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.z..7("u.r.88Ií'š.l.0 J P— /"X r% fm'C% Balm o Gilead fu I 1 JLJ iT"* \JJ ST"" Q GEORGE'S PILLS i mi." I "They are more than Gold to me—they saved my life." I 'One wonders that things so small should produce such mighty results." 8 PILE & GRAVEL | i Many of my customers have been cured who have sufterea for twenty years." 1 The three forms of this Remedy1 No. 1.—George's Pile and Gravel Pills f""| 1 | I Q | No. 2.- George's Gravel Pills | | g | No. 3.—George's Pills for the Piles. In Boxes, Is. H-d. and 2s. 9d. each; by post, Is. 3d. and 3s. 1 Proprietor: E. GEORGE, M.R.P,S., Hirvaiii, Slam. | _cl.-J;;J_B"i.i\t.I'ii:t>Ut.11W:n!¡:;4 GAJ £ BRIA$ CELEBBATED LUTEAL ¥ATMS, RCTHIH. MANUFACTURED BY THE RUTHIN SODA WATER CO., LD. UNSOLICITED TESTIMONIAL. By Dr. C. B. FRA: r, late Principal of the Medical College in Calcutta—an entire stranger to the Company See The India/a 'lagazine, September, 1888, 'On the best mode of preserving health in India,' page 487: Among the BEST 30DA WATER SOLD is that supplied by the Ruthin Soda Water Company—the Wate being obtained fi vm an Artesian Spring in the Vale of Clwyd, North Wales. Ask for the "CAMBRIAN WATERS." ODA WATER. LITHIA WATER. LEMONADE. GINGER BEER. ELTZER WATER. AERATED WATER. GINGER ALE. BREWED do OTASS WATER. QUININE TONIC. ZOLAKONE. LIME JUICE, &c. Cambrian Hop Bitters, from best Kelltish Hops, By New Process. Goods forwarded free to all Railway Stations in Great Britain. Price List, Testimonials, and Report of Analysis, post free on application Address—Manager, Cambrian Works, Ruthin, North Wales, 1897. EARLY SPRING NOVELTIES FOR THE EASTER TRADE. ? Large Deliveries of the Newest Productions si the Season, IN Black and Coloured Capes, Jackets, Costumes, Cloaks, &c. XUXilli:n.e3?;5r9 Flowers, Feathers in the newest tints, & shaded effects. Latest Designs in DRESS MATERIALS, COMPRISING Coatings, Face Cloths, Serges, Alpacas, and a good variety of ii ancy Materials. Black Silks, Brocades, 'Peau de Soie. Duchesse Satin, Bengaline, Surahs, &c. Unique selection of Fancy Silks for Blouses, Jse, Tailoring Department, Beady-made Clothing and Gents Outfitting, flllly stocked with New Goods for Spring. Prints, Oxford Shirtings and Household Linens of the best value and standard makes. WALL-PAPERS FOR 1897. Between 400 and 500 Patterns to select from, "representing a stock oi 15,000 pieces, from 2d. to 2s, 6d per pieces. T. J. WILLIAMS 20 «S £ @4* igh Sfepocri*, X)henbigh. ——————— TAIL OS AND DRAPER, CHAPEL PLACE, DENBIGH. Begs to inform the public generally that he has on view an excellent ASSORTMENT OF NEW GOODS of the latest design, and of the best quality that money can procure. LIVERIES of every description execut on the shortest notice. iding Breeches" s&. H.W. being a practical Tailor and Cutter (holder of a Diploma) and having a staff of experienced work- men fit and style is guaranteed, consistent with MODERATE CHARGES. A TRIAL ORDER. RESPECTFULLY SOLICITED. Descriptive Histories of the Castle, Borough, and Liberties with sketches of the lives and exploits of thE Feudal Lords and Military Governors of the fortress to its final siege, &c. By JOHN W ILLIA?;IS. Price 5s it boards. DENBIGH, AND DENBIGH CASTLE-Price 6d. AN~ENGLISH AND WELSH DICTIONARY^ Adapted to the present state of Science and Literature: in which the English Words are deduced from theii iginals, and explained by their ynonyrns in the Welsh Language. By the Rev. D. SILVAN EVANS. In 2 vols., in boards, price £ 2 half calf, £ 2 5s. Od.; and full calf, £2 7s. 6d, TIT,E EYsC-IjISI-I-WELS:Ll AND VOCABULARY. \¡ \j .1:i 1::) LJ .u- \J.l. By Rev. T. LL. PHILLIPS, B.A, Price Is. 6c? .in boards. BOARDS T A 7 C-4 Their Constitution, Duties, kc. Compiled for the use of Guardians, in Wales and Monmouthshire tv T-?BIRCHAM, General Inspector Local Government Board. Price 3d. May be had in English or Welsh.' T. GEE AND SON, PUBLISHERS, DENBIGH. A WELSH AND ENGLISH™DICTIONARY*" The National jJictionary of the Welsh Language, With English and Welsh equivalents. By W. OWEN PUGHE. IXC.L., F.A.S. Third edition ENLNW/1 L,i E. J. PEYSK an Engraving of Dr. PeoKE. 2 vols., in boards, price £ 1 10s, Od.; half calf, £ 1 15s 'Qd and full cah3 .4.117s. 6a. • MELODIES FOR THE SANCTUARY & FAMILY. A collection of 825 Ancien and Modern Psalm and Hymn Tunes, kc., kc., with E"»Iish and Welsh woH* In which there are as many 410 WELSH TUNES. The second and enlarged editionin the Or.fi NOTA' ON, price 4,?. 6c?. in boards. The Sot-FA Edition, price 3s. (id. in boards. AN ENGLISH AND WELSH DICTIONARY Wherein, not only the Words, but also the Idioms and Phraseology of the English Language are careful translated into "W elsa, bv proper and equivalent Words and Phrases. To which is added, a Dissertationon the Yv elsh Language, with remarks on its Poetry, &c. By the Rev. JOHN WALTERS. In 2 vols1 "IN, FW hoards.
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CAMBRIAN GOSSIP. Miss James, the authoress of 'The Fish- guard Invasion/ lives at Greenhill Cottage, IT enby, and is one of the Poor Law Guard- ians for that fashionable town. 9 • • The Snowdon Railway Company propose (if they can obtain a license) to build a first class hotel near the summit, containing 20 rooms, and an observatory with powerful telescopes, at a cost of about £ 10,009. Sir John Puleston, who read the lessons at St. Paul's Cathedral when the Welsh I (?) Service was held, used on the occasion a, copy of the Scriptures vresented him last year by the Welsh poor of London. St. Paul's can boast of many possessions, but a Welsh Bible is not of their number. 9 » 9 Principal Owen is not to be allowed to leave Lampeter College for the Bishopric of St David's without receiving some token of the esteem and offecfcion in whichheisheldby the students. A movemert with this object in view has been started, and it is the wish of the students that the testimonial should be the joint contribution of 'the professors, graduates, and undergraduates of St. David's College, Lampeter,' and should reach such proportions as to make it a fitting acknow- ledgement of his work at St. David's Col- lege. It looks awkward for a witness when he kisses the book' before the conclusion of the oath that is being pronounced for his acceptance, and especially when he takes the book in his left hand when told to hold it in his right, but it looked more awkward for the Merthyr Court on Monday when it turned out that an apparently confused wit- ness had not really heard a word that was said to him because—because he was deaf! The magistrates clerk made the discovery, and also made amends. Then once more the deaf man swore. • » • The committee of the Festiniog National Eisteddvod, 1898, in the selection of subjects for competition, has made a new departure by taking into its confidence a number of leading men throughout the principality who possess any claim to give advice. A cir- cular has been sent round inviting those who have suggestions to make as to the choice of subjects for competitions, to for- ward them at once to the proper quarter. It is to be hoped that there will be a ready response to this appeal, for it marks at least one step towards a reform which all wise lovers of the Eisteddvod have long desired. • « We have known Mr. Alun Upward as a barrister, a journalist, a novelist, a play- wright, and a Labour candidate for Parlia- mentary honours. But the versatility of the man is not yet exhausted. Said he to the Hyde Park demonstration on Sunday, 'I am shortly going out to Crete myself, and if there is to be any fighting I mean to shoulder a gun for the cause of Liberty.' And the fierce look which accompanied that threat sent a thrill of horror through the vast assemblage. The very contemplation of the carnage which that gun will surely be responsible for might well unnerve the stout- est heart. u • Ii It is satisfactary to learn, on high autho- rity, that Mabon, M.P., has not violated the i, laws of Calvinistic Methodism by preaching I' without undergoing the customary examina- tions. Mr. R. Lloyd, of Llandegai, who is known as the 'Archdeacon of Carnarvon- shire,' acquits him of any irregularity, citing as conclusive the dictum delivered by the late Rev. John Hughes, the Calvinistic his- torian, at the Bangor Sassiwn' of 1846, that all deacons have the right to preach ex-officio. Mabon is a deacon, and need, therefere, pasc; no examinations, unless he decides to relinquish his office of miners' agent for a ministerial pastorate. « • • Among the many surprises found in the MSS. just catalogued by J. Gwenogfryn EVans, of Oxford, is an account by a Welsh soldier, written in the reign of Queen Eliza- beth, of the taking of Calais, a description by an eye witness of the proceedings of the Star Chamber, and a narrative of the events which led to the suppression of the Catholic insurrection in the counties against Eliza- beth's rule. These are all in Welsh, and as their existence has never before been sus- pected, they will be a valuable addition to the material which bears upon the his- tory of the Tudor times. The mass and value of the Welsh MSS. at the British Museum exceed the most sanguine expecta- tions. » » Sir G. Osborne Morgan tells a story which recalls some incidents in Sir Walter Scott's 'Antiquary.' Sir George, when in Wales, lives close to Offa's Dyke, and a distin- guished archaeologist, who was staying with him, suggested that an examination of the Dyke might produce some evidences of its origin. Sir George at once agreed, and sup- plied his friend with a workman. After considerable digging the pickaxe struck a metalic substance, and the party eagerly gathered round in the expectation of an- im- portant 'find.' Unfortunately for archaeolo- gy the weapon that was unearthed bore upon its blade in unmistakable characters the in- scription Rodgers, Sheffield,' and the ex- cavations were abandoned in disgust. Mr. Ellis Jones Griffith, the able young member for Anglesey, is described by the Leeds Mercury as one. of the smartest young men this Parliament has produced. 'His maiden speech,' continues our contemporary, 'delivered one night last session about 12 o'clock in a crowded and spirited House, was a revelation even to those who knew him best. Never before, I should say, had a Parlia- mentary novice made his bow to the Legis- lature with so much freedom and assurance. It was a rollicking effort, full of lively illus- tration and audacious repartee, and the general comment was that some of the other smart young Welshmen would have to look to their laurels. But Mr. Griffith is wise in his day and generation. His humorous au- dacity made him known to the House of Commons, but it is a gift to be used spar- j. ingly, and since that night Mr, Griffith's appearances in Parliamentary debate have been few, brief, and serions/ Lynon Davies,' writing in the Celt, sup- ports the contention made about a fortnight ago that to apply to the Welsh service at St. Paul's the term National' is absurd and misleading. Eynon goes further, and declares it to be dishonest,' laugh- able,' untruthful,' and the festivaljfit- self to be a scheme of Dr. Edwards, of St. Asaph, and his friends to give the Church in Wales a lift.' As Sir John Puleston and his little clique.' he adds, 'close the doors of this national' festival against the large number of the religious leaders of Wales, is it not high time that we should organise another festival ? We have enough Welsh Nonconformists in London to fill Spurgeon's chapel to the roof.' Eynon is so taken up with the idea of having such a Welsh festi- val representing all the various denomina- tions that he asks his readers not to be surprised' if this idea is put into practice next year.
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COLWYN BAY. PETTY SESSIONS. A MOTHER COMMITTED TQ THE ASSIZES FOR MANSLAUGHTER. SATURDAY, before Messrs. T. G. Osborn, M.A. (in the chair), Thomas Parry and John Porter. THE LLANELIAN MANSLAUGHTER CASE. COMMITTAL OF THE ACCUSED. Mary Ellen Hughes, wife of Robert Hughes, labourer, Peiirallt, Llanelian, was charged on remand with the manslaughter of her child Annie Hughes, aged 9 years. The case had been before the justices on two previous occasions, when evidence was taken showing that the woman picked up a stone to throw at her husband, when the child stepped between them and received the blow on her head. As a result of that blow it is alleged that tetanus or lackiaw set in, and from which the child died at the Sarah Nicol Memorial Hospital, Llandudno, and the hearing of the charge against the mother was adjourned until to-day for the attendance of the surgeon who performed an operation on the child's head. When the case was called on, William Robert Nicol, L.S.A., Lon., en- tered the box. He said he was a physican in practice at Llandudno. He was called to the Cottage Hospital, Llandudno, about half past one on the morning of Sunday, the 28th of February, and found the deceased child Annie Hughes there, having been brought in by Dr Russell, of Colwyn Bay. He found that she was suffering from teta- nus. The symptoms were very marked. The muscles of the neck were attended with rigidity, the jaw was fixed, and the facial muscles drawn. The face was pale, and the body bathed in perspiration. The pulse 130, and respiration between 50 and 60 and very irregular. The voluntary muscles of the body were drawn, and entirely the mus- cles were in a state of contraction. Or exa- mining the head, he found on the right side about 4 inches behind and 3 inches above the ear,la punctured supurating wound in the scalp. The probe was easily introduced, and about an inch below the external open- ing he found a compound depressed fracture of the skull. Upon opening the scalp, he found it was a suitable case for trephining, and then called the members of the hospi- tal staff together. They were all agreed that trephining was the proper thing to do. On examination he found a fracture of the skull pressmg on the ditrct mater. He re- moved nine pieces of bone, including the trephined pieces, and a small piece of stone from the wound. The stone was similar in substance to the one produced in court. He found the dura mater highly congested, with deposit of lymph on the surface, shewing that the wound was not recent. The pus in the wound was offensive to the smell. The operation occupied from twenty to thir- ty minutes, and afterwards the child was taken by him to the isolation ward, and he remained with her until a quarter past five when he left the child under the charge of Miss Marion Wright the matron of the hos- pital. He did not see the child alive again, but saw her after death on Sunday forenoon, and then examined the body. He had not the slightest doubt as to the cause of te- tanus. It was an infected disease depend- ing upon a specific virus Sgenerated in the wound in the head by the product of micro organism. From the nature of the wound he thought some force must have been used to cause a fracture in the skull of a child so young. He understood the wound was caused on the Saturday week before he saw the child, but he could not say whether the child would be in pain in the meantime. In his opinion the supuratingwound was the cause of death. By the Chairman: This operation was the only course possible, and it was only one chance in a thousand. It was absolutely necessary to administer chloroform, as the long journey the child had co be taken in a carriage by road, before the operation increased the irritation, but it would add to the shock of exhaustion. He had had experience of tetanus in private and hospital practice. By the Clerk He thought it was 1 in a 1,000 the child would have died from tetanus inde- pendently of the operation. Ha said emphati- cally that death was not in consequence of the operation. In cross-examination by Mr. A.mphlett (for the defence), Dr. Nicol said the symptoms of tetanus would be the same if the disease had arisen from wounds on any part of the body. He could not say how long the child might have been Ssuffering from tetanus when he saw it. It was generally supposed that a 4vound must be an open or supurating one for tetanus to generate. It was possible that tetanus might arise from other wounds, but he only spoke of his own experience. The head of the child was not clean, and it was possible for a piece of stone to stick in it. But the piece of stone produced was taken out of the wound. Want of cleanliness was a factor in the incubation of tetanus. If this child had been properly at- tended in time, the possibility of tetanus set- ting in would have been lessened. At this point, the prisoner broke down, and was taken out of court by her husband. After a few minutes she was brought in again and the cross examination resumed. Mr. Amphlett: During the period of incuba, tion there would be nothing to show that teta- nus would ensue ? The doctor: No. Continuing, he said if there was any neglect on the part of the par- ents it was through ignorance. He did not and any dirt other than the piece of stone in the wound. He did not swear that it was a piece of stone produced, with which it was al- leged the blow was struck. All he could say was that he found it in the wound. By the Chairman li tetanus had not ensued the wound would have produced serious results had not the operation been performed. Marian Wright, matron of the hospital was then called; she said the child was received into the Hospital at half past twelve Saturday night, Feb 27th, and she was present when the child died at half past seven on Sunday morning. The child was unconscious when given into her charge, and remained so until death. There was a little bruise on the girl's right leg, but she saw no wound other than the one on her head. Cross-examined, she said she examined the child all over after death. In cases of this kind it usual to look for wounds as the infor mation might' be useful. She would swear the bruise on the leg was not a wound, and that the child was received into the hospital at half past twelve, and not at half past one (m Sun- day morning. The child looked thin and deli- cate, but she could not say whether she was weakly. The patient was unconscious all the Itime she lived in the hospital, and to be uncon seious so long denoted danger. The spasms were constant up to the time of death, but not so severe as before the operation. ec Mr. E. A. Crabbe, for the_ priseeution, sub- mitted that the evidence justified their worships in coming to the conclusion that the blow in- flicted by the mother was the cause of the child's death. Mr. Amphlett for the defence, made a strong appeal for the prisoner. Granting that his friends interpretation on the law of man- slaughter was right, he submitted that it was not proved in the case. He reminded the bench of the circumstances under which the blow was inflicted. The woman's husband returned home under the influence of drink and commenced to abuse her. To defend herself (as she was lawfully entitled to do), the prisoner picked up a stone that happened to be on the floor close to her. The child then ran between them cry- ing Daddy, daddy, don't!' and by that action, contributed to her own death, for the stone struck her on the head, whilst she was endea- vouring to protect her mother from the abuse of her father. The line between unvolutitary homicide and misadventure was so narrow, that he appealed to the bench, if they had any doubt at all, to give the prisoner the benefit of that doubt. The Bench retired, and after an absence of about a quarter of an hour returned into court, when the chairman said prisoner would be com- mitted for trial at the next Denbighshire as- sizes. Prisoner was released on bail. The remaining cases on the list were next taken by Mr. A. 0. Walker (in the chair), and Mr. John Porter. DRUNK AND DISORDERLY. A CHRONIC CASE. Jesse Jones, Old Colwyn, failed to appear in answer to a charge preferred against him by Sergeant Jones, of being drunk and disorderly in Station Road, on the 13th February- Fined 10s., and 8s. 6d., costs, or 14 days hard labour in default. The same defendant was further charged by P.C. Thomas Pierce with being drunk and dis- orderly in Abergele Road on the 6th March and a similar penalty inflicted, or 7 days hard labour after the expiration of the sentence in the first case. Robert Jones, tailor, Colwyn, was fined 40s. and costs amounting to 8s. 6d. or in default 28 days hard labour, for being drunk and disor- derly and collecting a crowd on the streets of Colwyn Bay on the 22nd of February an offence proved against him by P.C. Thomas Pierce. Robert Stephenson, porter, Colwyn Bayjwho now sported a blue ribbon in his button hole was charged by P.C. Pierce with being drunk and challenging people to fight on Abergele Road, on the 18th of last month. He pleaded guilty, and was fined 2s. 6d. and 2s. Gd. costs. NEGLIGENT CYCLIST. Robert Jones, Colwyn Bay, pleaded uilty to a charge of riding a bicycle without a light, on the night of the 21st of February. P.C. Pierce said he met defendant on a bi- cyle, without a light on the Conway Road, on the 21st of February three hours after lighting up time. Defendant was fined 2s. 6d. and 6s. 6d. costs. RIDING WITHOUT REINS. Thomas Da vies, a carter at the Steam Mills, Abergele, was charged by Sergeant Jones, with riding on a lurry drawn by three horses, near Merllyn Quarry, Llanddulas, on the 6th of March. Fined 10s. including costs. FURIOUS DRIVING. Jeanette Hughes, Ty Newydd, IJanelian, was charged by P.C. Edward Jones, with fur- iously driving a horse and trap through the village of Llanelian on the 15th of last month. Defendant did not appear. Evidence was given by the constable, John Thomas Parry, and Robert Roberta, and defen- dant was fined 10s. and £ 1 costs. Alfred Saddler, Penmaen Bach, and Thomas Rogers, Park Road Colwyn Bay, were charged by Sergeant Jones, the first with furiously driving a horsa and float on the Conway Road, on the 24th of February, and the other defend- ant, with furiously driving a horse and lurry, on the same date in the same place. Mr. W. W. Parry, Rhyl, defended. After hearing the evidence, bhe bench inflic- ted a penalty of 9s. including costs upon each of the defendants. AFFILIATION. Edith Evans, Ivy Street, Cohvyn Bay, against Ellis Evans, Liar fair, Ruthin. Mr. Amphlett appeared for the complainant, and Mr. A. O. Evans, Denbigh for the "defend- ant. This was the second application, and after a long hearing the bench made an order for Is. 6d. alweek. Several cases of default in the payment of rates were brought before the bench, and the usual orders were made. A
CARNARVON AND THEATRICAL PERFORMANCES. At the Carnarvon County Magistrates Court on Saturday, Captain Wynne Griffith presiding, application was made for a license" to perform stage plays at the Pavilion, Carnarvon. The court was crowded, among those present being several local ministers and other members of the Carnarvon Nonconformist Council, who had instructed Mr. J. T. Roberts to oppose the application. Mr. J. A. Hughes, in making the application on behalf of Mr Dan Rhys, manager of the Pavilion Company, said that the building had been erected some years ago at a considerable expense, and he did not want to conceal the fact that for some time the company had un- wittingly committed a breach of the law by not applying for such a license, it being true that stage plays had been produced at the pavilion on several occasions. However, the company wanted to comply with the law, and accordingly the present application was made, following Dpon a letter addressed to the manager of the company by the deputy chief constable, draw- ing attention to the fact that the pavilion was not licensed for the performance of stage plays. A license of t,he kini applied for carried with it the right to a drink license; but he wished to make It clear that there was no desire on the part of the Company to apply for a drink license, and they were perfectly willing for the magistrates to annex a condition to the license that they should not sell drink, and this, he thought, would do away with the orposition raised to the application. Mr. Dan Rhys gave evidence in support of the application. The building had eighteen exits, and he had seen between 9,000 and 10,000 people clear out of the place in the space of ilve minutes. Mr. E. Evans, county surveyor, gave evi- dence showing that the means of ecit, were ample for all purposes. Mr. J. T. Roberts contented that the applica- tion was premature, and that in the first place rules ought to be submitted by. the company as to the government of the pavilion. If the per- formances that had taken place there during the last three months were any criterion of what they might expect, he thought the gran- ting of a license would injure the morals of the town. Recently, an all-night, dance had been held in the place, on which occasion there was a good dea] of drunkenness and free fight- ing. He submitted that a case had not been made out.for the granting of the license, his contention, being that the Company should make application to the Bench, when neces- sary, for permission to perform stage plays, such performances in the past having been few and far between. The Rev E. Jones, pastor of the Moriali Calvinistic Methodist Church, Carnarvon, and a member of the- Nonconformist Council, said that the opposition raised did not preclude the performance of dramas and plays that would be likely to elevate the moral tone of the town, but he believed that the granting of the present application would result in opening the door lor many worthless plays that would be Kkely| to do a great deal of harm. i The Bench, after a prolonged consultation, granted the license, the Chairman announcing that-five were in favour and four against.
The Princess of Wales went to Windsor on Friday afternoon to see the Queen prior to her Majesty's departure for the Continent. I A cycling nuit, that bids fair to become popu- lar this summer is one of blue ground flannel, with white stripes. It is cut in the lounge suit style, and is neat and gentlemanly in appear- ance. Mr. Mark Banna, of Cleaveland, 0., deals in coal and coke. Mr. Mark Hanna did more than any other man to make Mr. M'Kinley President of the United States. TheM'Kinley tariff is to be reimposed on coal and coke. i
-F' If any reader who isin a difficnl ty with reference to his garden, will write directly to the ad- dress given beneath, his queries will be an- swered, free of charge, and by return of post. —EDITOR] THE ROSE GARDEN. March is a busy month in every part of the garden, yet the rosarian mast find time for the pruning of all out-door roses, excepting noi- settes and teas, which are best left in their winter coverings until early April, for making up arrears of planting, and for many other equally important matters. To grasp the Lrue principle of pruning, one has but to watch an unpruned tree for several years. The strong shoots will Sower well the second year, but ra- pidly become weaker towards the end in a sea- son or two, while other strong shoots are formed lower down, which absorb the sap and starve the original shoots. Thus it is evident that the objects of pruning should be to keep all parts of the plant equally vigorous, to mould them into pleasing shapes, and to increase the size and beauty of the flowers. To prevent the shoots starving one another it is obvious thai a good proportion of them must be removed yearly, more especially as each good bloom re- quires a large amount of sap to nourish it pro- perly, and to bring out its colours vividly. The necessary pruning of wall roses is a simple matter, commencing with the removal of weak- ly or dead wood. Select the ripest and plum- pest shoots for nailing against the wall, and cut the coarse, soft, and overgrown ones entire- ly. If necessary, the medium sized ones must be thinned, for it is most important to avoid crowding, and some of them may be slightly cut back. With nearly all climbing roses it is a. great mistake to cut back the long, strong shoots of the previous autumn, as these will bear the best flowers. If there is no room for them, take them out altogether, but never shorten then to less than three-fourths of their original length. Lay in these shoots as nearly in a horizontal position as possible, unless ad- ditional height be required, in which case they must of course be trained upwards, a practice which leads to the production of wood at the expense of bloom. Generally speaking, all that climbling roses need is a slight thinning out of superfluous or decayed wood and a moderate shortening back of long strong shoots. Now, turning to the subject of the strong-growing hardy summer roses, so popular everywhere, we must cut out all dead and weakly wood, re- gardless of its size. Those shoots, which m '.de but little growth last season, as compared with their neighbours, may be considered weakly and useless. When this has been |done, the plant has to be trimmed into a well-shaped handsome bush, so that no branches cross one another. Cut out the badly placed shoots right at the base. To partially cut them back only make a bad matter worse by encouraging them to grow again even more vigorously than be- fore. So far as possible get rid of as much old wood as possible each year; and thin the shoots of robust growing kinds by removing some of them entirely rather than by pruning them back. Of course, it is important to cut to an outward bud, because the new shoot will as- suredly grow in the direction in which the bud points naturally. The great difficulty as to how far, that is to how many buds, the shoots should be removed can only be settled by a consideration of the reasons for pruning at all. If a plant is of vigorous growth and of a robust variety, it will be able to supply sap enough for more buds than would a weakly specimen of a less robust kind. Thus we should leave more buds on the stronger rose, perhaps from five to six on each shoot; and if we do not do so, the shoots will run to wood or produce ill- shaped unsightly blossoms. In proportion as a plant is more and more delicate and weakly, fewer and fewer buds must be left, because there will probably be only sufficient sap to supply one, or, at most, two buds t@ a shoot So then, the rule of pruning is to leave more or less buds, from 6 to I., on each shoot, according as the individual variety is of robust race and constitution. This plan will appear very singu- lar to the novice, since it would on first thought seem the height of folly to cut away nearly the whole of a valuable and delicate variety, and yet leave the long shoots intact, or nearly so, on more vigorous roses, which would naturally be so much better able to endure severe treat- ment. Late, gross and unripened shoots, of green colour, and with a large amount of pith, must be removed to leave plenty of room for the more valuable, finn, brown, and well- ripened ones; and those which have been in- jured by frost ought to be cut back to a bud, where the pith is sound and white. Occasion- ally a great, over-grown shoot will be found absorbing more than its share of sap to the detriment of its fellows it should be either re- moved altogether, or if very well ripened, shortened and allowed abundant space. If roses ate kept properly pruned yearly, they give very Jittle trouble, but where the work has been neglected for one single year, it is often necessary to cut a very large proportion of the wood away to form a new shape alto- gether. By thinning out the ill placed pushing buds in May, much can be done to remedy pre- vious neglect, but though such buds are very soft, and are therefore easily rubbed off, they should always be cut off closely with a knife in preference. For ordinary purposes tea roses in the open need but little pruning. In- deed, one is fortunate if the frosts do not prune them back too hard, notwithstanding the pro- tection afforded hut for -exhibition purposes they must be pruned as severely as the hardy perennial roses. SPECIAL NOTICE. Owing to the remarkable number of applica- tions for our 'Culture of Vegetables,'conse- quent on purchasers showing their copies to their friends, we have been for a few days un- able to supply copies, as the first edition have been sold. Our printing department, however, hope to have a further edition ready by the middle of the week, when copies will he again obtainable. The second edition will be sold at cost price 6d. only; and by printing some thousands of copies at once, we hope to reduce the price somewhat for the third edition. It appears to have been as cordially welcomed by the agricultural and gardening press as by ouv readers. E. KEMP TOOGOOD, F.R.H.S., pro Toogood and Sons, The Royal Seed Establishment. Southampton.
'L_= THE ALLIANCE ASSURANCE COMPANY. WIIEX a concern is of such magnitude that its capital must be expresed by millions, it ceases to be a private affair, and became of general interest. Especially is this the case when, in addition to its magnitude as a financial com- pany, its operations affect the welfare of thou- sands of the inhabitants of the country. Of such a character is the Alliance Assurance Company, the annual meeting of which was held on the 10th inst. In the Life Account we find that 1,591 rieW polices were issued during the year, for a sum of £ 1,000,758. The new premiums received amounted to £35.995. The total amount re- ceived as premiums dnring the year amounted to £ 330,828 18s. 9d. This sum after meeting all expenses of management leaves a surpulns income of £ 175,245 lOs. lid. In the Fire Department, a net profit of £108,671 4s. is shown, although the sum of £ 265,297 12s. lOd. has been paid in claims. The total value of the company at the end of 1896 was £ 2,985,788 10s. Sd. The Alliance is one of the most siiccessftd among the many gigantic Insurance of the country, and so far as human eye can see, any person who choses to avail himself ° its benefits, is as safe as prudence and fore thought can make him.
An inhabitant of Arendekerke, in Hollv,1161 has notified to the municipal registrar the bipjj of his twenty-first eon, all the others beif £