The Circus Manager: You're discharged, do you hear?' The. CIO wn Eli? What for?' 'During the afternoon's performance you made a new joke! I can stand a good deal, but not that.'
IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT. HOUSE OF LORDS.—MARCH 6. The Telegraph (Channel Islands) Bill passed through Committee. HOUSE OF COMMONS. The Attorney-General for Ireland introduced a bill to amend the law respecting promissory notes given to charitable loan societies in Ireland. THE TELEPHONE SERVICE. In Committee of Ways and Means, Mr. Hanbury moved a resolution on which to found a bill for the improvement of telephonic communication. He explained in the first place that the measure would facilitate the extension of telephone exchanges by the Post Office. He, claimed that the Department had a perfect right to undertake the task of developing telephonic communication in rivalry with the National Telephone Company. It was the object of the Department to popularise this system of communica- tion which was so vital to the trading and com- mercial interests of the countrv. At the same time the Department wish to deal as fairly as possible with the company. But the service supplied by the company was, he maintained, neither efficient nor sufficient, and it was limited practically to rich sub- scribers. It was not right that so important a medium of communication should be limited in that way. Under the bill E2,000,600 would be placed at the disposal of the Post Office for the development of communication, and London would be the first place where action would be taken. The operations of the Department would be extended to smaller municipalities subsequently. London was dealt with first because the area of the London exchange was enormous and because the number of its public wires was so large. With private wires the Post Office had no concern. Answering the question whether the Post Office was fitted to undertake work of this kind, he reminded the Committee that the Department had possession of the trunk wires, and that the Post Office exchanges had earned a considerable profit. It was not proposed to establish a mere sub- scription system like that of the Telephone Com- pany. The system in Switzerland would be copied and a small subscription of about £3 a year would be demanded, and then small fees or tolls would be paid as for telegrams. He believed that the Department would attract subscribers from classes which at present made no use of the telephone. Arrangements would be made to utilise the ex- press messenger system in connection with tele- phone exchanges, and thus anybody, whether a subscriber or not, would be able to take advantage of the system. It was also intended to give certain large municipalities power to establish telephone systems, the necessary funds coming from the borough rates. A competing municipality would not have the right to refuse the National Telephone Company way-leaves which it took itself. As much as was useful of the plant laid down by municipali- ties would be purchased by the Post Office at the end of 1911, and corresponding treatment would be meted out to the Telephone Company. Sir J. Fergusson defended the National Telephone Company against the charges which were brought against it and justified its policy, contending that it had done nothing to deserve punishment. He re- gretted, therefore, that it was proposed to treat the company with hostility. Sir C. Cameron congratulated the Secretary to the Treasury upon his statesmanlike scheme, and Mr. Boscawen, Mr. Provand, and other members also expressed their approval. Sir J. Lubbock doubted whether the telephone system would be more efficient under the Post Office, and regretted that the Government were ready to encourage municipalities to engage in business. He feared that the results of the scheme might be to check the development of the telephone and to increase local indebtedness. Mr. Begg thought the proposals of the Govern- ment were rash and likely to prove costly, and advo- cated a system of complete State control over the telephones. Some other members having spoken, The resolution was agreed to. I FOOD AND DRUGS BILL. Mr. Long, in moving the second reading of the Sale of Food and Drugs Bill, said that the measure was based upon the report of the Committee who in- quired into the subject in 1896. That inquiry showed that an improved system of administering the exist- ing law was desirable, amendment of the law not being so necessary. Having assured the House that the demand for this legislation had not come princi- pally from the agricultural community, he stated that the wish of the Government was to strengthen the law. It was proposed that samples should be taken of certain imported dairy products at the port of entry for the purpose of detecting adultera- tion. With regard to home products, the Agricul- tural Department asked for power to stimulate local authorities to carry out the existing law. Where local authorities remained supine the Department ought to be able to act independently, the chief object to be aimed at being the uniform administration of the law throughout the country. The bill contained pro- visions for the purpose of preventing the sale of margarine as butter; but it was not intended to interfere with the production and sale of that important article of food. The suggestion that the colouring of margarine should be prohibited could not be entertained. The clauses of the bill having reference to the general law affecting food and drugs were based on the recommendations of the committee, and embodied the most valuable of their proposals. Mr. Lough, disliking the bill because he regarded it as a protective measure introduced in the interests of the agricultural community, moved that it be read a second time that day six months. The view that the measure would restrict the supply of certain useful foods was endorsed by Sir C. Cameron. Sir M. Stewart. approvtd the bill generally, but regretted that under it harder measure would be meted out. to the home manufacturer and producer than to the foreigner. Mr. Strachey commented on the fact that the measure contained no definite pro- visions dealing with the practice of colouring certain foods, and Mr. Heywood Johnstone thanked the Government for introducing the bill, in which there were several most salutary clauses. Sir W. Foster thought this legislation rather dis- appointing. because its promoters had passed over some very important recommendations of the Select Committee. He advocated the constitution of a Court of reference charged with the duty of fixing the stan- dards to which different foods ought to conform. Mr. Llewellvn maintained that when butter was coloured artificially or when it contained preserva- tives the circumstance ought to be disclosed to the purchaser; Mr. Kilbride supported the bill in the interests of fair trade as against fraudulent trade, and after Mr. Lowles and Mr. Philipps had made some observations, The debate stood adjourned. The Partridge Shooting (Ireland) Bill was read a third time. I
HOUSE OF LORDS.—MAR«H 7. 1 Lord Balfour presented a bill to amend the law relating to trout fishing in Scotland, and it was read a first time. The Telegraph (Channel Islands) Bill was read a third time, and passed.
HOUSE OF COMMONS. THE MUSCAT INCIDENT. In answer to Sir C. Dilke, who asked a question 1 with reference to the recent lease of a coal-depot to France by the Sultan of Muscat, Mr. Brod- i rick explained the circumstances under which ( the Sultan was required to cancel the > lease. He stated, amid cheers, that the action of the British Agent was taken under the instructions ] of the Government, and that Lord Salisbury had < informed the French Ambassador more than once 1 that it was impossible for the Government to recede < from the position which it had taken up. He also said that there was nothing to prevent France from having a coal-store at Muscat, provided there was ] no concession of territory. The action of the British t Agent the Government held to have been absolutely ] right. Replying to Mr. Yerburgh, who wanted informa- tion on the subject of the Northern Railway exten- < sion contract in China, t Mr. Brodrick said it appeared that the Russian t Minister objected to the employment of an English i engineer and of a European railway accountant, and I to the charge given on the freights and earnings of ( the lines outside the Great Wall of China as being i cont rary to the agreement between Russia and China, j He stated that Sir Claude MacDonald had been in- 1 structed to point out that none of these points con- < stituted foreign control of the railways, or involved < possession or control of the lines in the event of de- j fault on the loan. He repeated that the Government j regarded the contract as binding on the Chinese < Government. PARLIAMENTARY PERMANENT STABIP. I The constitution of the Committee to consider i jointly with a Committee of the Lords the position of the permanent staff of both Houses was again dis- cussed, and to the motion for appointing Mr. J. W. Lowther a member of the Committee Mr. MacNeill objected, his reason being that it was not proposed to name an Irish member to serve on the Committee. A division was taken and the motion was carried by 214 to 63. Mr. Pirie made a similar protest on behalf of the Scotch members, when Mr. Wharton's name was proposed, but the motion for nominating the hon. gentleman was agreed to by 220 to 69. The next question put was that the committee should have power to send for persons, papers, and records, and upon this Dr. Clark and other members chal- lenged a division. The motion was carried by 230 votes to 63. PRIMARY EDUCATION. Mr. Lloyd George called attention to the question of primary education in England and Wales and moved a resolution affirming that the present system inflicted upon a large portion of the people grievances which called for the immediate attention of Parliament. Enumerating the defects of the system, he mentioned the early age at which children left school and the insufficient accommodation and unsatisfactory condition of many voluntary schools. He deprecated the existenee of two rival and incompatible systems. The policy of the supporters of voluntary schools was to prevent the establishment of Board schools. These contained better accommodation, and in them the education imparted was superior. He held that it was wrong to use funds to which men of all creeds and classes contributed for the purpose of propagating the dogmas of one sect; yet in voluntary schools the dogmas of the Church of England were taught to Nonconformists at the expense of the community, and very strange doctrines were being introduced into schools at the present time, for the priesthood were again putting forward old sacerdotal claims. One injustice to Nonconformists was that in many voluntary schools their children were not allowed to become pupil teachers. Another injustice was that the accommodation in training colleges was in the hands of sectarian managers, with the result that Nonconformists were excluded. Nonconformists asked that there should be popular control over voluntary schools, and that every post which was subsidised by the State should be open to any child, whatever his creed might be. Mr. A. Hutton, who seconded the resolution, insisted that steps ought to be taken to terminate the denominational strife and jealousy now pre- vailing. Mr. Cecil hoped that means might be devised for supplying definite religious teaching in elementary schools to children of different denominations. A system of that kind would prevent the unhappy disputes which arose now. Mr. H. S. Foster proposed an amendment express- ing disapprobation of our educational system because Board schools received a larger grant of public money than voluntary schools, and because local burdens for national primary education were un- equally distributed. Mr. Gray, in seconding the amendment, reminded the supporters of the resolution that Schdol Boards were not created for the purpose of crushing volun- tary schools out of existence. These schools did not deserve wholesale condemnation, and as to the grievances of Nonconformists he believed that in the main they were unsubstantial. Mr. Wallace (Edinburgh, E.), in an amusing speech, advocated the complete severance of secular from theological teaching, believing that the latter should be imparted out of school. Mr. S. Smith, who was called to order more than once for travelling beyond the scope of the resolu- tion, complained that much of the religious education given in voluntary schools was tainted with the Romanising doctrines of the ritualistic clergy. Lord Cran borne declared that the Church of Eng- land party were anxious that other denominations should have the same opportunities as they had of doing useful educational work, and were quite ready to consult the feelings and susceptibilities of Non- conformists. Mr. Yoxall thought that, with good will on both sides, the disputants in this controversy could easily come to an agreement. Mr. Cripps urged those who were interested in this subject to effect a settlement of the supposed religious difficulty, and Mr. Spicer deplored the apathy prevalent in rural districts with regard to education. Mr. Abel Thomas having spoken in support of the motion. Sir J. Gorst threw doubts upon the existence of the religious grievance, asserting that most agricul- tural labourers were indifferent upon the subject of education, religious or secular, given to their chil- dren. He explained that the people in villages would not have Board schools because they disliked the idea of paying school rates. The conscience clause was the remedy for the religious difficulty that Parliament had provided, and it was a fair one; but the conscience clause was very seldom used except when parents were instigated to use it by representations from the outside. In rural districts the children in Church schools generally received the religious instruction which, their parents approved. Only on one day in the week was the catechism taught, and then only to children whose parents acquiesced in that course. Dealing with the allegation that Nonconformist children were de- barred from becoming pupil teachers in rural schools, he denied that this grievance existed, adding that young people in the country were very unwilling to become pupil teachers. Touching on the subject of trainii.g colleges, he admitted that the existing accommodation was much too limited, and observed that Noncomformists had established fewer such colleges than the Church of England. He trusted that the resolution would be negatived, and advised the withdrawal of the amendment, to which, however, he had no objection on general grounds. Sir H. Fowler charged the right hon. gentle- man with being profoundly ignorant of the views of the non conforming inhabitants of rural parishes. He found fault with the administration of the Education Department which, he alleged, was not impartial because it favoured voluntary schools. He described our system of elementary education as most expensive and inefficient, and urged that decentralisation was desirable, because the Department could not manage satisfactorily 20,000 schools. He also asserted that the religious difficulty was not a figment of the imagination, especially in these days when the doctrine of the mass was being taught and the practice of confession was extending. Mr. Balfour, remarking that no one pretended that our system of education was perfect, asked -lie, House to reject the resolution because it attacked the voluntary school system which the majority of members wished to maintain. The amentment was withdrawn, and thin the resolution was negatived by 204 votes to 81.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.—MARCH 8. TRS SERVICE FRANCHISE. Sir J.B. Maple moved the second reading of the Service Franchise Bill, the object of which is to restore the service franchise to persons occupying cubicles by virtue of any office or employment, not- withstanding any restrictions or conditions imposed on their occupation. The hon. member reminded bhe House that for 10 years after the passing of the Representation of the People Act, 1884, the men whom this bill would enfranchise were allowed 00 vote; but this privilege was taken from them by the decision in the case of Clutterbuck v. Taylor." He desired to restore the condition of things existing before that decision. If the bill passed, a large number of meritorious persons, Solicemen, shop assistants, warders, stablemen, gar- eners, and others, would regain the franchise of which they had been deprived. Sir C. Dilke, in an amendment, asked the House to refuse to add to the complexity of our present fran- hise system by passing this bill and to affirm that ihis complexity could be remedied only by the adop- tion of a single, simple, and uniform franchise. Captain Norton seconded the amendment, which bad the support of Mr. R. Wallace (Perth), Mr. Dillon, and other members, while Mr. Marks, Cap- ain Jessel, Mr. Lucas-Shadwell, Mr. Ashcroft, and lir. W. Moore were among the Unionists who 1 lelivered speeches in favour of the measure. 1 The Solicitor-General thought the House would lo well to read the bill a second time, for it was 1 lot an unimportant bill, and it would restore to a lumber of people a privilege which they at one < iime enjoyed. It was estimated that in London < done 1,100 policemen had been deprived of the lervice franchise by the decision of the Court of I ippeal in the case of "Clutterbuck v. Taylor." < imong the objections which had been raised by 1 she opponents of the measure was the allegation < ;hat employers would be able to break the period 5f continuous occupation, qualifying for this franchise, and that this power would facilitate 1 Taudulent practices. That argument, however, 1 lid not apply specially ta this bill, hut to the J irhole of the service franchise. He was not mpressed by the fears entertained by some ] members that the bill would be taken advantage of for the purpose of creating fagot votes. He failed to understand why for the purposes of tire service franchise a distinction should be drawn between apartments with partitions going up to the ceiling and apartments with partitions which did nftt quite reach the ceiling. The fact that this bill would not redress all the anomalies of our electoral law was not a good reason for rejecting it; as some members appeared to think. The amendment was negatived by 188 votes to 88, and The bill was read a second time. RIVERS POLLUTION. Sir F. Powell moved the second reading of the Rivers Pollution Prevention Bill, of which the chief object is to improve the law for preventing the pollu- tion of streams by extending to County Councils, Joint Committees, and River Boards in England the powers conferred by the Mersey and Irwell Act of 1892 and the West Riding of Yorkshire Rivers Act of 1894. Mr. Kenyon was surprised that the consideration of the bill had not been deferred, having regard to the fact that the subject of sewage disposal was being inquired into by a Royal Commission. Holding that the bill contained several very objectionable pro- visons, and that it would impose heavy pecuniary burdens upon localities and individuals, he moved its rejection. Mr. Cawley approved the proposed legislation, but thought it should be less drastic, and Sir W. Foster trusted that the measure would be favourably received by the Government. Mr. Chaplain said he would not oppose the second reading on the understanding that the bill would be sent to a Select Committee. Mr. Jackson held that this was much too im- portant a measure to be dealt with in the last hour of a Wednesday sitting, and he had not concluded his observations when the hour was reached for adjourning the debate.
RHUDDLAN. PARISH MEETING. On Monday night, a Parish Meeting was held for the purpose of nominating parish council- lors and other business. A.t the outset, the chair was occupied by Mr. William Jones, Church Gates; but when he was nominated for re-election on the Parish Council, he vacated the chair, and Mr. Llewelyn Jones was voted in his place. NOMINATION OF PARISH COUNCILLORS. The following nominations were handed in: —Messrs. Arthur Davies, Bryn Cwnin; Thomas Evans, High Street; the Rev. B. Evans, Messrs. Robert Griffith, The Old Post Office; Thomas Hughes, Penybryn C. W. Jones, Rhyl; J. Jones, 7, Gwindy Street; William Jones, Church Gates; the Rev. D. Glyn Lewis, Dyserth Road; Messrs. Joseph Parry, Canolydre; and J. E. Roach. No questions were asked the nominated persons, and as no more that the required number were named, they were declared to be duly elected. Mr. Llewelyn Jones then vacated the chair, and Mr. William Jones resumed the presidency of the meeting. LAST YEAR'S WORK. A summary of the proceedings of the work of the Council during last year was read, and the Council congratulated on improvements effec- ted. FREEING OF FORYD BRIDGE. With reference to this question, Mr. Llew- elyn Jones and Mr. C. W. Jones spoke, and referred to the awkward position the people in the neighbourhood weie put in by having a toll bridge to cross. How, they asked, would the Rhuddlan people like to have a toll on the Rhuddlan bridge ? Mr. John Roberts said that the first consi- deration of the Parish Council was to look after the interest of Rhuddlan. If Foryd bridge was fr ee from tolls, more people from Towyn and Abergele would attend Rhyl market with pro- duce, and place themselves in competition with the Rhuddian people. Mr. Roger Hughes expressed a hope that at any rate they would not pay too much for the bridge, as the Rhyl people had done for the gas works. MORE IMPROVEMENTS WANTED. A resolution was passed urging the County Council to make further improvements near Pontygwtter, to complete the excellent fm. provemepts carried on on the road near to that place, and to make a footpath along the road- side between Rhuddlan and Rhyl. Replying to a que-tion, Mr. Charles W. Jones, C.C., said that he was responsible for the use of Penmaenmawr stone on the roads, and added that the cost would be some £ 600 more in the first instance. It would be a saving in the end. RHUDDLAN CHARITIES. Accounts were presented of the Rhuddlan charities, showing that 32 people had received a bonus of 2s. 6d. each from the charity. A discussion arose as to whether cash or tickets should be given to the recipients. The Parish Council was asked to express an opinion on this matter, and communicate with the j trustees. THE SCHOOL QUESTION. The Vicar, referring to the National Schools, said that he had heard of some very unfair re- marks that had been made at a recent meeting concerning these schools. He knew nothing of the complaints, and one of the managers had gone round and found thai; only nine children attended Rhyl schools, of an age that they could be taught in Rhuddlan school. There were others going to the intermediate schools, and they had shown what they had learnt at Rhnddlan by gaining scholarships. He agreed with people sending their children to urban schools to complete their education. Mr. J. Jones (time keeper) said he had child- ren going to school at Rhuddlan, and they did not seem to like their governess. He also com- plained that a letter he had written had not been placed before the managers. In that let- ter he complained that his child, because she had no copy book, was put on one side and made to write out the creed several times. Though he did not object to buying a copy book, he did not think he ought to do so, where free education was giyen; and compelling his child to write the creed was running very near a violation of the Conscience Clause. The re- ply he got to his letter was, that he had his remedy in the Conscience Clause, but he was no bigot. Mr. Bentley Jones said that what had been said was almost an insult to his wife. The Rhuddlan school girls obtained the highest grants on all subjects taken. Mr. William Jones had written to say that his child did not make sufficient progress. Mr. William Jones challenged Mr. Bentley Jones as to hs knowledge of the letter. Mr. Bentley Jones retorted that the letter had been written, and Mr. Jones admitted that it had. Mr. Bentley Jones then went on to say that Annie Jones did not progress because she was absent so frequently from school. Asked to say how many times the girl was absent, Mr. Bentley Jones said 209 times in two years. Mr. William Jones complained that it was very unfair to spring a thing like this after two years. If there was anything wrong in his conduct with regard to the child's attendance, why was he not summoned before the magis- trates. He asked how many attendances could have been made. Mr. Bentley Jones replied-twelve hundred times. Mr. Llewelyn Jones said that 209 absences jut of 1,200 showed a very good average atten. Jance. After some further conversation, the Vicar said the managers did not know anything of these complaints. But Mr. J. Jones' letter had been before the managers. They had a diffi- mlty in carrying the school on with the funds kt their disposal. Mr. Llewelyn Jones said the school ought to be managed with the funds at disposal. If not, bhey had better go in for a school board. He tdvised. parents not to buy books, and advocated the representation of the Parish Council on the Board of Management of the Schools. The matter then proposed.
Agricultural tos. MANURING PERMANENT PASTURE. The increasing annual conversion of arable land into pasture, consequent upon the, low: prices obtained for cereal crops, and the high cost of labour, will naturally direct more at- tention to the selection and application of Manures upon permanent pastures. Indeed, Until quite recently, this subject has received but little attention from practical farmers, who have allowed their meadows to shift for them- selves. With a more liberal scale of railway charges, there will be greater facilities for turning dairy produce to better account, and the thrifty farmer will endeavour to increase the growth of grass and crops ot hay as much as possible. WiTh a larger acreage in grass, there will be the necessity for more manure"; but with a re- duced acreage in corn, there will be less litter for stock, and le 8 dung available for applica- tion. Therefore artificial manures will have to he more relied upon than formerly, otherwise there will be only small crops. Artificials were never intended to supplant the old-fashioned, but most reliable farm-yard manure, but they were intended to supplement it, in fact, to be used under special circumstances, and for par- ticular crops; and so to economise the dung and to keep the latter for special use, as the farmer might determine. Among the best uses that dung can be put to, certainly its application to meadows intended for hay probably comes first. It supplies all the constituents that grass requires, and in different degrees of solubility, thus furnishing a continual and well-balanced supply of plant food. Well rotted dung varies with its com- position, its trealiment and its age, but taking a low average, a dressing of 10 tons per acre be expected to supply at least 112 lbs. Nitrogen, 100 lbs. Potash, and 78 lbs. Phos phoric Acid. Of ihese it will be safe to assume that practically the whole of the Potash, one- half of the Phosphoric Acid, and one-third of the Nitrogen are present in a form soluble in Water, and therefore of use as immediate plant f old. The available constituents of 10 tons of dung become thus reduced to 100 lbs. Potash 39 lbs. Phosphoric Acid 37 lbs. Nitrogen. In practice, however, excellent results are obtained from artificial manures containing a touch lower amount of Potash and Nitrogen, and a higher percentage of Phosphoric Acid. According to Sir John Lawes, the application of Lime economises the use of Potash, for it was found by analysis that the ash of legumi- nous plants growing in an ordinary pasture, Well supplied with Potash contained 32 per cent. of Potash and 22 per cent. of Lime, but in pas- ture where Potash was not supplied, the ash contained 32 per cent. of Lime and only 14 per cent. of Potash. On pastures and meadows which have occa- sionally been dressed with farm dung, the special application of Potash can in many cases be dispensed with, and a liberal dressing of a good compound of dissolved bones, supplying both Phosphoric Acid and Nitrogen in an or. ganic form, will have a beneficial and lasting effect. The excessive or continued use of Nit- rate of Soda or Sulphate of Ammonia, is not desirable, for a coarse rank growth of grass is Induced, as is most strikingly illustrated by the Pasture experiments at Rothamsted, which, .^hen visited early in June, present perhaps •be most interesting and practical object lesson on the effect of different manures on grass that Can be desired. Indeed, in many cases and es- Pecially on permanent pastures, the special ap- plication of Nitrogen is not so much required. In a most exhaustive paper on permanent grass, published in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society in 1899, Sir John Lawes pointed out that the conversion of arable land into pasture was associated with the gradual accumulation of Nitrogen in the surface soil, thus In 1856. when laid down as grass Nitrogen in surface, 1520 per cent. In 1866, after 10 years in grass Nitrogen in surface, -1749 per cent. In 1879, still in grass Nitrogen in surface, •2046 per cent. In 1888, still in grass Nitrogen in surface, '2345 per cent. When calculated out, there was an estimated gain of 45'7 lbs. Nitrogen per acre per annum over the period from 1856 to 1879. Consequent- IY, where meadows become full of accumulated organic Nitrogen, the application of Lime, either in the form of compost, or directly as freshly-slaked Lime, or in combination with Phosphoric Acid as in Basic Slag and Super- Phosphate, exerts a most beneficial effect, in. creasing the growth and improving the quality of the herbage. Of late yearB, dairying and creameries have largely developed, and it must be obvious that the top-dressing of permanejit pastures Jfill become a necessity. The yearly applica- tion of from 4 tp 6 cwt. per acre of Superphos- phate has already given remarkable results in Inany cases, and similar satisfactory results ay reasonably be looked for elsewhere under similar conditions. It may be observed that ehenefieial results at first apparent from Basic Slag (in many cases owing to the large ftmount of Lime it contains) have gradually be- come less, and it would certainly be worth While to try the effect ot a dressing of high class superphosphate, which is now as econo toical in price as Basic Slag, and more effective as a spring dressing. f Moreover, the time for liming pastures and *°r applying Basic Slag is during the autumn Or wet winter months, for with the approach of JPring, and the usually dry month of March, both Lime and Phosphoric Acid in a more •oluhie and readily available form, such as exists in good dissolved bones, or well made superphosphate, will be found best adapted for Economical application, to be followed later on by a small dressing of Nitrate of Soda in the ftbsence of the more complete manure already Fluggested as a substitute for well rotted dung. (Signed) JOHN HUGHES, F.I.C., District Agricultural Analyst for Herefordshire. Analytical Laboratory, 79, Mark Lane, London, E.C. March 1st, 1899.
ALLEGED CHILD CRUELTY AT LLANBERIS. A WELSH SINGER IN TROUBLE. At a special County Police Court at Carnar on Monday, before Dr. Parry and Mr. J. Dftvies, a well-known Welsh singer named GWilym Padarn Lewis, and his wife, were sum- moned for alleged cruelty to their children. T Mr. J. T. Roberts prosecuted, and Mr. H. Carter defended. Some months ago, the female defendant was convicted for a similar oflence, and sent to Prison, whilst the husband undertook to main- tain her children born in wedlock. Mr. Carter said that the man and his wife bad not lived together for six years. There Wete Bix children born in wedlock, but after 'Separation, the wife gave birth to three children. The husband was no better, however, r»K*i 6 was a^s0 k*16 father of an illegitimate child* Now, when the mother came out of pri- the children desired to go back to her, and .e husband allowed them to return and pro- to contribute £ 1 per month towards their m&inenanee. f uf«' Roberts said that the man had not *j*«uled his promise, and the little children ™ere sent back in tat ters. The first month he the mother 18s.; the second month. 10s to third month, Is 6d. for Carter asked that the case be adjourned th»8 mon^» and stated that the reason why dan?i?ney was nofc was because the defen- lv~hftd been too ill to work. He wasper tect- enJtj lng to ma>ntain the children when he «ould work. Saturday case was adjourned until
(iarkning. .r" If any reader who is in difficulty with reference to his garden, will write direct to the ad- dress given beneath, his queries will be an swered, free of charge, and by return of post. -EDITORI. Some correspondents omit to add their names, or merely end with initials. In these cases it is obviously impossible to reply.—E.K.T. THE FLOWER GARDEN: GENERAL CULTURES. INTRODUCTORY. In the paragraphs following we have striven to describe the cultures of various flowers from seeds, so as to form a general guide. HARDY ANNUALS SOIL. Well drained, light, and moderately rich soils, from which stones and hard clods have been removed, are desirable; but the surface should not be so fine as to become pasty after rain. Autumn sowings must be made in rather poor ground, as succulent growth would be liable to injury from winter frosts. SOWING. Sow thinly broadcast, or better still, in drills from March to June, preferably from the mid- dle of March to mid-April for summer and autumn flowering, and during the end of July, in August and September tr "/Jtossom the fol- lowing spring. Cover thl" "^ds lightly with soil, from ^toj-mcli l5 ample for medium- sized varieties, while minute seeds should be sown on the surface, and lightly raked in. AFTER-CARE. Thin out early, since nothing weakens plants more than having to contend with others for food and air and transplant as necessary into deeply dug and well manured land. In shel- tered gardens with dry soils, autumn-sown clumps may be transferred to the flower-bor- der during October but in exposed situations on heavy soils, they should not be removed till March. Keep free from weeds, and remove the seed-vessels before they mature, to lengthen the flowering-season. HALF HARDY ANNUALS. SOIL. Any moderately fine, rich potting soil may be used for half-hardy annuals. SOWINGS. Sow in pans in gentle heat during February, March, and April, in pans in cold frames facing the south during early April, or even directly on a rich and friable border quite at the end of April, or in early May. Cover the pans with panes of glass until germination is effected, to prevent excessive evaporation. AFTER-CARE. If watering should become necessary, stand the pots or pans in a shallow vessel of water for an hour or so. Remove the sheets of glass directly the seedlings appear, and stand the pots or pans in the full light, where air can be freely admitted to them during mild weather. Prick out the seedlings early into other pots or pans; and plant them out at the end of May, or beginning of June, when the weather is settled and favourable. TENDER ANNUALS. SOIL. A light, rich, soil, freely admixed with sharp silver sand, is essential for successful culture. SOWINGS. Sow during February or March, exactly as advised for half hardy annuals, saving that greater heat is required. AFTER CARE. Shift the seedlings singly into small pots as soon as possible, and move them on until flower- ing pots are reached. Weak liquid manures may be given when the pots are full of roots but such applications must be discontinued as the plants come into flower. Allow plenty of sunshine and air. Tender annuals flower most satisfactorily in the greenhouse or window. HARDY BIENNIALS. SOWINGS, Hardy biennials are sown in spring and sum- mer, until August. Treat as recommended for hardy perennials. HALF-HARDY BIENNIALS. SOWING. Sow from June to August in a frame or cool house, or in pans on the border. AFTER-CARE. Half-hardy biennials must be pricked out into pots or beds, and kept under glass till spring is well advanced, when they may be transferred to the open border. Treat otherwise as recom. mended for hardy perennials. HARDY PERENNIALS. SOIL. Any moderately rich, medium soil will do for sowings of hardy perennials, but a good strong loam, at least a toot deep, is required for the plants. Borders intended for hardy perennials should be thoroughly drained to a depth of 3ft. SOWING. Sow from March to August, preferably in pans or boxes in a close frame, with or without bottom heat, or in pans or a good seed bed on the open border. Cover the seeds lightly, and protect them from enemies of various kinds. When sown early in frames, and planted out during May, many perennial flowers may be induced to blossom the first season. It must not be forgotten that the seeds of some species, such as cyclamens, fraxinellas, paeonies, etc., sometimes remain dormant in the soil for months. AFTER-CARE. Prick out the young seedlings from pots and pans in other pots or pans before moving them to the open border, and thin out and transplant those from outdoor sowings directly they are large enough to handle. They should generally be transplanted once before being placed in their final positions. HALF-HARDY PERENNIALS. TREATMENT. Treat as advised for half-hardy annuals, aaving that half hardy perennials require pro- jection from the frost during the winter. GLADIOLUS CULTURE. PLANTING. Plant in a sheltered unshaded position from early in March until the end of May, inserting the corms three inches deep on a couple of in. ches of mixed sand and ashes, and about a foot apart, or pot in rich soil during autumn, and cover with ashes or fibre until root-growth is developed. AFTER-CARE. Stake each plant, to protect it from rough winds, supply water liberally at morning or evening during dry weather, and mulch with short manure to minimise evaporation. Lift the corms in the middle or end of October, be. fore severe frost occurs, and store them in a dry, cool shed with their tops intact. When they become thoroughly ripened, the tops should be cut off, and the corms may then be placed in paper-bags on a dry shelf till planting time. When the growth of potted Gladioli has commenced, they may be brought into a tem- perature of about 55 degrees, being placed in a light and sunny position. PESTS. Wireworms, which are very injurious to the corms, may be trapped with potatoes. E. KEMP TOOGOOD, F.R.H.S., pro Toogood and Sons, The Royal Seed Establishment, Southampton.
GLOBE Furnishing Company, 12 to 18, Pembroke Place, Liverpool. FURNISH FOR CASE, or on OUR SPECIAL HIRE 1 URCHASE SYSTEM, a CASE PRICES. NOTE.-Our Hire-Purchase System Is entirely differ- ent from any other, and has been highly com- mended by the whole of the Local PreEs. NO SECURITY REQUIRED. NO EXTRA EXPENSES ON OUR HIRE PURCHASE SYSTEM. S The fair and equitable manner in which our busi- ness is carried on, and our reasonable terms and low prices, are so well known throughout the North of England and Wales as to render further comment unnecessary. TERMS. WE GIVE OUR CUSTOMERS THE PRIVILEGE OF ARRANGING THEIR OWN TERMS OF PAYMENT, AS THEY KNOW BEST THE AMOUNT THEY CAN CONVENIENTLY AFFORD TO PAY EACH WEEK or MONTH. All Goods we sell are Delivered Free to any part of the United Kingdom. Private Vans it required, no charge will be made. An inspection of our Stock will at once satisfy in- tending purchasers that we give better value than any other House Furnishers on the Hire-purchase systeir in the provinces. FURNISH FOR CASH, or on our HIRE PURCHASE SYSTEM at CASH PRICES "Our New Prospectus, Large Illustrated Catalogue, Press Opinions, and Price list sent post free on application. GLOBE Furnis hing Company, (J. R. GRANT, Proprietor). 12 to 18, Pembroke Place, LIVERPOOL, Business Hours- 9 to 6 p.m. I HUGH DAVIES'S I COUGH MIXTURE | NO MORB Difficulty of Breathing. B NO MORE Sleepless Nights. H NO MORE Distressing Coughs. I DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COUGHS I DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COLDS ■ DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for ASTHMA | DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for BRONCHITIS ■ DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for HOARSENESS g DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for INFLUENZA | DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COLDS DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for COUGHS DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for SORE THROAT DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE—Most Soothing DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE warms the Chest DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE dissolves the Phlegm DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE for SINGERS DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE-for PUBLIC DAVIES'S COUGH MIXTURE SPEAKERS THE GREAT WELSH REMEDY. 131d. and 2j9 Bottles. Sold Everywhere. Sweeter than Honey. Children like it. HUGH DAVIES, Chemist, MACHYNLLETH. IF YOU WANT TO GET WELL TAKE i sWarner's "Safe" Cure i —— j THE ONLY KNOWN SPECIFIC FOB I Kidney & Liver Diseases, j ) Inflammation & Gravel, 1,\ Gall Stones & Jaundice, Rheumatism & Gout. j "WARNER'S'SAFE'OUREdoeswon- | ders for sufferers from BRIGHT'S DISEASE."—PROF. DR. R. A. Chnror. "WARNER'S 'SAFE' CURE com- pletely cured my INDIGESTION and LIVER TROUBLE. "-REV. JAMES THOMAS, Newtown, Mont. "WARNER'S 'SAFE' CURE effected a permanent cure after having been a martyr to RHEUMATIC GOUT for twenty-three years. MAJOR McMurray, Armagh. "WARNER'S 'SAFE' CURE proves the remedy par excellence when suffering from DYSPEPSIA and NERVOUSNESS."—REV. O. G. SquiRBELL, Rugby. Price 2/9 and 4/6 per Bottle. For Sale by all Chemists and Dealers. THE MOST NUTRITiOUS. EPPS'S GRATEFUL COMFORTING. &V%L oath, COCOA BREAKFAST AND SUPPER. ♦ Breakfast is often spoiled by the poorness of the Coffee. It I can be made any strength by using x ♦ SYMINGTON'S Edinburgh Coffee ♦ @ Essence. S ♦ 77 f PAMPHLET ^RJ0ZN UCAITU AND ADVICE in search of 1 l should write without delay (9|Im LcVne v H I 8 I H BH which will be sent POST II H I I m Ml FREE to any address on OjO application. The treatise contains full particulars or the treatment of the various ills that flesh is heir to. It aJso contains a selection from the thousands of testimonials received in favour of the ELECTEOPATHIC BELT and other curative appliances. Advice Free of charge (personally or by letter) on all matters relating to health. Note address, and write to-day or call. THE MEDICAL BATTERY, CO. LTD., 489 OXFORD ST., LONDON, W. LITHOGRAPHY inahits Brsiiciias PLANS of Property, M, Masic, all 1. classes of Commercial Work, such as Letter heads. Billheads, Business Cp'/ds, Facsimile and othe- Cironlars well executed at jBStmable charges, at thr Banner Offire, TVenbish.