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THE SANITARY INSPECTOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. The following report was presented by Mr. William Windsor to the Council on Tuesday last:— Sanitary Inspector's Office, Denbigh, January, 16th, 1900. To the Chairman and Members of the Council, Borough of Denbigh. Gentlemen, I have the honour of submitting to you my second annual report. The decided improvements in sanitary mat ters which I have had the honour to place on record in my last year's report have been main- tained during the year 1899. The purchase of a steam roller has done much to improve the roads in the town. The best material is generally the cheapest, and it is only when the cost between good material and local limestone is very great that it is worth while to use inferior stone. Weak material results in constant scraping and expense, be- sides the cost of heavier traction, caused by soft and muddy or dusty surfaces which is readily displaced by atmospheric conditions, and being charged with animal and vegetable matter is a sourceof danger to public health and a serious inconvenience to shopkeepers and pedestrians. • i_S^Wer ln. Oram's Lane constructed of stone with dry walls neither air nor watertight, al lowing the contents to pass readily through their sides into the surrounding soil, has been abolished and a stoneware socketed pipe sewer substituted. The work has been carried out under the supervision of the Surveyor, and manholes constructed on each change of direc- ^ne sewer> which places the whole length under control and easy of access for clearing and other purposes. INSPECTION OF THE TOWN. The yards and courts of the town have been systematically inspected. Special attention has been given to courts and yards where closets are used in common by the tenants. In some cases the owners have provided keys, this pre- vents the closets being used by outsiders during the nighttime. ° The drainage of No. 1, Court, Vale Street, has been reconstructed, and the surface traps, ashpit and water closets improved. A certain amount of opposition has been offered, and the question asked why the Inspec- tor insists upon having cement joints in the laying of new drains it is necessary to guard against pollution of the soil with sewage, more especially in close proximity to foundations of houses, and since such a state of things means in all probability contamination of the air. The practice hitherto adopted in the town was to lay drains without any material in the joints, while in a few systems clay and lime mortar havelbeen used, and in several instances the drain pipes laid the wrong way. It is not an unfrequent thing to find bends in dtain made by fitting straight pipes together improperly so that the pipes lie at an angle to one another and not in a straight line. This is done by inserting the end of one pipe farther into the socket of one side of it than on the other, and is not unfrequently done to such an extent that one side of the pipe does not enter the socket at all. Contractors and workmen have been impressed of the necessity of using pipes of proper curvature which should always' be used where it is necessary to depart from the straight line of pipes. Clay is not at all a suitable material for join- ing stoneware pipe drains. The objections urged against such material are, that clay is apt to be washed out in time; rats scrape it away joints do not remain watertight; roots of trees grow into the joints and fill the pipes. With cement, on the other hand, watertight joints can be made, but they require to be made with considerable care, or pieces of the cement may project into the interior of the pipes. I need only briefly explain the advantages of manholes or chambers in order to remove any impression that they are not required and cause unnecessary expense. The disconnecting cham- ber is usually constructed on the line of the house drain at a point nearest to sewer and is provided with an approved intercepting trap with raking arm, which affords a ready access to clear any stoppage that may occur between such trap and the sewer, the water-seal of/the disconnecting trap is sufficient to prevent sfewer gas entering the house drains. The inspection chambers are constructed upon similar lines- minus the traps-which places the whole sys- tem of drainage under control and easy of access. It is admitted that there is very little doubt as to the usefulness of these chambers, and the great advantages" derived from their provision over any other means of inspection which may be provided. An indication of the appreciation by many of the large ratepayers and owners who have approached me with a view of carrying out the most improved methods of sanitation is evident by the fact that 41 dis. connecting and inspection chambers have been constructed during the year, thirty have been provided with iron airtight covers, and eleven Ragged over near the ground surface. A considerable amount of time has been taken up in the examination of large dwelling-houses, and advice sought on the alteration and recon- struction of drains, also reinspecting works in progress necessitating repeated visits and a considerable amount of over sight in order to see that the work was being done in a work- manlike and satisfactory manner. This, of course, occupies a certain amount of time, which cannot well be avoided, as it would be a mistake nqt to examine the work during the time it is in progress, and, indeed, most of the ratepayers and owners now rely upon the In- spector doing this. It is of the highest im- portance that the best principles should be ap- plied to all undertakings and improvements in connection with public health work, or the de- sired end would not be attained. Hence the need for strict over-sight and attention. More accurate and scientific methods of carrying out work have been adopted, and are, as a matter of fact, essential for the protection and pre- servation of health. I am pleased to acknowledge the assistance rendered me by the owners and others gener- ally, and their readiness to comply with my requests. November has brought about a change in the sanitary administration of the town. The late Chairman and the Sanitary Committee have been most untiring in their efforts to bring about an improvement in the sanitary condi- tion of the borough, and for their kind help and support I offer them my best thanks, hoping that the work now in progress will receive the undivided attention of the present Committee, go that the best interests of the town may be erved. NUISANCES PREJUDICIAL TO HEALTH. It is gratifying to record that some important systems of drainage have been carried out dur- ing the year. The following are a few of the principal places, viz. :-Denbighshire Infirmary, Plas yn Green, Grove House, Clergy .House, Plas Pigob, &c. TABULATED STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR 1899. No of complaints. I 44 Nuisances diseovered 322 JJ „ abated 282 u re-visits to premises 548 u preliminary notices served .47 legal „ 19 copies of reports to owners and ■ others DESCRIPTION OF NUISANCES. No. of defective house and yard drains 62 choked drains 1 5 defective w.c. drains. 6 11 sink waste pipes 4 foul pan-closets 2 JJ defective eave gutter and down- spouts 41 „ premises without sufficient drains 3 premises without proper water supply 2 defective iron I D' traps 77 pavements 30 accummulations of offensive matter 6 house unfit for human habita- tion 1 „ defective soil and ventilating pipes 20 foul privies 16 „ drmp-house walls 2 miscellaneous nuisances 45 PRIVY CESSPITS. No. of foul privies removed. 16 w.c.'s erected 20 REMOVAL OF HOUSE REFUSE. In my last annual report I called attention to the system adopted with respect to the col- lection and removal of house refuse, and fully explained the serious dangers attending the large accumulations allowed to collect; about dwellings. I had hoped that some system would have been adopted, and thereby relieve the occupiers of the duty now devolving upon them to effect the periodical removal which is done in an unsatisfactory way. Our respected Tcrtvn Clerk caused enquiries to be made from other towns as to the system adopted, and I believe a few of the replies stated that:—' We have adopted the system of collection and re- moval of house refuse, and find the town much healthier.' Surely is this not sufficient to call for some immediate action on the part of the Council who is responsible for the general health of the inhabitants. This would be a step in the right direction, and would meet with general approval. COMMON LODGING HOUSES. There are nine common lodging houses upon the register, and these are capable of accommo- dating 65 persons. One keeper, since my last report, has removed. One has been registered during the year 1899. The lodging houses have been regularly in- spected. It was found necessary to take proceedings against' two keepers in contravention of the byelaws. Two keepers were cautioned against over- crowding and receiving lodgers without having applied for registration. The byelaws require that in every case of in- fectious sickness in a lodging-house the keeper shall forthwith give notice thereof, in addition to the statutory provisions in that behalf, to the Inspector of Nuisances, that he may inspect the same. No case of infectious nature has been re- ported in any common lodging-houses. Fines and costs, 8s. 6d. PRIVATE SLAUGHTER-HOUSES. Thirteen private slaughter-houses are upon the register. The majority of the slaughter houses are un der careful management, while a few require more supervision with regard to cleanliness of premises and utensiIF4 and the improper mode of disposing of offensive material. The processes by which the meat is prepared for sale and consumption demands that such premises be for the most part on the best sani- tary principles. Local custom exercises a great influence, often adversely upon the general aspect of the business and its effects upon health, and to in- duce bhe keepers to depart from it is not an easy task. DAIRIES, COWSHEDS, AND MILKSHOPS. Twenty cowkeepers and purveyors of milk are upon the register. Three have been regis- tered during the year 1899, under the dairies, cowsheds, and milkshops order. Accommodation is provided for 417 cows. Two applications are standing over pending the necessary alterations and improvements. Thepremisesjand utensils have been examined, and under proper supervision. I find a marked improvement in the condition of the cowsheds and surroundings. The condition of the dairies and utensils with regard to their cleanliness are satisfactory. A large quantity of the milk from the most important dairies within the borough is sent by rail to various towns along the north coast. No case of an infectious nature has occurred in any of the'dairies or milkshops. There are no byelaws in force to regulate premises of this description. OFFENSIVE TRADES. Complaints have keen made as to the manner in which such businesses have been conducted, and to enquire into such complaints, the Medical Officer of Health and myself have visited such premises. Nuisances were found to exist, and these were duly reported to the Sanitary Au- thority. FACTORY AND WORKSHOPS ACT, 1891-95. I had hoped to have prepared a list of the workshops within the borough, T)f which there are a fair number, but other duties have occu pied my time. From observation, it is essential that premises of this description, especially dressmakers' workshops, require adequate super- vision. INSANITARY PROPERTY. No action has been taken with,respect to pro- perty of this description. INFECTIOUS DISEASES. The following cases of infectious diseases have been reported to the Medical Officer of Health during the past year:- 1 case of chickenpox in 1 house I diptheria in I 5 « typhoidfeverin 5 7 scarlet fever in 6 JJ 14 cases. 13 houses. In connection with eight of these houses the drains were found defective; one house, no proper drains or water supply; one house, de- fective sanitary appliances, and three houses weie found, upon examination, to be free from any nuisance at time of visit. Instructions were, as usual, given as to the proper isolation of the patients, and such other preventive measures as were necessary to meet the cases. When possible, the premises were disinfected after recovery, and disinfectants for use during the period of infection freely supplied. MARKETS, PUBLIC PLACES, &C. No articles have been seized as unfit for food during the year. MARKET TOLLS. Amount of tolls collected during the year 1899, f,223 6s. 2d. NJB. This does not include the Smithfield Market tolls. FOOD AND DRUGS ACT. The following table has been kindly supplied by Mr. Police Superintendent Jones, Denbigh. shire Constabulary Samples. Adulterated. Mfk 11 Nil. I am, Gentlemen, Your obedient servant, WILLIAM WINDSOR, Assoc. San. Inst., Sanitary Inspector.

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