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SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OFFICERS AT LLANDUDNO. LLANCASHIRE, CHESHIRE AND NORTH WALES FEDERATION. -4 IMPORTANT CONFERENCE AT LLANDUDNO. INTERESTING ADDRESSES* A conforenoe of the Lancashire. Cheshire and Nortih Waies F&d'oraiion of the Scfoool Attendance Offioer^' Association was held at too Town Ilall. Llandudno on Saturday afternoon, over which Mr S. Chantrey, J.P (chairman of the Llandudno Urban District Council), pre- sided. The following delegates were present: — Messrs A- S. H. Allan (president of the Fede- raitioffi)- Macclesfield; Thos. Parry. Bettivsy- coed A. L. Edwards, Bangor; 0-8. Thomas, Ll&noens; R. W. Ro>berts, Bethesda • J R. Jones, Llandudno; W. Parry. Rhyl; T. W. Hindky, Hindley; J. 0. Roberta, Prestatyn;, E. Bitihell, Uolwvn Bay; R. P. Chambers, Abergele; Wm. Hooles, Mold; Wm. Heya, Burnley; Wm. Rodgers. Trydri'yu, near Moid; J. T. Greenwood, BurnLey; Henry T. Badger, Bradford, E. LI. Mase Fleetwood"; R- Sarrod. Birkenhead; T. Cain, Bolton J no. Lone-worth, Little Hulton, Bolton; 0. K Roberts. Mau- dhestor; J. T. BramhaJI, Bolton; L^nisnali, do.; Wm. Rostron, 0.0. Walter Siddon. do., Aleix. Fleming, do.; Eiroeat J. Bartow, do-; G. J. Roberta. Carnarvon; J. Hartley. DrovWon, Lanos-; R. Dickon, FaiisvvarOh; and trie se- cretary, Mr F. W. Barnes Leig", together with Alderman Robert Roberto. «7.P., Llandudno, and Councillor Lewis Hug'hes, J.P-, Anglesey. Tho oG'infpronoe tos also attended by a number of and others interested in the ques- tion of school attendance. At the outset, the Chairman, on bohalf of the Urba.n District Council and townspeople of Liandiidj->. extended a hearty wclcoino to the delegated. The P reside rut briefly acknowledged the wol- come. and said he hoped the outcome of tihe visit would prove satisfactory, not only to the delegates, but to the ,hole district. DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS OF ATTENDANCE OFFICERS. Mr A. S. H. Allan, upon rising to deliver to presidential address, was cordially received. Dealing the duties and qualifications of school attemdianoe office-re. he »x>inted out fchait their work was by no means easy. The attend- ance officer had to be all things to all people, in all sorte of plaoee, and under evcr-ohaikgmg conditions. As to his qualifications the offioeT. in the fi,rat place, hiaving to enforce the Eduoation Acts, should himself be a man of fair education, and by knjotwiag its wortjh, would work with all the more zeal and earnestness to assure the children a.n equal chance. He should be an upright, straightforward of unblemished character, and oe-ing a public servant engaged in a noble calling, he shouJd so live that his example might be ad'va»ntageouslv followed- He should endeavour to have a good knowledge of the Education Acts. amd to enforce £ ho same aooordi rig to the dictates of his own conscience —scrupulously avoid doing an injustice in any shape or form—and in the otuforoernerut of these Acts he should exhaust every effort and use every- little bit of tact before resorting to prosecution. Tact in dealing with pajrenrts and children was easenitial, and prcseoution might easily <i'egonerate into persecution. Although, unfortunately, they had frequency to roeort to tihe unpleasant duty of prosecution, he still maaritairied that the mail who could ingratiaite himself so to speak into the good graces of the classes they had to deal with. oould attain the desired end without recourse to prosecution •was the most efficient school attendance officer. An attendance office* should endeavour to gain the coniidle-ooe of the children, and be good-tempered. He should work harmoniously with the teadhera. His experience was tihat an Ufisyrapiaitheitic teacher meant am unattractive class, and hetDok it they would all agree with him thait neither a.re conducive to regular at- tendance- The officers, on tihe one hand, forced the dhild into sdbool, only to find this draw- back. The children don't caro to go, and it caused no end' of anxiety to secure even a fair- ly regular attendance. On the other hand, t|ioy had a teacher full of sympathy; the chil- dren leajrnt to respect him or hex as the oaee may be, with the result that the offioer's lab- ours are lightened by one half. He agreed tihafc the majority of teachers were fully alive to this great question, a.nd. both working to- gether, the labours of eadh was lightened in proportion. He took it the waifs and strays must bo attended to. and it was these oases wthene the most irregularity occurs, and this oould only be remedied by the co-ope* ation of all concerned. Unfortunately. some teachers were never satisfied until every absentee had been visited by tihe officer, whereas he or she oould witfh little trouble to herself have ascer- tained the reason of aJbeence, in cases hitherto satisfactory, thus leaving the officer at liberty to devote more of his time t) the systematic irreguJa.rs, such as truants, etc-, for it was in the welfare of chiLdren of this class that the omcer should be most interested. There were, of course, number of cases Where tact or per- suasion were of no avail, where fine after fine was without effect, and in these cases the In- dustrial School—day or ordinary—must come to the rescue. Still, in his opinion, the lees pro- secutions tihev had tihe better the attendance officer, as. if by constant visitation they oould induce parents to feel their resrvonsibiltiy. it was better for them to do so instead of them being oointent with the relegation of that re- sponsibility to any local authority. It was in this direction the authorities had yet to realise the arduous duties of am attendance officer, for itihe majority of officers only resorted to the law When all other means have failed. The attendance ofhoer to bo a euooess mlUat also keep up the dignity of his position, learn to disoriminiate, and be sympathetic. He Should pursue his d*utiee as an officer and yet as a friend and brother- AN AGE OF EFFORT. He (the President) was a firm believer in the duplicate register system, and thought that all large cenitreg of industry must benefit by its use. but he thought also that the environment and circumstances of each district must deter- mine its own method. They livjd in an age of .effort. What were the authorities doing to help the attendance at the schools? There was the offer of a monthly half-holiday for the gaining of a certain percentage of attendance, periodical scheduling or census enumeration, offering of rewards for regularity, visitation and serving warning notioes, sending of absen- ted notes by teachers, inviting defaulting par- ents to attend before a committee appointed by the local authority to explain cause of irr>e>gu- lairitv, c'ealing with children found on the streets by special officers, and lastly, by pro- secution before a magistrate, ending- in a fine or committal to industrial school. In commenting upon wiese different systems the President went on to say that it migtht be argued that they could not get nor yet demand information, then he suggested to local autho- rities that they should obtain for attendance offioers, as in Scotland, a legal status whereby they oould demand any required information under the penalty of the law. If this were done another difficulty would vanish- He emphasised that, the duplicate register svstem is the bast. THE UNEMPLOYED PROBLEM. Continuing, the President asked what ought, they to expcct in return for alL thetir. many and varied efforts ? They were entitled to fair and just remuneration for their labours. Their distracts should not be made so large and bur- densome but be of sudh a character as to enable the officer to keep in ctoae touch with aU his cases. Half time and agricultural limits should bo abolished, for once a child went to work, in his opinion, his eduoation ceased'. Did they want to solve one of tthe unemployed questions? Then let them tu-a out the young child from the mill aj>d factory, and stop the ever-increasing employment of children before and after school hours. The attendance officer should be given as free a hand as possible, and the powers that should grant simpler and quicker measure with oertain cases Let them not plaoc reliance on figures; t.he best pe'eentage did not mean the best officer, as circumstances and environments ought and' must be judged. In conclusion, the President said they were pleased to note the rapid strides that were be- ing and had been made; what with the feeding of chi!drünand the medieil attention now to be granted, they took heart and' courage. Ho did not think it right not to advocate the claims of their Association, he thought it ■would not be complete without a word on superannuation. Ho hoped that in the near future the services of the attendance officer to the public would scorn be recognised, and the Eam privilege given to their, that had been granted to most other co- operative servants, working und^r, in many cases, superior conditions. He hoi>ed that the local authorities w.oulci' see that th« attendance officers were enabled bv means of superannua- tion to obtain that rest and leisure in their old age which he considered they were so justly cr.tulc-ri to. Cprn the proposition of Mr F. W. Barnes (Leigh) a. heartv vote of thanks was accorded the president for his interesting and instructive address- ORGANISATION. Mr Henry T. Badger (Bradford), vice-presi- dent 0: the National Association c? School At- tendance Officers, read a paper, on "Organisa- tion: Its meaning and value." He paid his object was to make an appeal to all attendance ^fficers to jo'.n the Association. The Associa- tion dceircd to bring about much needed re- forms in th.1 condition of child life. Primarily they sought 'he betterment of t.he chi'd, ■physicaly, mentally, nicrally. They also' de&ired to place thomse.vos in such a po^itioa as to enable them to earn the respect and con-
UMORS OF HISTORY." HEAP!,IOF -Bk PIET 4 r,. -r:: r- /r:?- 3-r-Ç? :?- F r" I ¿, ,0. 'ë: -f. L-: .A. THE STORY OF THOMAS A BECKET.-No. 2.. f*^ue fidelity of the Saracen maid enabled Gilbert a Bucket to make his way to London, where he speedily forgot all about the girl he had left behind him. But she, with the aid of the two words of English 1 London and Gilbert, followed him. The first procured her a passage on a ship bound for England, and by calling the second through the streets she reluctantly found her lover. They were married, and the celebrated Thomas a Backet was their sou."—" The New History of England." This aeria3 of 160 pictures, entitled Humors of History," appearing waekly in this journal, is ranroiuoai In calaur on nlata nannr ninth bound, gilt, at 2/6 n»tt, £ 2,000 bavins baen spent in Its production by th3 Morning Leader." London. Specimen Colored Plate on application. HANES THOMAS A BECKET.—Rhif. 2. Trwy ffyddlondeb y ferch o dylwyth y Sirac3niaid gallu3gwyd Gilb3rt a Backet i fyned i Lundain, Ile y buin annl-lhofiodd yr cneth adawodd o'i ol. Oad Ilwyddold hi trwy gymhorth yr uaig ddau air Szesneg a fedrai, sel I Liund:iin a Gilbart,' i'w ddilyn. Trwy y gair cyntaf cafodd fordwyo i L,3e r, a ihrwy yr ail air ar ol cyr iedd Llur 11 h idiin daeth o hyd i'w cli:xriad. Priod-,vyd hwy, ac o'r briodas hono y ganwyd yr enwog Thomas a Becket."
ANOTHER LADY KNOWS. Mrs King, Runwell-road, Wickford, states: —"Duty compels mo to tell all who suffer that your pills cured me, after years of pain." Sufferers from Gravel, Lumbago, Pains in the Back, Drop-y, Disease of th3 Kidneys, etc.. Sciatica, Rheumatism, and Gout, will find a positive cure in Holdroyd's Gravel Pills. Try small box if not satisiiod, money returned. Is Hd. all Chemists; post free, 12 stamps.—HOLDROYD'S MEDICAL HALL, Clockheaton. L*poti's fo?urth chal'onge for the r Tii, America. Cup has been declined by tho Now York Yacht Club, on the ground that the re- quirements of the deed of gLt in connection with the Cup are not met.
REMARKABLE CHARGE OF BLACKMAIL. ACTION BY A WELSH WESLEYAN MINISTER. AN EX-MISSIONARY COMMITTED FOR TRIAL. EXTRAORDINARY LETTERS. A remarkable story of alleged blackmail was investigated by the Llanfaircaereinion (Mont- gomeryshire) magistrates at a special sessions on Saturday, the prosecutor being the local Welsh Weslevan minister, the Rev. W. R. Ro- berts, and the defendant, Joseph Martindale Peart, an ex-Wesleyan missionary, native of Dariington, who was a prominent figure in the siege of Mafeking. The court was crowded. Mr Martin Woosnam, the prosecuting solicitor, said that the position of the parties- was a pain- ful one. They had been fellow-students at Didsbury Wesleyan College, Manchester, until 1897. when the defendant went out to Mafeking as a missionary, and acted in that oapacity dur- ing the siege. In September, 1900, the old college chun» met in this country, and the next thing that Mr Roberts knew of him was a threatening letter in his handwriting, ad- dressed from British Columbia, in Noveiniber, 1901, demanding JEM. The letter was 00 pre- posterous that Mr Roberts did not reply, and after a lapse of five yearis he received another threatening letter, from rlinton, demanding 1;4 or £ 5. Mr Roberts again did not reply, and received further lettera and post-cards, which were followed by a lotter to the chairman of the North Wales Wesleyan Conference, the Rev. Edward Humphreys, Birkenhead. On the 24th inst. the prisoner culminated the correspond- ence by threatening from Cardiff to go to Llan- fair, and to smash the prosecutor's windows and his head. Thereupon Mr Roberts oomimuni- cated with tho police, who arrested the prisoner at Welshpooi on Tuesday, while in the act of booking to Llanfair, ostensibly to carry out his threat- The Prosecutor stated that the first time they met after leaving college was. at the prisoner's old home at Spennymoor, near Darlington, where the witness was preaching, being stationed in the Stockton-on-Tees circuit. They were the beat of friends, and had supper to- gether after the service. The following week they went to Manchester, where the witness's wjife lived—he was then a bachelor. They stayed one night at an hotel near London-road Station. The witness did not 006 him again until he was arrested last week. AN "EXPEDITION" TO MANCHESTER. The first letter of the remarkable aeries of cor- respondence was put in. In it the prisoner wrote from British Columbia :— "Honoured air,—You will easily recognise the handwriting. Therefore, without unnecessary palaver, I tell you why I write. Now, Roberts, I want your assistance to get baok to Engiand. In the days of my plenitude I be- lieve I was never ungenerous to you. A little more than twelve months ago I paid all ex- penses for that expedition of ours to Man- chester. What an expedition it was! How we got tipsy, gambled, went to the races, talked to prostitutes, and were go ashamed of ourselves that we registered under fake names at the hotel. Do ou r ber lo&in, ;C4 in the 6ustt?,, th"' omri 0 re,,?,-card-triok men, and my giving you the money to repay it? What would your congregation o' good Welsh people say if they knew? What viould the Conference say if they knew? What would your wife-because I bet you are married now—say if she knew? If it was my intention I oould make a hopeless wreck of your career, but that I shall never do. We always were chums, and we must be ohums and helpers, one with another. To be definite, I require a sum of £30 to pay my passage back Eii,-Itrd. That is five t' '6 you cay, what I Im' I spent over you. True, old Roberts! But I never took the trouble to count the money I spent over you. You eay that you haven't so much money in the world. You good apostle! But from past experience I know parsons can borrow almost anywhere. Remember, you must get it if you steai it from the church. This, I know, will be unpalatable reading, but I promise you-you never knew me fail in my promises that six months after landing jn Eng- land I will return tho money, not in full, but £1 for every 108 lent." CHARGES TOTALLY DENIED. The witness declared that there was not one word of truth in the letter ko far as it reflected upon his moral character. Before going to Manchester he had gaid he could not afford it, as he had only just come into the Stockton-on- Tees circuit. Thereupon the prisoner produced a roil of notes and gold, and volunteered to pay all expenses. As the witness's intended wife lived at Manchester, he was naturally only too glad to get there (laughter). There was no truth in the fiUggesteion that he had JE4 or JM 0; the church funds and gambled them away. In the next communication the prisoner stated that they were seen in Manchester by several people, and that the prosecutor regis- tered at the hotel as "Kylm," his college nick- na.mc. He threatened if he did not send the money to send a telegram, which would let the local pcc.t-office people know, and would write to t.he Wesleyan president "giving full parti- culars of our exploits on a race cource. Can you stand the trouble? Well, if you can, I can. Be wise." Receiving no reply, several pcwt-cards fol- lowed- On one the prisoner wrote:—"You aro labouring under tne opinion that I am only trying a game of bluff. Keep that opinion, and you will regret it.. You know you have done things which, if known, would drive you from tli,e niirtl,!tr-v to-itioi-row. Coward and hypo- c r I'ce fi?tve no I)c)t-ition to loi?e, t?it,t ),ou! ?-ou! Nlou! yoiir bUll1ri) of 'on I ? 't 1 16 well developed. Try to picture your position in any court. It will be proved that W( went on the spree, tha.t together we went, to the Man- chester races the day that the American jockey j won his first race in England. You can- not remain in your cowardly castle of silence. The postal authorities will compel you to take action. If you refuse, they will prosecute me for (vending libellous matter through the post. That is -all I want, and it will come out. I will get a long term of imprisonment^ I am pre- pared. and would repeat the offence when I come out, until I get (satisfaction. THREATS OF EXPOSURE. On April 15th prisoner wrote on another post- card that he w.||'d be going to Welshpool be- fore tho end of the month, and would make J things unpleasant. "I have found out where you are preaching. You will look pretty white about the gills when you see me march into the service, and still funnier when I rise in the congregation and demand the money from you. You will call the police. Just what I want. I'll bet my last shilling you are not in the ministry at the next Conference, that is, unless you pay." 11 After the next letter there came a marked copy of a. London Sunday paper, announcing tha-t a "spicy story" was likely to be told in the law courts regarding an ex-Methodist missionary and a Wesleyan minister's spree in Manchester, which would "tickle the multitude." The prisoner wrote that "the world shall know what stuff Welsh Methodist preachers are made of. Simple-minded Methodiste will then understand how the Wesleyan Methodist Church has reported a decrease of over 10,000 in the laat year." There was also produced the letter which prisoner had written to the chairman of the North Wales Wesleyans, alleging that the Rev. W. R. Roberts refused to pay his "debt," and remarking "you must confess that 'Owe no man anything' is still Scriptural, if not minis- terial. Tho prisoner's concluding letter to the prose- cutor was addressed from Cardiff last Monday, I I LNA and ran: an 'en-t friend, my preeent enemy. I callu .the It--v. E. L' 'ghtivood Smith-field, Cardiff, this morning, and he gave me your address. I was afraid you had left. To-morrow I shall bo in Welshpool about two or three o'clock. My intention is fixed to get my money or go to gaol- Now, you d—~— scoundrel, don't trifle with a desperate man. Meet the train from Cardiff, or I will make you send for the polioe, even if I have to break every window in your house, as well as your head." Cross-examined by the prisoner, the Rev. W. R. Roberts stated that he had never registered at the Queen's Hotel, Manchester. The Prisoner: I should like to make an appli- cation to the police that the books of the hotel, which can bo easily pointed out, be produced for September, 1900. and then I will prove that we stayed more than one night, and that the prosecutor masqueraded as Mr Kylcs. THE PRISONER'S ARREST. The police gave evidence of arreting the prisoner at Welshpooi in the act of booking on the Llanfair Railway. On his person was an iron spanner and 3s Id in money. At Shrews- bury Station, he had left a bag, containing bags of dried herbs, with an oil flare lamp, such as those used at fair stalls. The Prisoner pleaded not guilty to the chargo of blaokmail. The Bench committed him to Ruthin Assizes, remarking that the matter rr quired no hesitation. When asked whether he made any apph for bail the Prisoner replied, "No, sir. I have no friends."
KEEP ZAM-BUK HANDY! Daily Mishaps make it a Daily Need. Mother and Child Cured. The far-seeing and economical housewife is recognising more and more the great necessity of always keeping a box of Zam-Buk in the house ready for any emergency. One never knows before the day'a work is ended what is going to happen in the way of small accidents— the children falling and grazing their knees or cutting their hands, the housewife cutting, burning or scalding her fingers, the husband returning from his day's work with a lacerated wound. In all these and similar cases all that is needed is to clean the wound in tepid water and apply a little Zam-Buk on a piece of clean linen. All fear of complication or blood poisoning may be banished. The germs having been kni-ed off, the wound will heal up in Nature's own way with the aid of the rich herbal juices present in Zaim-Buk. ]a Zam-Buk is A,nart froiii ami ts owever 'fie fo 'lc (L Spec' -r p' -6, bad tilceris, eczema, and all forms of skin diseases. Mrs Sarah Pool, of 29, Station-road, Hounslow, Mi4dli?t??-,x, says: r' h,t ankle be,6,azi to ,,oni-o ii-,oiti?hs a,o my 19 ache and swell very badly, and soon afterwardts a tiny sore made its appearance. It. troubled Ln '"a' me very ruuchbt iiightb, and the pa;* so intense I oould get no sleep. In a few days I was unable to bear any pressure on the right foot, and I had to wear a large slipper. I used doctor's lotion in vain, and, being now in desperate straits, I tried Zam-Buk. s ts "I bathed the leg and applied Zam-Buk free- ly on a cloth two or three times a day. When I took off the bandage. the second time I noticed that the wound was discharging. This occurred more or less for two or three days, after which, pain was less, and the Gwelling in the anke was down. As I kept on with Zam- Buk. I continued to improve very rapidly.and soon the pain left me altogether: In three weeks the wound was quite healed- I am now quite well, and have never suffered the slightest with my leg since. "My daughter, Annie, aged four, had a bad attack of scalp disease. Her head became a mars of running sores. I had mich faith in Zam-Buk that I applied it night and day over the. affected parts. In a few days the discharge stopped, and the sores dried. Now the child's sculp does not show the slightest trace of any skin trouble. Her head, thanks to Zam-Buk, is free from dandruff, and her haid han grown qudc thick. I shall always be pleaded to re- commend this grand healing balm to anyone who suffered like we did." Zam-Buk, the world's greatest and only per- fect healing balm, should be in every home. No ordin.ary ointment, cheap salve, or liniment, containing cc.arlS0 animal fats and mineral poisons, can lay claim to such healing, eoothipg and germ-killing qualities. Zam-Buk is superior to these things because the rich herbal medicines "which it con-tains soak into the pores of the ekin at once, destroying disease germs, averting blood poi.voni.ng after a bruise or cut, a r allaying pain and inflammation, and growing new, healthy skin where it has been destroyed by sores or ulcers Of all chemists, at Is lgd or 2s 9d per box (2s 9d box contains nearly four times, the Is lgd, and is admirable for f_ 'ts ,LM I, y Zalll_lluk i. i-egar-d,(-J b.,7 re- gular users as ivorf.li its weight in gold. Have you tested it yet?
OUR LIVE STOCK. One of the facts that most strikes out colonial and foreign visitors who come to this country is the immense number of dis- tinct breeds of livestock we have within the limits of the British Islands. These men come from countries as big as the whole of Europe rolled into one, and look on our United Kingdom as a mere speck on the surface of the globe, and are therefore as- tonished to find that each county, or each district even, has its own kind of breeds, which have been developed on the spot, and are perfectly distinct from all others. Even our own farmers at home do not realise very often what an immense number of these we have, unless they have been frequenting the large shows, more particularly the Royal," for the ordinary man only comes into actual contact with the one or two of his own neighbourhood. The following are approxi- mately the numbers of breeds recognised by show societies, and which have their corres- ponding associations and registers of pedi- gree in most cases Horses 12, cattle 20, sheep 30, pigs 8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING BREEDS. These numbers do not represent more than half of the distinct varieties that existed in old times, for Darwin showed that every dis- trict had its own special kinds, distinct from all others, many of which were in existence down to our own times, the modern recog- nised breeds being the survivors that were taken up and developed by some person or society in the earlier days. It is compara- tively easy to make a new breed if it were so desired, and there is a tendency here and there to revive some of the old or almost ex- tinct varieties, but it is doubtful if there is any need to increase the number. There is such a lot already to choose from, and in every district a farmer can find varieties specially suited to that district. When these are moved into new surroundings they tend to change in character, and thus colo- nials and foreigners must ever come here for fresh blood if they want to keep their breeds up to the mark. COST OF MILK. What does the food cost that produces a gallon of milk ? This question is discussed in the current number of the Journal of the Board of Agriculture by Mr. John Speir, on the evidence obtained in the milking tests of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. For several years past now this society has been testing herds of Ayrshire cattle en bloc for their milking powers- over 7,000 cows having been on trial, and the cost of food has been one of the points in- vestigated, and it is remarkable what diver- gences have been found in practice. In the most expensive case the food equalled 7.81 pence per gallon: in the cheapest only 2.59d., and the average was about 3.5d. per gallon. ECONOMY IN MILK PRODUCTION. The prices charged for the food were those ordinarily obtainable in the various districts for straw, hay, etc., while the feeding stuffs were reckoned at cost price. It was found that the most expensively fed cows did not give the most milk, but that medium rations were the best, while the fat-contents of the milk did not re.,s end either t "fore' eyout 0 ing feed. It is point that if even one half- penny per gallon can be saved in the feeding it is as good as a rise in the price of the milk, and may total up to 25s. to 30s. per cow per annum of a saving. It must be noted of course in these figures that the cost of labour, depreciation or deaths, etc., are not allowed for-only the food. The gist of the matter is that we have a long way to go and a good many discoveries to make yet in the economical production of milk. COST OF HARVESTING. It may be useful and instructive to see what is the cost of harvesting in different parts of the country and to compare it, more especially as this year the weather in the north has been frightful and the crops have been smashed about so much, while we in the south have not suffered at all. The work in the writer's own neighbourhood is all done by the piece, and consequently the more the men belt into it and the longer hours they work the more pay they get. The pay per acre this year was on the following scale in the writer's case cutting with binder, Is. 3d.; stooking, Is. 9d.; stacking, 4s. In addition to this the cutting of the roads round the fields, and of one or two lodged spots by day work averaged another 6d., so that the total harvesting cost 7s. 6d. per acre. This is about one shilling more than last year because the yield is heavier the crop last year was a poor one, while this year it is pretty fair, though not very great. EFFECT OF WEATHER AND MANURE. Contrast these figures, however, with those common elsewhere: one farmer writes to the farm papers to say that he let his shearing to a gang of Irish harvesters at *1 per acre, and they threw up the job be- cause they could not make good enough pay. while the writer himself has elsewhere in former years paid twice as much as his pre- sent outlay. When a crop is large, and has become laid and twisted, and the weather is bad, then the harvesting is a very trouble- some and expensive matter, and the cost may run up to a frightful sum but when the corn is all standing and the weather reasonable then the cost becomes very much less, and the workmen earn X2 a week even at these low prices. The weather of course is the ruling factor, but much can be done to grow a standing crop, first by the selec- tion of stiff strawed varieties, and secondly by discontinuing the use of nitrogenous manures. The farmer who gives a larope dressing f dung to the previous root crop" r uses a top-dressing of nitrate of soda, is bound to have lodged crops and an expen- sive harvest, while the man who uses phos- phatic dressings will have standing crops, much corn, and a lower labour bill. GROWTH OF ROOT CROPS. We are wearing on to the end of Septem- ber, and in a few more weeks will be lifting our roots. It may seem strange to some who have only just begun harvesting, or are not more than half way through, to talk of the root crop, but in the writer's neighbourhood harvest is finished-good crops too—and he himself saw his last load in on the 13th, and the ploughing of fallows and cleaning of stubbles for next year's crop is in full swing, and we are thinking about swedes mangolds and kohl rabi. These are now at their best growth, and the object of this paragraph is to give a note of warning against raising them too soon. In an ordin- ary open winter—even in the north country —they will keep on growing till the New Year, and often a crop that looked miserable at the first of October will be fairly decent if given another month or two. LATE GROWTH. At some of the college experimental sta- tions the autumn growth has been tested, and there was found to be an immense gain per acre in a crop lifted in say November as against lifting in October. In one case known to the writer, the job of lifting and clamping a field of mangolds was let to a gang of men and they began operations a week of wet weather set in and stopped the work, and when it was resumed the work. nieii xouiid there v/cie auuat oi-i ivau.-> t' acre—say three* to four tons—more than there was before the wet came. In another case a field of swedes was miserably poor in October, and the owner let them alone and did not go near them for three months until he wanted to prepare the land for next year's crop, when he found to his astonish- ment that a good fair crop had developed meanwhile. It is of course largely a mat- ter of weather if there is a likelihood of frost and snow coming then the work must be done pretty early, but if it is only wet weather that, is feared then the work of lifting should be postponed as long as possi- ble, for 1, is certain there will be a con- siderable gain in the yield per acre, and in southern districts at least there is little risk in waiting a little. P.S.—The author will be glad to answer any questions arising out of this article if t, they are addressed to him, c/o the Editor.
fiden.ce of the people among whom they worked. Tlhey hoped in due time to remove in a large measure tha-t -opposition which naturally asserted itself againat all things which had the appearance of compulsion (applause). Mr Lewia Hugfces (Amlwch) said he was glad to see the Conference of such an important Association held in North Wales, and trusted that the Principality would benefit largely as the outcome of it. Although school attendance in Anglesey was always good he was pleased to say that during the last six weeks it had increased dfbout 15 to 20 per cent, (applause). Mr T. Caine (Bolton) pro-posed a. vote of thanks to Mr Badger for his excellent paper. He was pleased to see the Association in such a, flourishing- stM. The fact that the delegates had paid their own expenses to attend the Con- ifioes they feretice wa§ one instaii4ce of the -acrl were willing to make to promote the cause they had ai heart (applause). Mr O. E. Roberts (Manchester), in seconding the proposition, said that the condition of ser- vice in Wales was rot what it ought to be, especially as to stipend. They had it on the admission of Mr Lewis Hughes that £ 2000 per annum more had gone into the coffers of the Anglesey County Council through the efforts of attendance officers. He-. therefore, ventured to suggest that the efforts of the attendance offioers of Anglesey should not be rewarded by bonuses on-ly, but by a permanent increase in salary (applause). Mr F. W. Barnes (Leigh) and others also spoke in a similar strain. THE RELIGIOUS DIFFICULTY. The Chairman (Mr S. Chantrey), in the course of his address to the delegates, said he thought the work of the attendance offioers wus very closely allied to that of the sanitary inspectors, who met at Liandudno a fortnight ago. The Association had been founded in the general in- terests of education in which Llandudno claimed to take as great an interest as any part of the country (hear, hear). The revenue of the oounty of Carnarvon during the past twelve months had increased by jS5000 through the efforts of the attendance officers, of which there were only ten in number (cheers). He was informed that there were '25 schools in tne Llandudno and Conway district all with the attendanoe above 90 per cent, (applause). He sincerely hoped that come way would soon be found to settle the religious difficulty which was such an obstaole to the progress of education (applause). In conclusion Mr" Chantrey sa.id that he hoped that was not the last time the congress would meet at Llandudno (applause). PRIVATE SCHOOLS. Mr Owen E. Roberts (Manchester) moved the following resolution.: "That, in the opinion of fthis Conference, all private elementary day schools should be registered; and that the at- tendance officer of the local authority should have access to the registers of attendance, for the j^urpoees of the compulsory clauses of the Education Acts." i Mr R. P. Chambers (Abergele) formally seconded the motion. Mr H. Badger (Bradford) moved an amend- ment io the effect that the word "elementary" be deleted. A discu4-iion followed, but upon being put to the vote the proposition was declared carried. PERCENTAGE RETURNS. Mr F. W. Barnes, hon. secretary of the Federa- tion, proposed that all attendance returns by local authorities should be based on a uniform system of calculation He said that in these days of competition in percentages high per- centages wove often attained by omitting from the calculstion3 all children who were sick. Their t:ttiytei wore takeji off thi registers while they were ill and reiustited v> hon they came back to school. Tiiis, hi contended, was in direct con- travention of the Code. Statistics should be tased upon perfectly straight-forward returns. Until they wore percentages could not be taken a? a guicii to the efficiency of attendance officers. Mr A. H. S. Allan, who seconded tho motion. declared that no attendance of 93 per cent. tor a year co ild be honest. It must be cooked. < Mr Dickon, Failsworth, said that in Lancashire there werj 35 autononomcus districts, and his district was at one time thirtieth on the list as regards attendance. The clerk was a very honest man, and put the figures in as they ought to be put. B-it tho committee were dissatisfied, and tho-ight the district should have a better place on the list. Chorley, a rural district, averaged 96 per cent., and the clerk at Fails- worth wis instructed to write to Chorley to get to know the method adojited for compiling the statistics. Then the cat came out of the bag, and it was seen that the 96 per cent. was all a delusion. It waa seen that the practice in the county was to delete all who had been away for a fortnight from school. Failsworth fell into line with the practice in vogue elsewhere, and consequently jumped forthwith to the eighth plac3 on the list. But the whole system was wrong and false. The returns ought to be pub- lished in the percentages exactly as they were supplied to the Board of Education (applause). Another speaker asserted that the best figure- juggler was looked upon as the best school at- tendance officer. The resolution was carried unanimously. SUPERANNUATION. An address on superannuation wa.s given by Mr John Longworth, of Little Hulton, and the Con- ference wm closed with a cordial vote of thanks to tho chairman, Mr Chantrey, who, in the course of an interesting address, expressed the hope that before long some means will be arrived at in re- gard to the religious question in the schools, which he was sure must have a bad effect upon the children's minds, and must also increase the difficulties of teachers and all connected with education (applause). After the Conference the members were en- tertained to tea in the Town Hall Assembly-room.