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ABERYST WYTII.1

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ABERYST WYTII. 1 PLACES OF WORSHIP. Aberystwyth, which his a resident population of 6,700, hlS no fewer than nineteen places of worship 'including those belonging t-) the Church of England, Catholics, Wesleyans, Independents. Baptists, Calvin- istic Methodists, Church, and Salvation Army, In eig:\t places services are held in the English language, the remainder having W elsh services. The Welsh 'services begin at half-past nine in the morning and at si" in tile eleven and at six (Nonconformist) and L;df-paA six .Church) POSTAL INFORMATION Letters may be posted at the office box in Terrace- road up ti a quarter past tive in the eveniag and until 5.35 with extra half penny stamp. A letter box is affixed to the sorting van at the Railway Station at which. with half-penny stamp, letters may be posted until the departure of the train at six. The letter boxes placed in various parts of the town are cleared a few mmutes before the box in Terrace-road. Letters for Shropshire may be posted up to 11.45 noon. Letters for South Wales and the West of England up to 2.10 in the afternoon. Delivery of letters from London, Liverpool, and all parts commences about eight in the morning and is finished about ten from South Wales and the West of England at 12.30 London and all parts 2 30 and from London and the Midlands at 6.30 p m. On Sunday, post closes at 5 15 in the even- ing and delivery commences at 11 a.m., letters addressed to callers from 12.30 to 1.30. Telegraph office is open from 7 a.m to 9 p.m week days. from 1.0 to 10.0 on Sundays, and 5 to 6 p.m. Money orders are issued and paid from 9 a.m until 6 p.m., and on Saturdays until S p 111 Parcels for all parts may be posted up to 5.15 p.m. Postmaster: Mr H. Humphreys PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. The University College of Wales occupies a promin- ent position at the southern end of the Terrace. It was built originally for an hotel at a cost of about £ 80,000 and subsequently bought for an eighth of that imount as the locale of the University C, College ef Wales. The institution was opened in 1872 as the one national college for Wales. The number of students steadily increased to nearly 200, a grant of £4,000 a year was wrung from the Exchequer, and the College pat on a permanent basis, the students each year winning high place in the examination lists In July, 1885, the building was practically destroyed by fire which broke out in the chemical laboratory. It has, however, been since partially restored by Messrs &lla.m of London, from plaus by Mr Seddon, of the mane place, whn has taken aivantage of the results of the fire to make the building more suitable for a college than it was when intended for an hotel. There are xiany scholarships and exhibitions connected with the College, which are open to English as well as te Welsh youth of both sexes, whose parents fin(I in Aberyst- wyth remarkably cheip means of higher education seeing that the College terms begin at the close of the summer season when lodging accomodation is almost nomiiial in price. An hostel is provided for womin students. In the College is a well-filled museum, which is open to visitors on certain days in the week •m payment of a small fee, which goes to form a Visitors' Scholarship. There are several other publie institutions such M are msually found in a town like Aberystwyth. The Wilding on the hillside to the north-east of the town is the Aberystwyth Infirmary and North Cardiganshire General Hospital supported by voluntary contributions augumented by a fund derived from a bequest left by Mr Jooeph Dowaie, a vine merchant of the t)wn. CASTLE RUINS AND GROUNDS. The ruins of the Castle and the grounds which sur- round them are objects of great interest and delight to visitors. The grounds jut into the sea and command to the north the College and Terrace, Craiglais point, b- and, in the distance, the hills and mountains of Merioneth and Carnarvon,ending in the Isle of Bardsey to the extreme left On a clear day Snowdon may be seen rising above the depresson in the nearer hills about Towyn. Cader Idrs. the next highest mountain of Wales, is hidden behind Constitution Hill. To the south, the nearer view includes the Harbour. Pendinas, the opening of the Ystwyth Valley and the Alltwen Cliffs and the distant view, the villages of Aberajron and New Quay, the headland near Cardigan and St David's Head in Pembrokeshire with Precelly mount tin inland. Plcnty of sat accommodation has been piovided for visitors. The castle, which is of pentagon, or five-corned shape, was originally erected in 1109 by Gilbert de Strongbox, as some suppose was the site of a previous castle of British construction. The building was several times destroyed and restored in the conflicts between the Welsh and Normans until 1277 when Edward 1. rebuilt it, anil at the same time incorporated Aberystwyth under the title of the ille de Llanbadarn, and allowed die inhabitants to have ditches and walls to defend their town. Apportion of these walls remained standing until about fifty years, and Greit Darkgate-street and Little Darkgate-street are named aftei- tiie gttes. Owain Glendwr, or Glen- dower, the last Cymric chicft-iin who attempted Welsh independence, in 1405 took the stronghold from the English, but it was recovered by Prince i,enry, who covenanted to allow the Welshmen free egress for thei r persons and goods for the reverence of God and all •■aints and also especially also of his patron, John of JSridlington, f)r the saving of human blood and at tl e petition of Richard ap Griffith, abbot of Strata F orida." Thence the Castle remained in the possess- i nof the Crown. In the time of James L, the captain the town and castle had an ancient yearly fee of JE18 5s. and was allowed 12 arches for the custody of the town and castle. In 1647, Charles I., "for encouraging poor miners by a more timely and speedy pay out of their own labours, thought fit that Thomas Bushel should erect a mint in the Castle of Aberyst- wyth, with officers and workmen necessary for the coining of all such bullion only as should be drawn out of the mines within the Principality and that the monies there made should be stamped with feathers on both sides. Mr Bushel, who farmed the royal mines of Cardiganshire, subsequently raised a regiment for the king among the miners and clothed the whole army, as well as supprell the royal exchequer with the princely loan of £ 40,000. Several of the coins are among the collection in the College Museum and an Aberystwyth shilling in a recent sale of coins in London realised £ 10. In the Civil Wars the Castle ■was easily garrisoned for the king. As far as Y\ ales was concerned, the battles were mainly fought in the north and south. and it was nob until nearly the end of the strife that the Parliamentarians turned their attention to Aberystwyth Castle and dismantled it. The ruins were then taken possession by a horde of disbanded soldiers who preyed on the inhabitants of the surrounding country. They were ultimately dis- lodged and the Castle blown up by powder and made untenantable. CLIMBS. Visitors who are fond of climbing to the top of elevated positions will not remain long in the town before turning their attention to Constitution Hill and Pendinas, on the north and south side of the town. The pathways up Constitution Hill commence at the northern end of Victoria I errace, and may be continued to the left on to the face of the Alltwen cliffs or on to the summit of the lill, 485 teet above the sea. The view from the summit is extensive and varied. Visitors should be careful not to attempt to descend the face of the cliffs or to climb up from the beach. Several who have attempted it have fallen and have been seriously injured. The way to the summit of Pendinas is not as easily found. The town must be left from the town clock via Bridge-street, across over the river and continue under the railway bridge and to the left a short distance until a path up the side of the hill is seen on the right, commencing near a farm house adjoining the main road. From the end of this path access can easily be made to the summit. Pen- dinas, or the top ot the city, which is 413 feet high, commands on the eastern side a view of the Rheidol Valley to where it ends in the double-topped Plyn- limon; on the southern side,of the picturesque Ystwyth Valley; and, northward, a bird's-eye view of the town. On the summit of Pendinas are vettiges of a British encampment. Some years ago a celt or British battle- axe, and a gold angel of the time of Henry VII., with other antiquities, were found on the dinas. WALKS. There are few watering places which possess more short walks out of town than Aberystwyth. Among them the following may be enumerated Leave the town bv the roadway running behind the Queen's Hotel, turning by the right at Brynymor- terrace, and ascending the hill to Brynynior, a house seen on the left. The walk may be extended to the top of the hill,or the pathway through the wicket gate on the right opposite Brynymor may be taken, which leads in half a mile over the brow of the hill into Aber- ystwyth, emerging near the Town Hall. Just before arriving at the Town Hall, an excellent echo may be heard by sending the voice towards the the hillside and Infirmary. A pleasant walk of about four miles may be had by ,ea^iuiT the town by the road running alongside the Townllall; by turning almost immediately to the left, and by climbing the hill by the road leading past the Infirm »ry. This road leads through the quarries on to the elevated meadows about Brynynior. A path thence runs to the top of the hill, past a lane to the right, and on to a bend in the road where a small powder house is seen. The path then runs over the fence through the field and along the top of a fence from which the three chief mountains of Wales- Snowdon, Cader Idris, and Plynlimon—can be seen on a clear day. Plynlimon, with its two rounded heads, rises in front, the cresent-shaped Cader Idris to the left, and the knotched peak of Snowdon still further to the left. The ptth emerges in the Cwm woods, a delightful resort, and may be continued to the right to Aberystwyth by road in two miles, or to the left to the sea shore at Clarach whence a path runs b ck into town along the top of the cliffs. From the Town Clock through Bridge-street, and to the right immediately after going under the railway bridge, follow the road until the way is seen running reund the side of Pendinas. This road may be followed to where it again meets the main road a few yards higher than where it branched off or into the Penparke road. a mile and a half out of town. From Aberystwyth and turn by the limekiln in Trefechan, cross the Pier bridge, on to the stone pier on the south side of the harbour and along the sea shore to the Alltwen Cliffs or along the bauk of the river up to the Ystwyth Valley. Down Plas Chug from Railway-terrace, through the Cemetery, and return by Llanbadarn road. Distance round, I miles. Down Plas Crug, turn to right at castellated building, and cross the railway over the bridge which spans the river, and thence to the right through Penparke, and home. Distance 3 miles. Same route until the bridge spanning the river is reached, then turn to the left and follow the road, under the railway bridge, through Llanbadarn village and home. Distance, 3b miles. Take the same route until the bridge is reached, and instead of turning, cross the roads and follow the course of the river to the railway bridge, and return thiough Llanbadarn Distance about 4 miles. Through tne North Gate to the light, through Llan- badarn to the railway bridge which crosses the road turn down by the mill, over a footbridge which crosses the river, and through Penparke home. Distance, about 4 miles. Out by the North Gat (to the left), up Penglais Hill to the large house, Cefnhendre, turn to the right and keep to the right down to Llanbadarn, and home. Distance, about 3 miles. Again from Cefnhendre, turn as before to the right. Instead of keeping to the right and going to the Llan- badarn, take the first turn to the left and enquire for Cwmpadarn. Walk along the pathway, past the lodge and down to the village of Llanbadarn, and return to town through Plas Crug. Distance about 4 miles. Up Penglais Hill past Cefnhendre. along the Turn- pike road to Bow Street, a distance of 3! miles and take train home. or turn down towards Gogerddan, the seat of Sir Pryse Pryse, cross the brook, take the first road to the right, pass Peithyll, and into the turnpike road, a.bou.. four miles from Aberystwyth. Distance, about 9 miles. Again up Penglais Hill and from Cefuhendre turn to the left and in about 100 yards turn a. lane on the left, called Lover's lane, or in the vernacular, Lon fach y Bwbach (the little lane of the ghost) keep te the left for home. Distance, 21 miles. A varied and pleasant walk has of recent years been opened through the Penglais grounds and has been named the Elysian grove. It commences at a. gateway on the Penglais road, and runs through glades (in which are swings for children) and groves, and winds round to the summit of the hill, commanding magni- ficent views, and finally emerges near the north turn- pike gate. An entrance fee ot 2d. is charged. TaIPS. Ticll Twrw or the ifonk't Care.—This remarkable cave, which is called in Welsh the Thunder Hole," and in English the Monk's Cave, can be visited by as many means as it has names namely, by rail, road, or sea. It is situated about five miles to the south of Aberyst" ytli. If it is decided to go by rail, or road, it means that there is a considerable amount of walk ing to be done. A pleasant boating excurson may be made in fine weather to the caves, but those who do not like the sea find it advisable to hire a conveyance. The cave is called the Thunder Hole on account of the rumbling noise made by the tide in rushing through the cavern. The coast scenery is fine. and at low water the beach is a pleasant spot for a picnic. Any boatman would advise visitors as to the best time for nuking their visit if they went by sea, as it is important that the visit should be timed just as the tide is on the ebb, for that is the best time to enjoy the scene. Bo,-Ih -Distance fromlAbcrystwyth, eight miles by Cambrian Railway. The place is prettily situated on the sea shore to the north cf Aberystwyth. The sands commence under the south d: ffs and stretch away for a distance of four miles. The sands skirt a fen of about ten thousand acres, called Gors Fochno, and when the tide is out, are hard and smooth enough for a drive. The surrounding scenery is beautiful. Cheap return tickets are issued from Aberystwyth to Borth. To those who enpy a walk of six miles, the return journey may be made along the cliffs. Lin fit ant bite years, this beautiful spot has been prominently brought efore the notice of visitors. It is well worth a visit, and has been de- scribed as "the most perfectly beautiful valley in Wales." The eutrance to the valley is just opposite Glandovey Junction on the Cambrian Railway, fifteen miles from Aberystwyth. During th- summer months trains leave at convenient hours of the day and visitors will have ample time to explore the neighbourhood. Tickets should be taken for Glandovey. Near the entrance to the valley a finger post indicates the road to be taken. All along the route the scenery is con- stantly changing. About two and a half miles up the valley is the picturesque hamlet of Glaspwll, and half a mile beyond is a waterfall which presents an exceedingly fine ntl pretty Mght About a mile still further up there is a cascade about 300 feet high, and after heavy rains the volume of water is considerable. The visitor must return on the same road to Glaspwll, and may reach Glandovey by a pathway running along the side of the stream oppo-ite to the rot(I on which he came, or he may take the right from Glaspwll to Machynlleth, a picturesque town, and there join the railway. Devil's Bridge, and Fall*. —" This is the only place," said a tourist, "I have seen that I did not find to have been over described." Some rather "tall" writing has, nevertheless, been published about the Devil's Bridge and the Mynach Falls. The place is annually visited by thousands, and though a Briton now and again asserts his birthright in grumbling at something 0 which has not pleased him, still the majority who go there arc pleased with the (lay's oat- ing, and notwithstanding counter attractions, the Devil's Bridge and Falls hold their own as the chief among the attractions of the Aberystwyth district. During the summer months, well-appointed coaches, breaks, and waggonettes take visitors to Devil's Bridge and back at fares varying from 3s. to 4s. a head. The falls are situated about twelve miles to the east of Aberystwyth. Coaches, owing to a bad bit of the road, generally go and return the same way, but other conveyances give their passengers the variety of a different return journey. The roads command fine scenery nearly their entire distance. On the outward journey, the road rises in a gradual Mcent till an elevation of nearly 1,000 feet above the tea level is reached. Thence it dips downward, and a short run through somewhat uninteresting country makes the full glories of the glen and its surroundings as they burst upon the spectator's vision all the more striking. At the Devil's Bridge is an hotel giving good accommodation on reasonable terms. A fee of Is. is charged to view the falls and grounds. The Devil's Punch Bowl is first vitited by a descent into a dark chasm at the bottom of which his Satanic Majesty is supposed to be brewing punch, but with poor success, judging by the purity of the water -,to it emerges. The chasm is spanned by a bridge of olden time, surmounted by a county bridge of much more recent construction. The old bridge is supposed to have been built by the monks of the neighbouring Abbey of Strata Florida, but poet;c licence has been taken with history in ascribing the origiu of the structure, not to monks, but to the Devil the licence probably commencing in the too free translation of '• Pont-y-Mynach (the Monk's bridge) into Pont y Gwr Drwg (bridge of the Evil Man). The story goes that an old ltdy in search of her cow was distressed on finding it on the other side of the ravine. The Devil constructed the bridge on condition that he was to have the first living thing that crossed it. More wide-awake than Eve, A crust over she threw, her dog after it flew says she, The dog's yours, crafty sir.' On leaving the Punch Bowl, the roadway is crossed, and the spectator descends by a series of steps, called Jacob's Ladder, to the bottom of the Glen, obtaining in the descent a full view of the Mynach Falls, which altogether make a total drop of 314 feet, and then rush on to join the Rheidol. a fall of which has already been seen to the right through the trets. From the bottom of the falls rocks rise almost perpendicularly to the height of 800 feet, and are clothed with ferns, trees and brushwood. The climb from the bottom of the Glen to the top on the opposite side to Jacob's Ladder is something like hard work, but at each step upwards some new glory in the falls is revealed. Near the basin of the third fall—for what looked from the opposite side like an immense cataract is in reality four falls is a cavern in the rocks, which for many years, so tradition asserts, was the hiding place of two brothers and a sister, freebooters who infested the neighbourhood for years, until at length, committing murder, they were caught and hanged. The return journey to Aberyst- wyth is usually made through Y spytty Cynfyn, where are druidieal atones in the churchyard, through Pont- erwyd, where is a waterfall and where the river flows through a gorge, through the mining district of Goginan, containing an extensive view of the Melindwr Valley, and on to Aberystwyth via Capel Bangor and Llanbadarn 1 Plynlimon Mountain —The word signifies, according to some philologists, Pump-lummun or the Five Beacons, and is supposed to have been derived from the fact that the five summits were made use of in olden time to signal to the inhabitants of the Princi- pality tar and wide. If so, the mountain mnst have answered its purpose admirably, for it commands parts of nearly all the counties of the Principality, as well as of the county of S;?I,,p in which was formerly the capital of North Wales. The mountain is interest- ing historically from having been the scenc <.•! the last struggle for Welsn national independence under Owain Glyndwr, Mid interesting phisically from the fact that no fewer than five rivers rise on its s;des. including the Severn and the Wye. The highest head —for it cannot be called a peak—is marked by a earn, and is 2,469 feet above the level of the sea In the summer season conveyances are run to the foot of the mountain and the ascent is made from Steddfa. Gurig a line of poles marking the way to the summit. Another line of poles mark the descent to Dyffryn Castle Hotel. Visitois should insist upon being taken tw Steddfa Gurig, whence the summit is about two miles off. Car pruprietors-witli a shortsightedness for which they are more to be pitied than blamed—do not itant to go beyond the hotel where they put up their horses, and try to persuade passengers that the ascent from Dyffryn Castle is easy. It ii, however, uphill work of over four miles, and few but the strong and persevering who attempt the ascent that way ever reach the sum- mit, and even they are too weary to enjoy the magni- ficient view of sea and plain and mountain which it coiniri nds.

ABERAYRON.

BORTH.

CRICCIETH.

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