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Family Notices

WELSH MARKETS.

CATTLE MARKETS, AND FAIRS.

WELSH FAIRS AND CATTLE 1 MARKETS.…

CHINA'S HUMILIATION,

I LOCOMOTION IN THEI 19th…

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LOCOMOTION IN THE 19th CENTURY. LAST week we alluded to the great disco veries made during the nineteenth century, and hazarded the conjecture that the dis- covery of steam power and its application, was, probibly the greatest, as well as the cause of many others. Before the applica. tion of steam to railways, those people who could afford the expense travelled by coich. In 1754, the following announcement is reported to have been made:—'However incredible it may appear, this flying coach will actually (barring accideats) arrive in London in four days and a half, after leaving Manchester.' When, in the reign of George IV., coaching reached its highest stage of perfection, the mail coaches covered the distance between London and Edin- burgh in forty-two hours and a half. Tho;;e who could not afford to travel by coach or postchase were compelled to resort to wag- gons, which wera driven at the rate of from three to four miles an hour. Some lelics of this mode of travelling may still be seen in country districts, remote from railways, where people travel in carriers' carts. Dwellers near London, on the banks of the Thames, had an alternative route by pas- sage boats, which left daily with the tide, and were rowed all the way by watermen. The adaptation of steam to carriages tra- velling by roid, had been tried experimen- tally before the time of Trevethick, who in 1804; built a locomotive to run on what had been formerly a horse-tramway in Wales. Several colliery railways obtain- ing their motive power from steam, were now constructed, and in September, 1825, a new line was opened between Stockton and Darlingrou, the engine, Geo. Stephen- son's I Rocket,' being driven by the inven- tor. The maximum speed attained on the run was 15 miles an hour. The new rail- way soon began to carry passengers, and in the course of the next five years, the foundations were lai 1 of most of the great railways which row rui to London, and the largest provincial' towns. Within the memory of very many people still living, the passenger coaches were roofless, but im- provements were introduced from time to time, both in locomotives and carriages. During the past few years, some progress has been made in the establishment of elnc trie railways, and the phenomenal success of the new line in London, his made it clear that there is a great future for this means of locomotion. The recent break- down, involving a brief stoppage of traffic damonstrated that the system is not yet quite perfect, but it also served to show how great a convenience the twopenny tube' has become, to the people of the Metropolis. The introduction of steam- boats was anterior to the invention of Stephenson, a tug being tried on the Clyde Canal in 1802. About ten years later, Henry Bell's 'Comet,' fitted with side addle-wheels, was running on the Clyde as a passenger steamer, and in 1838, the s Sirius' and 'Great Western commenced the regular Atlantic passage under steam. The screw was introduced in the first year of her Majesty's reign, and a few years later this method of propulsion was adopted for the Royal Navy. The 19th century has witnessed the evolution of the modern safety bicycle from the hobby horse of our grandfathers, snd the re-introduction, under the name of motor car,' or auto- mobile,' of the horseless carriage which was first exhibited by Mr. Gurney in 1829, when the Duke of Wellington is said to have remarked that I it was scarcely possible to calculate the benefits which we should derive from the introduction of such an i nve IITiOfl.,

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DENBIGH.

I THE LAST CONCERT OF THE…

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"-BODFARY.

LLANELIDAN. ,R

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