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,-,.".!:" THE PAN-ANGLICAN'…

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PRUNING. BY GEO. CHISHOLM, HORTICULTURIST, LLANRWST. Natural laws are oonstant and unvar.ed in their operations. Our knowledge of natural laws is derived irom accurate observations of oauses and effects, and science offer,j the systematized explanation of these observations. The fcience of pruning therefore gives the explanation de- rived from the accumulated knowledge of ages of observations and experiences of effects, pro- duced by maniipuia'iion upon the branches and oilier portions cdt plants. When we take into oot)3 deration the lengthened period during W'iiKj.i pruning lias been practised, the general intelligence of the operators and the oountless repetitions of sxnilar processes ending tin similar rea,ilt.i. dt is reasonable enoug'h to presume that a sufficient number of facts have been observed to establish a complete eciance and determine principles, the practical application of which can be readilv understood and easily effected, but the rroquent and apparently oonflicting opinions tihat are constantly being expressed by cultivators and writers on tins subji-ct p ove that the operat on < £ pruning in i:is various applica- tions is not generally performed from an i,n- t -111 front standpoint. Pruning us an operation of muoh importance in the management of t'eco. a.nd complete success is not attained an fruit culture unless its principles are clearly under- stood. Plants; left to nature mainta'n a reci- procal action between the brandhes a.nd Toots, and every branch and leaif removed must ex- ercise and influence, either injurious or bene- fies al. therefore no one should remove a branch until satisfied of a reason for doing eo, a.nd for- seeine- the influence, and effects of sucl re- moval. It is the opinion of many fruiit growers that the most uniform and satisfactory crOl' of fru't are produced in orchards, where but littio, if any, pruning is given to trees. While it i truCJ that the injuries to lfru\t trees and the Josses to fruit growers from v.ciouu and alto- ;her unnecessary pruning cannot be estimated, yet it would be erroneous to assert that trees should not be pruned at all. It is aJways judicious to thin out the tops of trees whan tho branches become overcrowded—to thm out dead Qpiid weakly branches or to arrest the f' rowth of unrulv or misplaced shoots, but the system whtoh ï:s altogether too prevalent, of making an annual visit through the orchard, removing or short- ening branches as a matter of routine, and chppmsr the tape^ of shoots without any (special obioot in vKW.wfcl in a few iear.,4 cus-surotlly di- m-nish the fruiUjig capacity of the trees. TIME OF PRUNING. Tho season of pruning i$in some oases an ■important factor ia the management of treco. G-eiieralily, Any time during the winter or early sprang montiha is chosen lor pruning the orob- a'ds. Where the objeot is merely the thinning' out of thioklv branched trees the season is 01 not muoh i.mportance, and the work may be performed at any time when convenient, but when it is deemed expedient to remove certain branohes for the purpose of adding additional Vigour t<> Unowe retained, then much, will gained by pruning early in the winter, or as soon as the trees have matured tiie.r growth and beoo-nie deciduous. If pruned at this time the succeeding growths wdl be stronger than they would be if pruned later. This arisen from the circumstance that during winter plants colltinue to absorb nutriment by their roo'-s. This nu- triment is disseminated to all portions of the.r structure, thus increasing the $ZC and strengtli of the buds. As the flow of sal, .is ail w ays di- rected to the extreme pointsdf snoots, the high- est buds are most fully developed, »o that vviien pruning is delayed till spruig', and the points Or upper portions of branches removed at tha-l time, all the aocumulated food in these port/ions is destroyed, and to that extent the plant is weakened. On the other hand, when the pruning is performed early in the winter the bud* which axe retained Will benefit by the accumulated nutriment, which would otherw-se have been distributed over a. greater number, and those will, in consequence, start more v gor- ouslv in the spring, advance more rapidly in growth during summer, and their maturity will be mater ally hastened, a condition of great im- r)ortzi.Tie,e w-hen the summer seasons are rather limited for the perfeett.on of certain crop*. Late sprvng prunine has a decided influeiiee in re- tarding early summer growth; hence, the opera- tes ia sometimes purposely delayed until just berforo leaf in k in order to diminish early luxuri- anoe. Branches which have become diseased from the effects of or from any other cause should be removed 8n soon as ocserved, and tno healthy pwrt of the tree sprayed with some special preparation for such diseases. Prompt removal and spraying of these will check the further progress of the malady, which would otherwise destroy the tree. The action of sudden freezing of (immature and imperfectly ripened wood in the early winter 'is a fruitful souroe of disease. That apparently incurable nnaladv in plants Jcnown as "yellows" in the oanion of the writer is the result of sap con-, tam nation of these frozen points, the prompt removal and spraying of which will, he is con- v-noed. prevent the spread of the disease, and thus tavo the plants from speedy and ultimate destruction. "PRUNE IN SUMMER FOR FRUIT AND IN WINTER FOR WOOD," Perhaps no advice that has been given in fruit culture iii so vague and disappointing in its practical application as that embodied in the brief and apparently pithy words quoted aLwvo. It is evidently intended as a short, pract.cai rule capable of general use, producing a cer- tain. well-defined result, while in reality it IS a mere expedient that may be valuablo under some conditions, and is an operation of ex- periment rather than one of certainty. Tho principle upon which the advice "Prune in summer for fruit" II, based recognises barrenness in fruit trees as being the result of a predomi- i nacy of wood growth; also, that any process or manipulation tending to reduce abundant growth, so long 06 it does not seriously involve the health of the pla-nt, will favour the pro- duct ion otf flowers and fruit. By persisting in the removal of forage from tihe tree while it is in active growth its vitality will be weakened and its general health imrmiifvl hv the dcstruc- tion of roots, whioh always follows the destruc- tion of active foliage. There are van.ous processes applied in the management off plants which have for their ob- joct the better production of frid't. Some of these are known in horticulture under the teoh- nical term "dwarfidg, suoh as grafting the pear on quince stocks, which represses the wood growth of the former, a.nd has&eris its fruiting penod. Other export onts are these of root pruning, tying down branohes below a hori- zontal position, and that already mentioned, re- pressing growth bv the removal of foliage tear- ing summer, W:,9 last b«'ng the least definite or direct, because its usefulness depends upon con- ditions which cannot always be foreseen or con- trolled. In the practical application of summer pruning, difficulties and perplexities are en. countered, which, as already remarked, render the operation one of uncertain result. For ex- a.mpio, if the growing shoots of an apple or pear tree are chocked in their extension by rernovJig a porton of thEÚ points, say toward the latter part cf June, tlm lower buds on the shoots will be forced into growth, thus forming numerous side branches, whuoh havo no immediate con- nection wiih fru t.ng spurs, and whioh will sim- ply tend to a further thicket of twigs for re- moval an winter. But if the shoots are not checked in their extension untiil August, and the weather afterwards continues to be warm and dry, be probabilities are that the lower buds on these shoots wJl start into rathor feeble g'rowth or short spur-like shoots, which will ultimately fur.nitih fruiting buds. If, on the other hand, the seaaon ht-pperis to be wet, and cnfild weather prevails until edese to w'intor, these same shoots will lengthen into slender twigs whioh wili not thoroughly mature and which will be of no value whatever. The difficulty in reaching successful results lies :n the uncertainty as to the proper time to prune, because no two seasons are exactly alike, and also because trees vary in their vigor from year to year. Yet, upon this uncertain, in- definite. and constantly experimental procedure j «is founded the advice, "Prune in summer for (fruit." "Prune in winter for wood." A plant in a healthy growing condition will maintain proper balance between the roots and branohes, and anv destruction of either wiN to a certain extent destroy this natural balance., so that if aj oortion of the branohes is removed after the seasonal growth is matured the roots will to that extent have the preponderance; the buds bein" thus reduced. Those which are retained will receive increased vigour, and while the branches Droduced will be fewer in number they will be stronger in growth. It is questionable whether a greater aggregate of wood will be procured from the few buds than would have been furnished by the greater number provided no pruning had been done, but there is no question as to the fact thai a greater degree of vigour is imparted to the fewer buds. and that it is a well known and valuable exponent for increasing vigor of the growths of unhealthy and weak growing plants. To Buppose. however, that winter pruning, as a p practical rule, inoroases the quantity of timber in heaflthy trees « a fallacy. (To be. OOOltiJw.