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..-V, TTHE COURT. 0 -


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AGRICULTURE. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON FATTING. At a recent meeting of the Hexham Farmers' Club a paper was read on The Feeding of Fatting Cattle," by Mr. H. R. Goddard, from which we make the follow- ing extract A large portion of the food was consumed in the lungs, in order to maintain the animal heat; and, since the temperature of the body remained the same in winter as in summer, it followed that a greater con- sumption of the respiratory compounds occurred in cold weather. Warmth was therefore an equivalent for food. One illustration of this would suffice. On Lord Ducie's farm at Whitfield, some years since, 100 sheep were placed by 10 in covered pens these ate on an average 20 lbs. of swedes per day while another 100 in folds without shelter, but in other respects similar, con- sumed 25 lbs. daily. These, at the end of five months, were found not to have increased by 3 lbs. per head as much as the sheltered sheep, although they had eaten more food. If, therefore, they would economise, they must keep the cattle out of the cold and wet as much as possible. At the same time, they should see that all boxes and byres were well ventilated, though free from draught, or they should incur loss from another cause, for cattle would not fatten so fast if they were continually reeking in sweat. If they wished them to reap the full benefit of the food they supplied, and to lay on as much as possible, they should prevent their moving about more than was necessary, as all motion caused a waste of the tissues of the body, by increasing the rapidity of the respiration. In boxes and stalls these objects were accomplished, and the former possessed this additional advantage over folds-that the manure was kept from being washed and saturated by every shower of rain, and was of much better quality. They knew that in stalls, if not in boxes too, cattle required much less bedding than in folds straw was thus economised, and might be used to more advantage. Cattle in boxes required less attendance than those which were stall-fed, and seemed more at their ease than when tied up by the neck. A good plan was adopted on many farms of tying up the cattle in folds when they were being fed. This prevented all the knocking back which they so frequently saw, and ensured their all receiving alike; whereas when loose the strongest get the most. Two uprights were fixed on the manger, one of which moved, the head was received between them, and they were fastened by a collar at the top. The cattle soon learned to know their places, and they were thus quickly fastened up. In conclusion, he thought too much importance could not be attached to the constant supervision of the master. Men were not always quick to notice or to report if a beast was not going on well, and often careless about keeping the mangers clean and the cattle well bedded, points which materially influenced their comfort, and consequently their pro- gress." TREATMENT OF CURB IN HORSES. Counter-irritants seem to be inevitable in the treat- ment of the ills of horseflesh, and accordingly we may conclude that all the nostrums which are presumed to be efficacious in taking off a curb belong to the list. More ingenuity than is usual appears to have been exer- cised in the selection of remedies for this disease, and we have, therefore, a choice of specifics. The one which is held in the highest favour, and by some is guarded with the utmost jealousy on account of its presumed infalli- bility, deserves to be first introduced; it has no specific name that we remember, but it may be made by dis- solving corrosive sublimate in spirit of wine. The sub- limate should be triturated in a mortar with successive portions of the spirit, and each portion poured off until a strong solution is obtained. The clear fluid will be found sufficiently active if applied to the curb by means of a small brush, both skin and hair being well wetted. A second application may be necessary after a few hours, but generally considerable irritation is pro- duced almost immediately. Sometimes a large vesicle is formed but the great object is to get a thick scurf upon the surface of the skin, and then to leave the part untouched until this accumulation of cuticle and hair, matted together by the exudation which takes place, falls off, and leaves behind only a moiety of the original swelling. This process of taking off a curb is in many cases very effective, because there is first the counter- irritant action, next the pressure of the hard accumu- lation of cuticle, and lastly the rest, which is necessary during the treatment and to allow of the subsequent restoration of the hair which has been removed by the action of the agent. Another plan of treatment, less active, but hardly less effectual, and if well managed pro- ductive of no blemish, consists of the free use of the oil of turpentine (spirit of turpentine). The application may be safely made with friction immediately after the injury has taken place and, contrary to expectation, very little irritation follows, and the rubbing might be repeated daily or twice a day, for three or four days, without any loss of hair following. Under this treatment the en- largement frequently subsides, and the parts are per- fectly restored. The method, however, seems to be best adapted to recent cases of the disease. Biniodide of mercury is another very good counter-irritant, and is most effective when applied in a mild form of ointment daily until soreness of the skin and a thick scurf are produced the treatment may then be discontinued until the scurf falls off, when a repetition of the appli- cation will be proper if the enlargement is not materially reduced, or if lameness still exists. Firing, as a last resource, is often employed in old cases of curb which havebeen subjected to repeated sprains, and are associated with frequently recurring lameness. Whatever form of counter-irritation may be used, it must not, as a rule, be applied until the inflammation which follows the original injury has been removed by fomentations, cold lotions, and laxative medicine the animal being kept at rest, and a high-heeled shoe being adapted to the foot of the injured leg, for the purpose of relieving the tension of the part. In very slight cases this treatment will be sufficient to effect a cure, and in all cases it will remove or lessen the lameness but if much swelling still remains, or if lameness returns after exercise, the employment of some one of the methods of Counter- irritation, of an activity proportioned to the, character of the disease, will become necessary.