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EXECUTION AT STAFFORD. STAFFORD, Tuesday. The last dread sentence of the law was carried into effeet at eight o'clock this morning, at Stafford, on the body of William Collier, aged thirty-five years, a small farmer, who resided at Johnston Eaves, near Cheadle, in North Staffordshire, and who was found guilty of the murder of a young gentleman named Thomas Smith, the eldest son of a gentleman of the same name, who resided on his own estate at Whiston, at the last Staffordshire Assizes. The murdered gentleman was only twenty-five years of age, and was much respected in the neighbourhood of his home. He was known among the peasantry as the young squire." He lived with his father, who was the lord of the manor, helping him to farm and manage the large extent of land belonging to him. It will be remembered that the back portion of the deceased gentleman's head was beaten in in a terrible manner, apparently by some heavy blunt in- strument, and scattered about the grass near to the body were picked up several pieces of the stock of a gun, two gun-locks, and a broken trigger, with also a ramrod. Subsequently Collier was observed by the wife of one of Mr. Smith's servants to go in the direction of a ditch in one of his fields, carrying something under his arm, and from time to time casting furtive glances on either side. This woman told her husband of what she had seen, and he, suspecting that all was not right, went to the mouth of the ditch, and found the double barrel of a gun broken off at the stock. This gun was identified as that belonging to Collier, and, upon comparing with it the trigger, locks, and ramrod found in the wood, they were found to correspond exactly. Collier was then arrested. A few days after his condemnation he took farewell of his brother (who is a respectable publican at Cheadle), and his wife and seven children. As may be imagined, the interview was most heartrending. Sub- sequently, however, the convict recovered in a great measure the composure which had so characterised him. As he was a Catholic, he was attended bj the Rev. Canon O'Sullivan, the recently appointed Catholic chap- lain to the gaol. It is understood that he confessed his crime tothcrcv. gentleman. He also made a statement to the chief warder of the gaol, in which he acknow- ledged his crime and the justice of his sentence. The crowd present at the execution this morning was r 11 not so large as* usual. The rain had poured down nearly all night, and doubtless prevented many persons in the potteries from undertaking a pedestrian journey to Stafford. The hangman was Smith, of Dudley. The wretched man had to go through the agony of being twice sus- pended, for the rope at first slipped from the beam. When he was brought again to the drop the spectators hooted and cried Shame." His confession fully con- filmed the evidence for the prosecution.
DEATH OF A LICENSED VICTUALLER THROUGH A BAR DISTURBANCE. On Tuesday afternoon last Mr. Richards, deputy coroner, held an inquiry at the Prince Albert Tavern, Orchard-place, Poplar, relative to the death of Mr. James J. Davis, aged forty-six years. Mr. James Brown, son-in-law of the deceased, said that the deceased was a licensed victualler, and was the landlord of the Prince Albert Tavern. On the night of the 1st instant a man named Dennis Mahoney was at the bar drunk and annoying the customers. Deceased got up from behind the bar to put Mahoney out of the house, and a scuffle ensued. They both fell, and the police came in and separated them. The deceased complained of pains in his heart, and said that he felt very ill. He died in twenty minutes. Mahoney did not leave the place even after the scuffle, but used violent language. Richard White, 12, Orchard- place, said that Mahoney was not very drunk, but the deceased was in a great passion. When deceased had hold of Mahoney, and the struggle commenced, the latter cried out I will not hit you, Davis." Witness did not see deceased struck. Mr. F. H. Ward, M.R.C.S., said that he was called in to the deceased, and found him dead. There were no marks of blows on his per- ,son. He had disease of the heart, and he died from the excitement acting on the enfeebled heart. Dennis Mahoney, a respectable looking mechanic, having been duly cautioned, said that lie had no ill-will towards the deceased and never struck him. It was the deceased who had laid hold of him. There was a difference about a glass which had been broken last Christmas and which deceased wanted witness to pay for. The Corner having summed up, the Jury, after some deliberation, returned a verdict That deceased died from disease of the heart, and that his death was accelerated by a disturbance of the bar of the Prince Albert,' and the excitement consequent thereon."
TERRIBLE STORM AND GREAT LOSS OF PROPERTY. Tuesday will long be remembered by the inhabitants of not only the metropolis, but the suburban districts, owing to one of the most violent storms of wind and rain that has taken place for a considerable time past. In the whole of the county of Surrey the market gar- deners have suffered to a serious extent. Beds of dahlias have been blown down, whole beds of geraniums, fuschias, and valuable exotics have been uprooted, and the roads leading from Esher, Bramley, and Wonersh have been laid several feet under water. The guards of the South- Western Railway state that the storm was severely felt at Hampton Court and its immediate vicinity, and several beautiful vineries and greenhouses were de- stroyed. Great as the destruction of flower and other garden produce is concerned, it is comparatively insignificant to the damage done to private and public buildings, especially in and near the metropolis. In the immediate vicinities of Dulwich, Cambcrwell, and Peckham, nu- merous chimney-pots have been blown down. At the extensive premises of Messrs. Moses and Son, at the corner of Hart-street, Oxford-street, the whole of the awnings in front of the establishment were blown into tatters, and a sheet of plate-glass demolished by the force of the wind. The rain then drifted in torrents upon the goods in the windows. At the East-end of London a serious amount of damage was done, roofs of houses being dismantled, and flower-gardens stripped of their roots. Great as the damage done on the land has been, the losses were still more serious on the river, for the small craft were driven about in terrible confusion, large steamers were forced from their anchors, and a small boat, in attempting to pass under Blackfriars Bridge, was blown over, and a man immersed, but he Was fortunately rescued by a pierman named Neery. Such a storm of wind and rain has not been experienced for some time.
LOSS OF A SHIP BY FIRE IN THE BRISTOL CHANNEL. We regret to have to announce the loss by fire of the fine American vessel the Danube, which left the port of Bristol, for New York, on the 2nd inst. The Danube Was a full-rigged ship of 1,000 tons register, and was under the command of Captain Broughton, and carried a cargo of bricks and iron. There were also a number of passengers on board. She left Cumberland Basin on Thursday, the 26th ult., but was detained in Kingroad until Thursday last, owing to a mutiny having broken out amongst the crew, who declared they would not proceed to sea in her. The disaffection amongst the men seems to have subsided, however, for the vessel proceeded as far as Sully Island and was ready to her destination as soon as she caught a fromthp ^Tind> when a fire was observed to be issuing Brou<rhton° 11 discovering the conflagration Captain run ashore t^ie sails to be set and the vessel to be hands llded accomplished and all been burnt to the waS', the ™sseltaPPears }°. is at present amys £ e§:, the fire originated cleared up by legal inquiry. The "n* F°l l Tnlt unfortunate ever since she left tWruTv6 c f and thence to New York, where, as w\ f was bound when the catastrophe occurred^
ACCIDENT AT WHITBREAD'S BREWERY THP OWN* est excitement was caused in the neighbourhood of Chiswell-street, Finsbury, by an accident at the extwi sive brewery of Messrs. Whitbread and Co., where a portion of the premises are being pulled down for re- building. Whilst the workmen were thus engaged a tremendous noise was heard, as if an explo- sion had taken place, and the whole thoroughfare in an instant became obscured in dust. it would appear that the foreman was superintend- ing the work going on when he noticed some of the walls tottering to and fro. He at once, upon seeing the danger, called to his men to make a precipitate re- treat. This they did with the exception of one man, and he appeared to be paralysed with fright, and un- able to run away, and the consequence was that when the brickwork fell it partially buried him, both feet and legs being embedded in the rubbish. Upwards of an bout was employed in getting the man out, when he Was found to be so much crushed that he was taken to the hospital of St. Bartholomew, where he lies in a very precarious condition. GENERAL GARIBALDr.-The Italian journals publish the following order of the day issued by General Gari- baldi Cretoin Pieve di Bono, July 29.-The volun- teers who, contrary to their duty and without legitimate Motives, are absent from their respective corps without b eing furnished with a regular permission, must return 0 their posts within three days. Those who do not lllply will be indicated as deserters, that they may e arrested and sent before a court-martial,—GARI-
EXPLORATION OF PALESTINE. In the course of proceedings of the Archaeological Congress at the Royal Institution last week, certain papers of great interest were read respecting the topo- graphy and the exploration of the Holy Land, and a discussion was promoted thereon. Dean Stanley, of Westminster, was in the chair. Mr. Cyril Graham delivered an address on the re- cent researches into the "Topography of Palestine." He pointed out that,by methodical investigation, the posi- tion of many places mentioned in the Old Testament had been decided, for successive conquests had not entirely effaced their ancient names from the traditions of the people. Travellers passing)- through the country, with preconceived ideas as to its topography, arc sure to find some native dragoman willing to fall in with their notions and to point out the right ruins in the right place. For this reason but little false information can be obtained by putting leading questions; but by asking judiciously for information, a good philologist will find that the language has preserved almost, or quite unchanged, the name ofmany an ancient spot. Already the remains of Ashdod, Zoar, Beersheba, Bethel, Shiloh, and other places have been found. The place where Abraham en- camped when he crossed to the other side of the Jordan has been decided; also the site of the beautiful summer palace of King Solomon, where, at the present time, there are magnificent streams winding among oak trees and tall grass. Jezreel and Endor have been found; as well as, it is believed, the site of ancient Capernaum. The country from Dan to Beersheba, on the west side of Jordan, a tract about 140 miles long by 70 wide, is pro- posed first to be thoroughly explored, and the mounds probed or excavated by Captain Wilson. Should sufficient funds be raised, the country to the east of Jordan may next be the subject of similar re- search. The Dean of Westminster said that the position of the traveller with regard to this part of Palestine is analo- gous to that of a person who knows the towns along the Great Northern Railway in England, but nothing of those on each side of the route, although by exploration in both cases the whole might be learnt with very little uncertainty. Mr. George Grove, the hon. secretary to the Pales- tine Exploration Fund, read a statement of the progress made up to the present by the Association. The paper read by Mr. Grove was a summary of the various separate reports which have been from time to time re- ceived by him from the expedition under Captain Wilson, and which have been published as they were received.. The committee propose to form, in connection with the department of Science and Art at South Kensington, a "Palestine Museum," to consist partly of objects ob- tained on loan, partly of those collected by the agents of the Fund and in this museum the fossils and other geological specimens, the quadrupeds, birds, fishes, eggs, and plants brought home will be deposited for 11, the ready examination of Biblical students. It is hoped that the museum may be opened early in 1867. Mr. Layard, M.P., said he did not expect to find any- thing so important in the mounds of Palestine as in those of Assyria and Babylonia, from the fact that the Jews were forbidden to draw or sculpture persons and other natural objects, and because there was no stone in the country suitable for bas-reliefs. He could bear witness that the Arabs usually retained the old names of places intact. He thought that upon the east of Jordan there were also very curious remains, and he had had an opportunity of judging, because once he visited that district under somewhat peculiar circumstances. A friendly Sheik undertook to find him a guide, and in- troduced him to a second Sheik, who allowed him to join his party. In a short time he (Mr. Layard) found that he, as a rich Englishman and good object of plunder, had been sold to the second Sheik for the sum of £ 10 in English money. (Laugh- ter.) His lord and master attempted to get a ransom for him at Jerusalem, but nobody would pay it, till finally the Sheik, tired of feeding him for nothing, very kindly let him go. (Laughter.) During that excursion to the cast of Jordan he saw some high-roads, apparently leading from Syria towards Babylonia, with high towers or posts raised at intervals along them so there was something interesting to the east of Jordan. It would be a great honour to England if money were raised to finish the explorations, and, above all, to excavate, al- though the expenses increase largely when digging is begun. (Cb eers.) Colonel Frazcr, Professor Parker, and Mr. Beresford- Hope, M.P., made a few remarks after which the or- dinary proceedings of the Congress were continued.
INTERESTING DISCOVERY IN PALES- TINE. The Rev. Dr. Patton, of Chicago, who has been tra- velling in this country, in a letter dated Edinburgh, June 28, writes :—" Here I may mention an interesting fact in sacred geography, which I learned last evening from the eminent geographer, Mr. Keith Johnstone, of Edinburgh. He has travelled in Palestine, and is en- gaged with others in measures to secure a complete ex- ploration of that country under British auspices, for which a fund of Xio,ooo is to be raised by private sub- scription. A party of friends there, for a preparatory purpose, obtained permission to make excavations. At Mr. Johnstone's suggestion, who believes that Tell Hum is the true site of ancient Capernaum, they dug into the mould, hoping to find the remains of the synagogue there, popularly called the White Temple;' and, according to letters just received, were rewarded with complete success, finding the supposed building nearly or quite entire. As this question of the location of Capernaum has been a battle-ground of topographers, these tidings will awaken a fresh interest. Should they prove correct, that will be the only building in which the Saviour actually was when on earth which can be identified at this day. Mr. Johnstone also informs me that a perfectly accurate and complete scientific survey of Jerusalem has been made by Captain Wilson, giving all localities and measurements with the exactness of the British or the American coast survey and that but for an unfortunate accident at the last, in the litho- graphic process, it would have been out at this time. Now it will be delayed for some months, as the work must be done anew. The same parties fixed the depres- sion of the Dead Sea by survey across from the Medit- terranean, and found it to correspond within a foot or two of that computed by Lieutenant Lynch."
THE ABYSSINIAN CAPTIVES. What has become of our captives in Abyssinia; or rather, what is being done by the present Government to obtain their liberation ? Mr. Flad, the envoy from King Theodorus, has already been three weeks in this country, and yet no authoritative statement has appeared accounting for the sudden failure of Mr. Rassam's mission just as it seemed on the point of being crowned with success. On the one hand, indiscretion is attributed to that gentleman for not having conducted the cap- tives to a final interview with Theodoras previous to their departure from the neighbourhood of the royal camp. It is said that such an interview had been ex- pressly ordered by the King, and that Mr. Rassam's non-compliance was regarded as an attempt to leave the country without the Sovereign's permission. As there appears to be no motive why Mr. Rassam, after the favourable reception which had been accorded him, should have wished to evade the King's presence- knowing, moreover, as he must have known, that escape from the interior of Abyssinia without the King's sanction was impmctieable it seems rea- sonable to infer that his having acted as is re- ported was the result of some unfortunate misapprehen- sion of the King's orders. On the other hand, it seems more likely that one mistake supplied Theodorus with a pretext for detaining the captives as hostages, to be sur- rendered only on condition of obtaining some conces- sions from the British Government. What Theodorus aims at is security against foreign aggression for, in addition to wide-spread internal revolt, Abyssinia is threatened with an invasion from Egypt, and within the last two months Egyptian troops were on the point of marching into the Boghos country. It is the opinion of one intimately acquainted with the present situation and temper of the King that if any such hostile expedi- tion is carried out the lives of the captives will be jeopar- dised. No time, therefore, should be lost in doing something to obtain their speedy release.
A large concourse of part-singers was held a few days since at Boulogne. The taste for this form of music grows everywhere. MARRIED, NOT MATF.D.-There is nothing, perhaps, so terrible to a man as the feeling that he has matri- monially made a mistake, that he has deluded himsell, that the woman he has taken for better, for worse, can never be the wife of his dream-fancy to him. Let her e good as a saint, pure as an angel, beautiful as a noun, accomplished, graceful, learned—she may never supply the place of that bright image; never be as the first love of his youth to the man, who, having once seen the ideal of his imagination realised, has yet been disappointed m that little matter of making her his wife. om The Race for Wealth," in Once a Week. THISTLES.—-A correspondent writes:—"As I observe an unusally large number of thistles this year, I would wish to give a hint to my brother agriculturalists how to get rid of them. My farm, a few years ago, was dread- fully infested with them. I effected their destruction by the following planI had them mown at this season of the year, just preceding the development of the flower. This prevents the seed coming to maturity, and it is quite as essential to have them cut again in the autumn, as the stem is then hollow, and by cutting off the top, the rain-water passes down the tube and rots the root. Thus both the seed and root are destroyed."
PAPAL PROSPECTS. The prophets who prophesy the downfall of the Papacy because Austria is humbled are not wiser than popular prophets in general. But there can be little doubt that as soon as she is once more at peace she will have to face an internal ecclesiastical difficulty of which little seems to be known among English writers. In many parts of her dominions the possessions of the Church are absolutely enormous. The wealth of the Irish Church Establishment is vast, and the property of our English prelates is, in the eyes of almost all Catholic Europe, nearly fabulous. But the Austrian Establish- ment is richer still, and presents, in fact, an exaggerated parallel to the Church of England before the days of Church reform. It exists, too, in the English shape and to an extent unknown elsewhere, being in the hands of bishops and cathedral dignitaries, and a whole host of pluralists, after the true old English type of the pre- reform period. And these monstrous revenues are among the very worst obstacles to the final establishment of constitutionalism in the Austrian empire, inasmuch as they make it the interest of an immense body of in- fluential people to oppose everything in the shape of change. Forty years ago the very bitterest English opponents of Parliamentary reform were the clergy, and above all, the dignified clergy. Those who are familiar with the tone of the Reform controversies of forty years ago will remember that the seizure of Church property for State purposes was held out by the Tories as the very first result that would follow the passing of the Reform Act. Fortunately for the Church, some few of her abuses were speedily taken in hand, and a set of Ecclesiastical Commissioners, professing to redistribute her revenues, drew off public attention. And what the parsonic mind was in England, that just now is the priestly mind in Austria. Tens of thousands of an in- ferior clergy are ruled by superiors of gigantic wealth, who diligently inculcate Ultramontane theories prescrib- ing absolute obedience to bishops, and the parochial priesthood dares not expose the abuses resulting from this enormous wealth, because they would be denounced as heretics, and because there is no point on which the Court of Rome is sensitive as the endowments of bishoprics and monasteries. However, the day of change is at hand, and the sooner Austria has once more to stave off national bankruptcy or go to pieces as an empire the sooner will superfluous Church endowments be turned to the purposes of the State. Lord Derby himself could point out to an Austrian premier how easy it is to sup- press a few useless bishoprics, by reminding them of his own achievements in that way in Ireland.
THE CAPTAIN AND HIS FAITHFUL DOG. The following story appears in one of the Vienna papers :—" Captain G- seriously wounded in the head, has returned to Vienna with his dog!" Thereby hangs a pretty tale of cannine affection and sagacity. The captain was wounded in Magenta in 1859, and lay out OR the battle-field; he was missed, and no tidings could be had of him by the men of his regiment; but he had at the time a young dog which had become much attached to him. It occurrred to his groom that through the agency of this littic favourite of his master, he might discover him, and so he took the dog with him to the field, and amongst a heap of dead the poor thing discovered the badly-wounded officer, and howled piteously to attract the groom's attention. The master was brought in, and he considered he owed his life to the dog, and became more than ever attached to it. This gallant officer was again wounded in the retreat from Konigsgratz, and again was missed. The dog, now grown old and sage, was brought out, and after long search, set up once more its melan- choly cry, and was found rubbing its anxious nose to its master's pallid face. Captain G- was again only wounded, but very badly. He was sent down to Vienna, and as he drove through the city, lying prostrate in a carriage, it was noticed that a poor dog, with anxious and sympathetic eye, lay with his head upon his breast. The anxiety of the officer to reach Vienna and to live was noticed as strange for one of well-known bravery, who had a hundred times hundred times unflinchingly faced death. But his first request was for a notary, and he hastened to make a will, leaving a certain annuity to a relative, on condition of his taking charge of his last of friends, his little dog, and of watching tenderly over its comforts for the remnant of its days. This was the secret of his anxiety to survive. Now," he said, if it be God's will, I am content to die." But I am happy to say there arc strong hopes of saving the gallant gentleman's life; and that it is highly probable he will himself enjoy the agreeable duty of giving the greatest of all happiness to his dumb friend, and that will be his own society.
THE RECTORY OF SANDRINGIIAM.—His Royal High- dcss the Prince of Wales has presented the Rev. Wil- liam Lake Onslow, M,A., to the rectory of Sandring- ham, with the vicarage of Babingley, Norfolk, rendered vacant by the death of the Rev. George Browne Moxon, M.A. Mr. Onslow was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1842. In the following year he was ordained 1.y Dr. Stanley, Bishop of Norwich (father of Dr. A. P. Stanley, Dean of Westminster), to the curacy of Brundall, Norfolk, but shortly after receiving priest's orders he entered the Royal Navy and became chaplain of her Majesty's ship Carysfort. In 1853 he became chaplain and naval in- structor of her Majesty's ship the Duke of Wellington. He was chaplain of her Majesty's ship Racoon when the Dnke of Edinburgh was an officer on board that ship. He read himself in and took formal possession of the living last week. The Prince of Wales purchased the advowson and gave it an additional endowment soon after he came into possession of the Sandringham estate. REPRESENTATION OF BRECON.—The representation of Brecon, South Wales, has become vacant by the elevation of the Earl of Brecknock to the peerage, as Marquis Camden. The noble earl was returned unopposed only a few months since, on the death of Colonel Lloyd Vaughan Watkins. Mr. Howel Morgan, late high sheriff of Merionetshire, a gentleman who has some property in Brecknockshire, is spoken of as a candidate. LORD GROSVENOlt AND THE TORIEs.-Equally inex- plicable is the conduct of Lord Grosvenor, who attended the liberal meeting at No. 2, Carlton-terrace, on Tues- day, June 26, with a view of contriving means to retain a liberal government in office, called more than once on Lord Derby on the 28th, and remained uncertain about taking office with his friends in a Conservative Goveanment till the midnight of the 29th. Surely it would be more patriotic and creditable, in every point of view, for noblemen and gentlemen to form their own decisions, and act upon them, fairly and openly, on their own individual responsibility, instead of first con- certing motions with the opposition whip or leader to turn out the party to which they profess to belong, and then concerting combiuations to keep it out.-Fraser's Magazine for August. FENIAN SCHOOLMASTERS.—From a Parliamentary return just issued it appears that in the month of February last two schoolmasters were arrested in Ireland on the charge of Fenianism, and since September, 1865, thirty-two schoolmasters have been arrested for the same crime. CANADIAN HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT.—The expen- diture on the Houses of Parliament and departmental buildings at Ottawa up to the 15th of June amounted to 2,377,743 dols., and the estimated cost of completing them was 709,477. The cost of annual services is estimated at 55,400 dols.; this includes 19,500 dols. for firewood. THE DUKEDOM OF CHATELHERAULT.-The Marquis of "Abercorn, whose family name is Hamilton, has just brought before the French Council of State his claim to the title of Duke de Chatelherault, held by the Duke of Hamilton, and which was originally conferred in 1548 by Henri II. of France in favour of James Hamilton, Earl of Arran.
SUDDEN DEATHOF-THEMARQUIS CAMDEN, K.G. The Marquis Camden was found dead in his bed on Monday morning, about eight o'clock, at his seat Bay- ham Abbey, near Tunbridge Wells, from natural causes. Mr. Starling, his medical attendant, was sent for, and pronounced life to have been extinct for some hours. The Earl of Brecknock, now Marquis Camden, on his wedding tour, is expected this evening from Cowes. The deceased nobleman was born on the 2nd of May, 1799, and was consequently in his 68th year. He suc- ceeded his father in 1840. He was married in 1835 to Harriet, eldest daughter of Dr. Murray, late Bishop of Rochester, and leaves issue two sons and eight daughters. His eldest son, John Charles, Earl of Brecknock, M.P. for the Brecon burghs, was married only on the 12th ult. to Lady Clementina Spencer Churchill, sister of the Duke of Marlborough, and had not returned from his wedding tour. The late marquis was president of the Kent Archaeo- logical Society, and on Thursday and Friday last pre- sided over its annual meeting, at Ashford, with his usual ability and urbanity, and apparently in excellent health. He was also patron or president of several other societies of a scientific and philanthropic character, and did much by precept and example to forward the movement for the improvement of the dwelliugs of the agricultural labourers, for whose social, physical, and spiritual wel- fare he always displayed the utmost concern. The late marquis was greatly beloved and respected in the county of Kent, as well as in the higher circles in which he moved, and his unexpected death will be much regretted.
LADY BACHELORS.—The New York Commercial Advertiser mentions that seven young ladies have just taken the degre of Bachelor of Arts at the Maine Wes- leyan Seminary, [ THE FIRST DOWNWARD STEP. In most instances it appears impossible to detect the exact line of demarcation which separates the wilful irregularity from an act of posi.ive dishonesty,—with such subtlety do they ofttimes run into each other. All the cases we have collected show that at the commence- ment the prisoners did not intend to wrong those who had placed confidence in them; and even after their first downward step had been taken, many of them would have revolted at the idea of committing an act of dishonesty; and yet all generally end in being thieves or forgers. It is singular to remark how seldom genuine poverty seems to have urged them to the crime they have committed. In almost every case it has been a love of luxury and dissipation, or the equally dangerious wish to imitate the bearing and style of life of those richer than themselves. A singular fatality also seems to attend them in this respect, that the money they become dishonestly possessed of appears to be utterly unproductive to them, They can neither pur- chase with it genuine amusement nor comfort; nor if they attempt to trade with it, do their speculations ever suc- ceed. When, after detection, the. prisoner attempts to render an account to himself of the expenditure of the money, he finds it an impossible task, so swiftly has it passed through his hands. It is gone, and that is all he knows about it. Its possession and disappearance closely resemble those stories we read of in German legends, of people receiving from the Devil a lump of gold over night, which they generally found turned into a log of 11 11 wood or few dried leaves by the next morning. Nor is this the case with petty defaulters alone, such as we have named. It was exactly the same with Redpath, Sir John Dean Paul, Roupell, Pullinger, and others, Pullinger especially is said to have been incapable of accounting to himself for the loss of more than two- thirds of the £ 400,000 of which he had fraudulently taken possession. With these great criminals, the first downwrd step seems to have been taken, in common with others, without any inten- tion of ultimately committing a directly dishonest action. In all cases the money first appropriated was invariably restored. Step by step they went down, each succeeding step being swifter and deeper than the former, until they found it impossible to return. Some of the futile attempts made by them to calm their con- sciences after they had commenced their dishonest actions are exceedingly curious, as showing the miser- able sophistry the Devil will use in order to deaden men to the enormity of the iniquity they are committing. In more than one instance we find, among petty defaulters, a fancied act of oppression or meanness on the part of their employer, used as an excuse for reimbursing them- selves from his money. Let it be particularly under- stood, however, that this is invariably after the first downward step has been taken. Redpath attempted to atone for his sin by liberal acts of charity, and Sir John Dean Paul by strict religious observances. Neither of these criminals was hypocritical in his endeavours, and it served for the moment as a sort of opiate to the mind.. If it did not succeed in shutting out from him the danger he was in, it at all events afforded a moment's relief from mental torture. How great that torture frequently is may be judged by the behaviour of those great criminals when their acts of dishonesty were detected. Here the public seem to be labouring under a most erroneous impression. The in- difference shown by these men in the dock is generally attributed to their being hardened in iniquity, and that by their solid demeanour they are defying the aversion which is shown by those who behold them. This, how- ever, is far from being the case. The punishment they are about to endure, and which perchance formerly they dreaded more than death itself, is now a haven of peace in comparison to the mental torture they lately endured. A few moments' reflection will tend to show how acute and oppressive their misery must have been. Many curious cases might be brought forward in proof of this, which, unfortunately, want of space prohibits our entering upon. One, however, must suffice-that of the notorious John Sadleir. Could a full and accurate description of the career of this unhappy man be ob- tained, it might form one of the most instructive lessons, proving, as it would, the inability of a man to stop him- self when once the first downward step had been taken. No man could have entered life with more honourable intentions, or with brighter prospects, than John Sad- ieir; and perhaps no one of our numerous criminals could be named whose fall was greater. His first down- ward step (as clearly as we have been able to ascertain) was, in common with the others we have quoted, solely a gross irregularity without any intention of direct dis- honesty. After he found himself once entangled in the meshes of his crimes, no man could have struggled more energetically to relieve himself from their thraldom, and to return to an honourable position in society than he did, yet without the slightest success.
CHILDREN ASLEEP AND AWAKE.-How Avonaer- fully similar are all children to one another when asleep! The same rounded half-formed features, the same gently-closed eyelids, the" same slightly-parted mouth, arl common alike to high and low, to good and bad, before passion or education has begun to draw those harder and more decided lines which sleep cannot obliterate, and which only pass away when once the first calm look of death is gone, and dust returns to dust. No such lines mar or alter 'I the face ot a sleeping cniia, or give a ciue to tne daily history of the soul within. Look from young Seymour, the lord, to young Dickson the shepherd boy. Look at the mendacious and fierce-tempered Johnny, destined to break your heart and rain you, lying with his arm round the neck of his gentle, high- souled brother Georgy. They are all very nearly alike, But awake them; see how the soul, still off its guard, betrays the truth in eye, in mouth, nay, even in gesture. Well was the wise Mrs. Chisholm accustomed to say that the time to judge of a girl's character was when she was first awake. Cannot we conceive of these four ideal children, that they would betray something to a close observer as their consciousness of the real world returned to them ? Would not the little nobleman have a ealm look upon his face—a look careless, because he had never known care P Would not some signs of weariness and dissatisfaction show themselves on the face of the shepherd boy, when he first found that his pleasant dreams of the cake and of the fine new clothes were unreal, but that the bleak, wild morning, the hard, cold boot to be thrust on stockingless feet, and the poor dry bread were most unmistakably real ? while Johnny will wake with a scowl, and Gregory with a smile.— Macmillan,s Magazine. PROTECTION OF LIFE FROM FIRE.-On Monday, at a public meeting held in the Egyptian-hall of the Mansion-house, the Lord Mayor presented the rewards given by the Royal Society for the Protection of Life from Fire to persons who had been instrumental in saving life during the last year. He was attended on the occasion by Mr. R. C. Hanbury, M.P., Mr. Henry Pownall (Chairman of the Middlesex Bench of Magis- trates), Mr. Sheriff Figgins, Mr. Sampson Low, Mr. Sampson Low, jun., and other gentlemen who take an interest in the society's operations. The secretary read the report for the past year, the main features of which were the present thorough efficiency of the society's force of 100 men-viz., five inspectors, 89 conductors, and six supernumeries-and the excellent condition of the machinery. The Brigade with their fire-escapes had attended 695 fires during the year, at which they succeeded in rescuing the lives of no less than 78 persons, in many instances at the risk of those of the conductors. In one instance, two police-constables were rescued by one of the conductors, and in another, after rendering service himself, the conductor's escape was cut off, and a police-sergeant dragged him out in- sensible. The committee referred to the recent catas- trophe in Dublin, and expressed their belief that, under the society's arrangements in the metropolis, there was good reason to believe that such a result was guarded against. At the same time they were quite ready to admit more remained to be done, and, doubtless, would be done. When our fire-escape arrangements have the same authority to enforce them as the Fire-engine Brigade, and when the two forces are amalgamated, the committee conceive that much benefit must accrue. At present, however, and possibly for sometime to come, the Board of Works learn all arrangements To, the protection of life from fire to the society, which, therefore, remains as heretofore dependent upon volun- tary contributions. The society's balance-sheet showed an amount received during the year of £ 9,294 15s. 8d., including an annual contribution from her Majesty of ten guineas. The expenses amounted to £ 9,511 14s. 9d., including £ 8,177 for conductors' wages, machinery ex- penses, rewards, &c. At the conclusion of the distribu- penses, rewards, &c. At the conclusion of the distribu- tion 01 rewards, on the motion of Mr, R. C. Hanbury, M.P., a cordial vote of thanks was presented to the Lord Mayor for kindly granting the use of the hall for the ceremony, and for presiding on the occasion. THE IRISHMAN AND THE ATLANTIC CABLE. The Irish will be sadly disappointed in the high rates of charge. They look across the Atlantic to America as to a Paradise, and the wire they fondly think, will bring it nearer to them. One of the Valentia boatmen, a sturdy old peasant, who was conveying a friend of mine ashore from the Racoon, expressed his fervent wish that the cable might be laid. He was asked why he was so interested. "Well, sir," said he in the full brogue, I've a son in the counthry, and I want to sind him a missage." Why don't you write to him ? I've had letthers writ to him, sir, but he's sint no answer." "But you won't be able to send a message by this cable to your son, it will cost you too much ? They are going to charge a pound a word." Well, sir, I've a pound or two laid by, and may be the Knight of Kerry, sir, will lend me another, and when my son sees that I'll spend all I've got to hear of him, he'll YTite, sir, to his old father." My friend, hoivever, persuaded the true- hearted old fellow to make another attempt by letter, and has written out himself to the son, telling him the Btoiy.—Bury Poet,
J LITERATURE. I SHALL WE STRIKE.? A QUESTION FOR THE CONSIDERA- TION OF THE MEMBERS OF THE LONDON PRINTING TRADE. By a Member of the London Society of Compositors. The above is the title of a well and forcibly written pamphlet addressed to the compositors of London. After revic-Nviiig at some length the present condition of the trade, the writer goes on to remark :— "During the past fifty years the members of the London printing profession have been at a standstill. The Scale, as settled in 1847, instead of advancing our prices tended rather to their reduction; and that docu- ment has been so distorted of late years, and has suffered so many different constructions, that instead of clinging to it as our Magna Charta, we are often compelled to regard it as treacherous and deceitful. Not that the intentions of those who compiled it were wanting in sincerity, but because a spirit of cupidity and competition has driven our employers to take every possible advantage and the times have so changed, as well as the manner in which work is produced, that evils have arisen which were never dreamt of by those whose names it bears. Still, the error is all our own. We did not bestir ourselves and of course no one has exerted himself for us; the consequence is, that through apathy and negligence, in this year of grace one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, we aretheleast cared for, the worst paid, and the hardest worked of any artisan class in the country. Why is this ? Let echo answer" why P" Surely, not because our in- telligence and ability are behind the age we live in surely not because our morality as a body is umvorthy of us and our country surely not because our labour is of little use and can be dispensed with-but because we are so overworked and ground down, because we 91. toil unceasingly from morn till night and from night till morn—that the mind, Aveary and jaded, is only t<5o glad to snatch a little rest during the few hours' respite, without caring to brood over or struggle to remedy the evils that oppress us. Then, again, during those periods of slackness which annually occur, poverty presses us so hard that the true spirit of the man is half-scared, and instead of possessing the enterprise and determination to set our house in order," we do nothing but go about bemoaning the fate that made us printers. But, apart from a pecuniary view of the question, the printer suffers from evils to which other workers are comparatively strangers. The fact that mortality is so great amongst us long ago startled even the Privy Council, and if we turn to the report of the Royal Com- mission which was appointed in consequence, to inves- tigate the sanitary condition of various trades, we shall find the following:—" The condition of printers is such as to call for the most serious attention on the part of the public. Their hours of labour are long, the strain upon their nervous system intense, and the offices in which they cany on their trade, generally speaking, most unhealthy and ill-ventilated. Much of the work of this class is carried on at night, under flaring gas, often amidst evil odours from machinery or drains, and when the long toil is done the men turn out into the chilly night air or early morning. There can be no wonder that under such conditions as these the health of the class should be generally indifferent- that the death-rate should be, as it is, 47'6 per cent. higher than that of the whole community—that of these deaths 46-7 per cent. should be caused by consumption, and that nearly 70 per cent. of the deaths should be caused by diseases of the chest of one sort or other." Yet in spite of all that is pointed out in this authoritative statement (which has been public for years), nothing has been done for the London printer—simply because he has done no- thing for himself. If we inquire into the condition of the various trades in the metropolis, and notice the improvements which their followers have of late years effected for themselves, and then call to mind our own position, we cannot but feel humiliated and pained. We shall see the bricklayers, carpenters, stonemasons, millwrights, and several others, working, on an average, fifty-six hours a Aveek, for Si 16s., or 7fd. per hour, with a decided rise on this scale for every hour worked beyond the specified day. But on the other hand. in our own profession—admit- tedly the most unhealthy-we have to toil sixty-three hours for sCl 13s., or 6^d. per hour and instead of receiving extra for overtime we are absolutely paid less. namely, 6d. per hour. In no town in the whole country do the compositors work the London time. There is not a single instance to be found. Very few-Bath, Chelten- ham, Hertford, and Lewes-work sixty. while the average is fifty-six hours and a half. Our brethren in Manchester and Liverpool are palpably ahead of us. In the formcr town thewcck consists offifty-ifvehours, for £110s., or 6!ll. per hour, with 9d. per hour for overtime; and, therefore, if the compositors there work the London week of sixty-three hours, they receive £ 1 16s., or 3s. in advance of our pre- sent rate. In Liverpool the week consists of fifty-six hours, for zEl lis., with 8d. per hour overtime, which, after the same manner, yields zCl 15s. d. for the London week, or 2s. 8d. in advance of us. And, in addition to this, should our brethren in these toAvns be called upon to work more hours than even these, the disparity becomes greater still. They would receive 9d. and Sd. respectively, while we should only receive 6d., and a compositor engaged on the establishment in London can be retained in the office sixteen hours out of every twenty-four without receiving beyond 6d. pei hour for the extra hours. Let us add this up and com- pare it with the two places just mentioned. Sixteen hours a day, less two for meals, would amount to eighty-four working hours in the week, and after de- ducting sixty-three, tAventy-one of overtime remain, amounting to 10s. 6d., Avhich, added to £ l 13s. Avonkl give £2 3s. 6d.; whereas if the same time be worked in Manchester it would amount to X2 lls. 9d.. or 8s. 3d. in advance of London prices and if in Liver- pool, £ 2 9s. 8d., or 6s. 2d. in excess of London. Thus it will be seen that we are not only behind al- most every trade in the metropolis, but our brethren in the two leading towns of the provinces are also in ad- vance of us and if we go further away from home the disparity becomes greater still." The writer then sums up as follows :— Having, then, carefully reviewed our comparative position, and pondered over our prospects, what conclu- sion do we arrive at P We have presented our memorial; we have been in conference on five of its seven items we have seen their modifications; we have estimated them at their true worth we have given a very explicit vote on the subject; and what shall we do next ? We know that we are behind our fellow-workmen in other crafts we are dissatisfied with our lot, and we want to remedy it. We know this can be done—and done, too, we believe without a strike; only how shall we set about it ? We must collect our forces together, and unite our ranks in a "holy alliance." Our strength must be demonstrated, and then it will not be needed. The best prevention against war is to be armed and prepared for it; and so it is with us. Whatever may be our differences as to details or modes of procedure, we must be steadfast as to the object to be attained. In the first place let us L be candid and honest towards our employers. Let us ) inform them that we must have a rise of a half-penny per thousand; that zCl 16s. must be the minimum es- tablishment wages and that the third clause of the memorial must be conceded in its integrity. Let us do nothing rashly or with precipitation. Let us inform them that on and after the first Monday in November all work not in hand must be paid for according to the memorial. Our position will then be defined and in the meantime we can so prepare ourselves that when the day of trial comes we shall be able to command success. Let us double our subscriptions at once, and in every way so consolidate our union that it shall defy resistance, and become a bulwark upon which we may firmly rely in the hour of need." He winds up with the following warning to em- ployers :— All that we want is that you should dispassionately consider our plea and grant it, for we are satisfied that it is reasonable and just. This you do not deny. We beg of you not to estrange yourselves and create ill- feeling between us, for it is our desire to act honour- ably by you. But if you will not hear us; if you will not consider our condition with a view to its improve- ment-then our friendship must be broken. We shall be compelled to say-Gentlemen, our agreement, which is of a civil nature, must cease. We have our interests to look to, and in the present state of the provision market we cannot afford to sell our labour at the old price. We deeply regret that we are driven to this extremity-but we must strike! And to this we believe it must and will come. We cordially approve of the tone and spirit in which the pamphlet is written; its reasoning is sound, and its facts are incontrovertible. We trust the master printers will not drive their workmen to extreme measures, to procure what after all will be only a bare remuneration for their labour.
THE ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS AND THE LIFE- BOAT CAUSE.—The Ancient Order of Foresters has just sent to the National Life-boat Institution, as a contribution for the current year, the munificent sum of JE3431 s. 11 d. in aid of the support oftheir life-boat stationed in Cardigan Bay, and of the general purposes of the Life- boat Institution. Altogether the Order, to which up- wards of 300,000 persons belong, has contributed to the institution, through the principal and able secretary, Mr. Samuel Shawcross, S689 14s. 2d. The contribu- tions have varied from a penny to one shilling from this great body, and a more substantial token of sym- pathy and support for i great and national work has probably never before been recorded IN the annals of any benevolent institution. It should be remembered that the Life-boat Society contributes every year to the saving of between 600 and 700 lives from shipwrecks. Probably many of the persons thus snatched from a wateiy grave are memb S of this beneficent and popular Order, which accomplishes so much in mitigating the sufferings of its members, iheir widows, and orphans,
f THE EXTRADITION BILL. The following is the text of the bill for the amend- ment of the law relating to treaties of extradition :— Whereas difficulties have been experienced in carry- ing into execution treaties for the extradition of persons accused of crimes between her Majesty and the Sove- reigns or Governments of certain foreign States and whereas the statutes now in force for this purpose have been found insufficient; and whereas it is expedient to amend the same, and to give greater facilities than at present exist under the aforesaid statutes for the admis- sion in evidence of judicial or official documents, or copies of documents Be it enacted by the Queen's most excellent Majesty, by and with the adnce and consent of the Lords spiri- tual and temporal, and Commons, in this present Par- liament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:— 1. That warrants of arrest and copies of depositions signed or taken by or before a judge or competent magistrate in any foreign State with which her Majesty may have entered into or may hereafter enter into any treaty for the extradition of fugitive offenders or persons accused of crimes shall henceforth be received in evidence, if authenticated in the manner following, that is to say, if the warrant of arrest purports to be signed by a judge or other competent magistrate of the country in which the same shall have been issued, and if the copies of depositions purport to be certified under the hand of such judge or magistrate to be true copies of the original depositions, and if the signature of the judge or magistrate in each case shall be authenticated in the manner usual in the respective States or countries by the proper officer of the department of the Minister of Justice, and sealed with the official seal of such Minister; and all courts of justice and magistrates in her Majesty's dominions shall take judicial notice of such official seal, and shall admit the documents so authenticated by it to be received in evidence without further proof. 2. This act shall be construed with an act passed in the eighth and ninth years of the reign of her Majesty, chapter one hundred and thirteen, intituled An Act to Facilitate the Admission in Evidence of Official and other Documents;" and also with an act passed in the fourteenth and fifteenth years of the reign of her Majesty, chapter ninety-nine, intituled An Act to Amend the Law of Evidence."
FRIGHTFUL ACCIDENT ON THE BRIGHTON RAILWAY. An inquest was held on Monday at the Station Inn, Horley, Surrey, before W. Carter, Esq., coroner, touching the death of James Eager, a goods guard in the employ of the Brighton Railway Company, who met his death under the following circumstances :—Walter Simmons said: I am employed in the service of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway as head goods* guard. Last Friday I was in charge of a train which left Brighton at 1.50 p.m. for London. We stopped at different stations as required. Deceased was my under guard, and rode in the break-van next to the engine. On arriving at Horley station the train was stopped and shunted into a siding on the up side of the line. We had to take some of the waggons off and there were others to be attached. After we had been there about a quarter of an hour, deceased was walking along the down road. He was calling the driver back into the siding. I saw a passenger train coming down at full speed-about fifty miles an hour. I called to deceased to get out of the way. He seemed to understand what I said. I was about fifteen or twenty yards from him. The deceased's back was to the approaching train. He was walking along AvaAing the engine back with his right arm. I heard the whistle of the express sounded, but he took iio notice, and he was caught by the engine of the ex- press and knocked down. I saw deceased look round just before the engine struck him, and try to get on to the up-line out of the way, but failing to do so was knocked down. He was earned forward thirty or forty yards, and then fell in the 6ft. way. I went to him and found him quite dead. He was very much mangled and cut to pieces. He had no head. He must have died instantaneously. He was perfectly sober when the accident occurred. I can only account for his death by his mind being entirely upon his own train. The driver of the express did all he could to warn the de- ceased of his danger. He shut the steam off and put the breaks on, and stopped sooner than I thought they would be able to do. Jesse Allen, porter at Horley station, corroborated the last witness in every particular. John Carpenter, inspector of metropolitan police at- tached to the Brighton railway, who watched the case for the company, stated deceased's age was 31 years, and he leaves a wife and one child. The jury returned a verdict of accidental death."
A HORSE-DEALER CHARGED WITH FRAUD. A horse-dealer named George Newman was brought up on a warrant at Marylebone charged with fraudu- lently obtaining from Captain Wilfred Brougham the sum of X20. Mr. Pain appeared to prosecute, and Mr. Johnson for the prisoner. Captain Brougham (who it was stated was Lord Brougham's nephew) said he was captain in the 17th Lancers stationed at Aldershot. He saw an advertisement in the Times of a horse for sale, and called at Harley-mews, the place advertised. He there saw the prisoner, who said he was nephew to Mr. Newman, of Regent-street, and that they carried on busi- ness together. On the faith of these representations, and believing him to be respectable, and also upon his giving :a warranty as to the sound- ness of the horse, he parted with his money. He gave him a cheque on Cox's for zE20, and a pro- missory note signed by him, and upon Avhich he had been sued. When the horse was sent home it was found utterly impossible either to ride or drive it; it was so exceedingly Addons. The prisoner had warranted it to be quiet, and there was also an agreement that if he (prosecutor) did not approve of the horse if he returned it Avithin a given time the money Avould be returned. He wrote to the prisoner to say he wished to return the horse. The prisoner told him to send it to the stable in Harley-mews, and the money would be returned. The horse was sent, but there was only a lad to receive it, and as the prisoner was not there, and no money or bill forth- coming, it was not left. In cross-examination, Cap- tain Brougham said he came there not merely to have his money returned, but to protect the public as well. Mr. Johnson said he was sure that a criminal court ought not to be put in motion in a matter like this. Mr. Yardley thought there was sufficient in this case for the court to take cognizance of. He set his face against cheating. The warranty was read. It ran thus:- Warrant the horse to be sound, quiet to ride and drive; and should it be otherwise, I promise to return the money." In answer to Mr. Johnson, the prosecutor said they had rough-riders at the school at Aldershot, and they found it impossible to ride the horse. He should say it was an aged horse. He did not offer him the loan of a bridle to ride the animal round the stable. The horse was to be sent to Aldershot. Captain Brougham said he should not have parted with his money if prisoner had not said Mr. Newman was his uncle. Mr. Newman, of 121, Regent street, post and job-master, said he had not the slightest knowledge of the prisoner, and he had never been in any way con- nected with him. He had never had any stables in Harley-mews. The policeman who had the prisoner in custody said he had been looking after him for some time. The prisoner had told parties that Harley-mews belonged to him, but he had the owner there to rebut that. Mr. Yardley decided upon remanding prisoner till Saturday next.
ALARMING EXPLOSION IN F ARRING- DON STREET. Between eleven and twelve o'clock on Monday an ex- plosion of an alarming character took place on the works in connection with the Holborn Valley Improvement, the force of which shook the houses, and terrified the inhabitants in the immediate vicinity. The accident happened at the back of the houses at the north end of Farringdon-street, and stretching from Skinner-street to Tumagain-lane. On the works nearest Skinner-street a vault, which had been closed for some time, and which was formerly occupied by Mr. Hudson, wine merchant* of Garlick-hill, was discovered by the workmen. Up,to Monday it remained unexplored, but at the time men- tioned, two of the contractors' workmen—one a black- smith and the other a storekeeper—entered it, and it is supposed that they must have taken a light in with them, or struck a lucifer while inside. Their absence had not been long observed before a loud report was heard. proceeding from the vault, and shortly afterwards- the two men made their way out at the Skinner-street end very much scorched about the face and arms. They were at once taken to St. Bartholomew's Hospital* where they had their wounds dressed. They were after- wards conveyed to their homes. The mast serious part of the accident occurred in Tumagain-lane, which ter- minates the -vault, the brick and wood: work of which were blown out with considerable foree. A porter named John Griffiths was passing near thi& place at the time, and the explosion had the effect of throwing him some distance and felling him to the ground, thereby causing concussion of the hipe and ribs. Mr. George Reynolds, reporter of the City Press, who was also passing up Turnagain-lane at the moment, was likewise struck | down with great violence, and sustained severe scalp j wounds and other injuries. No time Avas lost in their removal to thrs hospital, where they remain in great t suffering. Tbe neighbours assert that a female AA'as struck by a, large piece of timber while passing, but notfrfcng definite as to what became of her could be ssce rwllojd.