connell, in attempting to rescue her, had a fierce struggle with the prisoner, who, relieving himself from ConnelTs grasp, pointed a loaded revolver at him and shot him through the hand, inflicting a dangerous wound. For the defence it was urged that Connell had set a dog upon the prisoner, and that the latter fired really at the dog, and that Connell was accidentally shot.
.oJ I OUR MISCELLA 7NY. 0- THE LAW OF DIVORCE IN HUNGARY. If a young couple are unhappy, and desire to be divorced they address a joint petition to the court; or one alone perhaps can thus petition. The court appoints two or more mediators, generally from the kinsfolk, to hear the complaints, to give advice, and try to reconcile them. Reconciliation is often thus effected. But if failure be reported, the court replies that they must repeat the application for divorce after three years, and then it shall be granted. If the quar.1 is very severe, they probably separate, and obtain the divorce at the expiration of the period. The delay infaliihly prevents any from seeking divorce in order to take a more acceptable partner for no one can hope that another will wait three years for such a reversion. It may even seem that two years would suffice. When the aversion is so decided on both sides that no .one expects reconciliation, we suppose that no social impropriety is felt in beginning a new court- ship before the three years is spent. But Hungarians say, that in the great majority of cases the young peo- ple are reconciled by their friends long before the time is complete, and do not come to the court a^ain. Fraser's Magazine. ° THE FIRST T-noul' L can remember, too, a little lake surrounded by trees, set in the midst of a great meadow, beyond which I caR see our house and between me and the lake a swift rivulet, filled with watercresses and stickle hacks, which rippled away over a tiny bar of sand into the larger stream that flowed into the lake. There is a whiteheaded old man in a grey coat, with its tails in the water, standing out, as it appears to me, in dreadful depths, waving over his head a whip-like wand of vast proportiofis, from which flies out in long curves a thin line, flashing on the surface of the stream. There is a spluttering and a plunging after a time at the end of the line, and Macarthy retreats to the bank. There, Masther Terry; there's a purty throut for ye Whist, till I get the hook out ov him, that he mightn't hurt ye wid the teeth ov him. Put yer purty little finger in his gill. There why, he's as long as yerself a'most! Maybe, ye'd like to take him up and show him to the quality, alannah ? He's a bewtiful two pounds, that he is. Ould Dan is able to put the comether on them still." I see that monster of the deep yet, his speckled sides glistening with orange, red, and brown his awful rows of teeth, his curving snout, his goggle eyes, and velvety dark red gills; and I remember, too, the roar of terror I gave, and the pre- cipitate flight I made through the meadow from the spot where, with a sudden wriggle—recovering a moment's breath ere he die(I-he flopped his wet tail against my legs, and wallopped in the long grus.-From the A dventures of Dr. Brady." MANNERS AND LADIES.—The repertoire of etiquette for young ladies is in the work of Robert of Blois, called the Chastisement des Dames," which we will now examine. The object of the work is first stated-to teach ladies how to deport themselves in their going and coming, in their silence and talk. The first injunction, strange to say, is against that excessive volubility of speech which ill-natured people say is a characteristic of the sex. A lady who labours under the absolute necessity of incessantly talking, he says, is often blamed; she should, therefore, moderate her conversation, as too great volubility is a mark of bad training. Still the opposite fault should be avoided; she should not be silent, but make herself agree- able and entertain people. When she went to church or elsewhere she was not to trot or run, but to walk steadily, not in front of, but with her company, because trotting and running did not become young ladies also, not to look about her on all sides, but to look straight before her, and to salute graciously anyone she may meet, which does not cost much, and is gratifying to others. Always to address poor peo; !e civilly, for no better example can be set them by ginJe people than that of humility. Not to allow anyone to kiss her, except the one to whom she is all in all; to him she must be as obedient as the menk to his abbot. She ought not to look at a gentleman much, unless he were her lover, because it often creates a false impression in the mind of the person so regarded that she is in love with him. If anyone should fall in love with her she ought not to boast of it to others she ought not to allow herself to be won too easily, which is a common occurrence, because men are apt to value less what they win with ease. We shall find as we proceed that this old monk had a surprising knowledge of the female heart.-Tlie Gentleman's Magazine. THE CITY TOASTJVIASTER IN THE OLDEN TimE.-The City toastmaster, who proclaims with such a roaring eloquence at a Lord Mayor's feast, that the metropolitan magistrate is about to pledge his guests in a loving-cup, probably is little aware of what used to take place on former occasions of a similar nature. At the old Plough-Monday banquet, for instance, the yeoman of the cellar used to stand behind the Lord Mayor, and at the close of dinner he produced two silver cups full of negus. He presented one to the mayor, the other to his lady, or her representative if there was one, and then the form of proclamation was to this effect Mr. Sword- bearer, Squires, and Gentlemen all-My Lord Mayor and my Lady Mayoress drink to you in a loving-cup, and bid you all heartily welcome!" The cups were handed in succession to all the company, who drank to the health of my lord and lady. When the time came for the latter and other ladies to retire, the chaplain passed up from the bottom of the table and led her ladyship right solemnly away. The male guests did not necessarily leave the table when his lord- ship withdrew. For then a mighty bowl of punch used to be introduced, and with it all the servants of the household, from the highest to the lowest, housekeeper and housemaids, groom of the chambers and grooms from the stables. They passed iu procession, and drank of the punch to the health of the guests, who then made a collection for them in the silver punch-bowL According as the maids were fair, merry, and not un- kind to the gallantry of the guests, the collection reached a greater or less sum. The old sahctatio and the libatio, the "saluting" and the "tasting," were never more favourably manifested than at these Lord Mayor's feasts of the olden yet not very remote period a period when, as the "loving-cup" went round, it was the custom for the two guests on the right and left of the drinker to hold the large cover of the cup over his head while he leisurely quaffed. -Cornhill Magazine. MRS. BROWN ON STRIKES.—It really give me quite a turn when Mrs. Gibbins come in and says to me quite sudden as Gibbins 'adn't nothink decent for to stand upright in at 'is aunt's funeral, as pleurisy 'ad proved fatal to, and no wonder neither at eighty-four. So I says, "You don't mean to say as anything 'as 'appened to his best clothes ?" a feelin' a fear about the moths, as once got into Brown's winter things, tho' put away with a old candle as I've 'ad by me for the purpose this many a year, and my dear mother afore me. She says, No, bless you but he's got that stout as 'is blacks won't meet round 'im, and 'is coat-sleeves arf up 'is harms, as wouldn't look respectful to 'is aunt's memory, as 'ad left 'im over two 'undred pounds." Well," I says, a new suit won't ruin 'im, as I've see myself advertised at three pound ten, not as they're things to rely on, for I m sure a pair as Brown 'ad split to ribbins through him a-gettin' outside a'bus in a'urry, and well it was night-time, or he'd 'ave cut a ridiculous figger." So she says, "Oh, bless you, he's ordered em, all genteel, near the Westminster-road, the day arter his aunt were took, and been expectin' 'em 'ome every hour, and when he called on the tailor last night was struck in 'eapes at 'earing as they wasn't touched through them strikes." I says, Strikes! Why, they was all among them railway drivers last month; and no wonder, for I'm sure I should 'ave struck any one myself if I'd 'ad to drive an engine through the weather as we've 'ad this last winter, as must have killed thousands." "Lor," she says, J not them engine- drivers it's the tailors as 'as struck.' I says, eg What- ever for ?" "Why," she says, morewages." "Well," I says, "some on 'em is paid shameful low; for well'l remember a party as lived down by the Commercial- road, as were a journeyman tailor, and died at it on 'is own board, cross-legged, thro' bein' one of them proud sperrets as wouldn t give in, and did used to work for one of them slop-shops, as paid downright starvation prices. ,-FrOn' Mrs. Brown's Budget," by Arthur Shetchley, tn Cassell's Magazine."